All papers (20087 results)

Last updated:  2023-05-30
A flexible Snark via the monomial basis
Steve Thakur
We describe a pairing-based SNARK with a universal updateable CRS that can be instantiated with any pairing-friendly curve endowed with a sufficiently large prime scalar field. We use the monomial basis, thus sidestepping the need for large smooth order subgroups in the scalar field. In particular, the scheme can be instantiated with outer curves to widely used curves such as Ed25519, secp256k1 and BN254. This allows us to largely circumvent the overhead of non-native field arithmetic for succinct proofs of statements in these base fields. These include proofs of valid signatures in Ed25519 and secp256k1 and one layer recursion with BN254. The proof size is constant \( (10\; \mathbb{G}_1\), \(20\;\mathbb{F}_p)\), as is the verification runtime, which is dominated by a single pairing check (i.e. two pairings). The Prover time is dominated by the \(10\) multi-scalar multiplications in \(\mathbb{G}_1\) - with a combined MSM length of $22\cdot |\mathrm{Circuit}|$ - and, to a lesser extent, the computation of a single sum of polynomial products over the scalar field. The scheme supports succinct lookup arguments for subsets as well as subsequences. Our construction relies on homomorphic table commitments, which makes them amenable to vector lookups. The Prover algorithm runs in runtime $O(M\cdot \log(M))$, where $M = \max \{|\text{Circuit}| , \;|\text{Table}|\}.$ When the scalar field has low $2$-adicity - as is inevitably the case with any outer curve to Ed25519, secp256k1 or BN254 - we use the Schonhage-Strassen algorithm or the multimodular FFT algorithm to compute the sum of polynomial products that occurs in one of the steps of the proof generation. Despite the small (but discernible) slowdown compared to polynomial products in FFT-friendly fields, we empirically found that the MSMs dominate the proof generation time. To that end, we have included some benchmarks for polynomial products in FFT-unfriendly fields. Furthermore, the scheme supports custom gates, albeit at the cost of a larger proof size. As an application of the techniques in this paper, we describe a protocol that supports multiple \( \mathbf{univariate}\) custom gates $\mathcal{G}_i$ of high degree that are sparsely distributed, in the sense that \[ \sum_{i} \deg(\mathcal{G}_i)\cdot \#(\mathcal{G}_i\;\text{gates}) \; = \; O(|\text{Circuit}|). \] This comes at the cost of three additional $\mathbb{G}_1$ elements and does not blow up the proof generation time, i.e. it does not entail MSMs or FFTs of length larger than the circuit size. At the moment, Panther Protocol's Rust implementation in a 576-bit pairing-friendly outer curve to Ed25519 has a (not yet optimized) Prover time of 45 seconds for a million gate circuit on a 64 vCPU AWS machine.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Private Proof-of-Stake Blockchains using Differentially-private Stake Distortion
Chenghong Wang, David Pujo, Kartik Nayak, and Ashwin Machanavajjhala
Safety, liveness, and privacy are three critical properties for any private proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. However, prior work (SP'21) has shown that to obtain safety and liveness, a PoS blockchain must in theory forgo privacy. Specifically, to ensure safety and liveness, PoS blockchains elect parties based on stake proportion, potentially exposing a party's stake even with private transaction processing. In this work, we make two key contributions. First, we present the first stake inference attack applicable to both deterministic and randomized PoS with exponentially less running time in comparison with SOTA designs. Second, we use differentially private stake distortion to achieve privacy in PoS blockchains and design two stake distortion mechanisms that any PoS protocol can use. We further evaluate our proposed methods using Ethereum 2.0, a widely-recognized PoS blockchain in operation. Results demonstrate effective stake inference risk mitigation, reasonable privacy, and preservation of essential safety and liveness properties.
Last updated:  2023-05-31
Blockchain Transaction Censorship: (In)secure and (In)efficient?
Zhipeng Wang, Xihan Xiong, and William J. Knottenbelt
The ecosystem around blockchain and Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is seeing more and more interest from centralized regulators. For instance, recently, the US government placed sanctions on the largest DeFi mixer, Tornado.Cash (TC). To our knowledge, this is the first time that centralized regulators sanction a decentralized and open-source blockchain application. It has led various blockchain participants, e.g., miners/validators and DeFi platforms, to censor TC-related transactions. The blockchain community has extensively discussed that censoring transactions could affect users’ privacy. In this work, we analyze the efficiency and possible security implications of censorship on the different steps during the life cycle of a blockchain transaction, i.e., generation, propagation, and validation. We reveal that fine-grained censorship will reduce the security of block validators and centralized transaction propagation services, and can potentially cause Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. We also find that DeFi platforms adopt centralized third-party services to censor user addresses at the frontend level, which blockchain users could easily bypass. Moreover, we present a tainting attack whereby an adversary can prevent users from interacting normally with DeFi platforms by sending TC-related transactions.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Generation of two ''independent'' points on an elliptic curve of $j$-invariant $\neq 0, 1728$
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article is dedicated to a new generation method of two ``independent'' $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$-points $P_0$, $P_1$ on almost any ordinary elliptic curve $E$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ of large characteristic. In particular, the method is relevant for all standardized and real-world elliptic curves of $j$-invariants different from $0$, $1728$. The points $P_0$, $P_1$ are characterized by the fact that nobody (even a generator) knows the discrete logarithm $\log_{P_0}(P_1)$ in the group $E(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$. Moreover, only one square root extraction in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ (instead of two ones) is required in comparison with all previous generation methods.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
History-Free Sequential Aggregate Signatures from Generic Trapdoor Functions
Alessio Meneghetti and Edoardo Signorini
A sequential aggregate signature (SAS) scheme allows multiple users to sequentially combine their respective signatures in order to reduce communication costs. Historically, early proposals required the use of trapdoor permutation (e.g., RSA). In recent years, a number of attempts have been made to extend SAS schemes to post-quantum assumptions. Many post-quantum signatures have been proposed in the hash-and-sign paradigm, which requires the use of trapdoor functions and appears to be an ideal candidate for sequential aggregation attempts. However, the hardness in achieving post-quantum one-way permutations makes it difficult to obtain similarly general constructions. Direct attempts at generalizing permutation-based schemes have been proposed, but they either lack formal security or require additional properties on the trapdoor function, which are typically not available for multivariate or code-based functions. In this paper, we propose a history-free sequential aggregate signature based on generic trapdoor functions, generalizing existing techniques. We prove the security of our scheme in the random oracle model by adopting the probabilistic hash-and-sign with retry paradigm, and we instantiate our construction with three post-quantum schemes, comparing their compression capabilities. Finally, we discuss how direct extensions of permutation-based SAS schemes are not possible without additional properties, showing the insecurity of two existing multivariate schemes when instantiated with Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Breaking the power-of-two barrier: noise estimation for BGV in NTT-friendly rings
Andrea Di Giusto and Chiara Marcolla
The Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan (BGV) scheme is a Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) cryptosystem based on the Ring Learning With Error (RLWE) problem. Ciphertexts in this scheme contain an error term that grows with operations and causes decryption failure when it surpasses a certain threshold. For this reason, the parameters of BGV need to be estimated carefully, with a trade-off between security and error margin. The ciphertext space of BGV is the ring $\mathcal R_q=\mathbb Z_q[x]/(\Phi_m(x))$, where usually the degree $n$ of the cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi_m(x)$ is chosen as a power of two for efficiency reasons. However, the jump between two consecutive powers-of-two polynomials can sometimes also cause a jump of the security, resulting in parameters that are much bigger than what is needed. In this work, we explore the non-power-of-two instantiations of BGV. Although our theoretical research encompasses results applicable to any cyclotomic ring, our main investigation is focused on the case of $m=2^s 3^t$, i.e., cyclotomic polynomials with degree $n=2^s 3^{t-1}$. We provide a thorough analysis of the noise growth in this new setting using the canonical norm and compare our results with the power-of-two case considering practical aspects like NTT algorithms. We find that in many instances, the parameter estimation process yields better results for the non-power-of-two setting.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Coefficient Grouping for Complex Affine Layers
Fukang Liu, Lorenzo Grassi, Clémence Bouvier, Willi Meier, and Takanori Isobe
Designing symmetric-key primitives for applications in Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) has become important to address the issue of the ciphertext expansion. In such a context, cryptographic primitives with a low-AND-depth decryption circuit are desired. Consequently, quadratic nonlinear functions are commonly used in these primitives, including the well-known $\chi$ function over $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ and the power map over a large finite field $\mathbb{F}_{p^n}$. In this work, we study the growth of the algebraic degree for an SPN cipher over $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}^{m}$, whose S-box is defined as the combination of a power map $x\mapsto x^{2^d+1}$ and an $\mathbb{F}_2$-linearized affine polynomial $x\mapsto c_0+\sum_{i=1}^{w}c_ix^{2^{h_i}}$ where $c_1,\ldots,c_w\neq0$. Specifically, motivated by the fact that the original coefficient grouping technique published at EUROCRYPT 2023 becomes less efficient for $w>1$, we develop a variant technique that can efficiently work for arbitrary $w$. With this new technique to study the upper bound of the algebraic degree, we answer the following questions from a theoretic perspective: 1. can the algebraic degree increase exponentially when $w=1$? 2. what is the influence of $w$, $d$ and $(h_1,\ldots,h_w)$ on the growth of the algebraic degree? Based on this, we show (i) how to efficiently find $(h_1,\ldots,h_w)$ to achieve the exponential growth of the algebraic degree and (ii) how to efficiently compute the upper bound of the algebraic degree for arbitrary $(h_1,\ldots,h_w)$. Therefore, we expect that these results can further advance the understanding of the design and analysis of such primitives.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
$\mathsf{Skye}$: A Fast KDF based on Expanding PRF and its Application to Signal
Amit Singh Bhati, Antonin Dufka, Elena Andreeva, Arnab Roy, and Bart Preneel
A Key Derivation Function KDF generates a uniform and highly random key-stream from weakly random key material. KDFs are broadly used in various security protocols such as digital signatures and key exchange protocols. HKDF is the most deployed KDF in practice. It is based on the $\textit{extract-then-expand}$ paradigm and is presently used, among others, in the Signal Protocol for end-to-end encrypted messaging. HKDF was proposed as a generic KDF for general input sources and thus is not optimized for source-specific use cases such as key derivation from Diffie-Hellman (DH) sources (i.e. DH shared secrets as key material). Furthermore, the sequential HKDF design is unnecessarily slower on some general-purpose platforms that benefit from parallelization. In this work, we propose a novel, efficient and secure KDF called $\mathsf{Skye}$. $\mathsf{Skye}$ follows the $\textit{extract-then-expand}$ paradigm and consists of two algorithms: efficient deterministic $\textit{randomness extractor}$ and $\textit{expansion}$ functions. Instantiating our extractor for dedicated source-specific (e.g. DH sources) inputs allows us to achieve a significant efficiency speed-up over HKDF at the same security level. We provide concrete security analysis of $\mathsf{Skye}$ and both its algorithms in the standard model. We provide a software performance comparison of $\mathsf{Skye}$ with the AES-based expanding PRF $\mathsf{ButterKnife}$ and HKDF with SHA-256 (as used in Signal). Our results show that in isolation $\mathsf{Skye}$ performs from 4x to 47x faster than HKDF, depending on the platform instruction support. We further demonstrate that with such a performance gain, when $\mathsf{Skye}$ is integrated within the current Signal implementation, we can achieve significant overall improvements ranging from $38\%$ to $64\%$ relative speedup in unidirectional messaging. Even in bidirectional messaging, that includes DH computation with dominating computational cost, $\mathsf{Skye}$ still contributes to $12-36\%$ relative speedup when just 10 messages are sent and received at once.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
An Anonymous Multi-receiver Certificateless Hybrid Signcryption (AMCLHS) using mKEM-DEM for Broadcast Communication
Alia Umrani, Apurva K Vangujar, and Paolo Palmieri
Confidentiality, authentication, and anonymity are the fundamental security requirements in broadcast communication that can be achieved by Digital Signature (DS), encryption, and pseudo-anonymous identity techniques. Signcryption offer both DS and encryption in a single logical step with high efficiency. Similarly, anonymous multireceiver signcryption ensure receiver privacy by generating identical ciphertext for multiple receivers while keeping their identities private. While signcryption is a significant improvement over “sign then encrypt”, it still incurs higher computational and communication cost and does not provide the required level of security. In this paper, we propose a multiple-recipient Key Encapsulation Mechanism (mKEM) - Data Encapsulation Mechanism (DEM) based Anonymous Multireceiver Certificateless Hybrid Signcryption (AMCLHS). The AMCLHS uses a combination of symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography to signcrypt an arbitrary length message in broadcast communication and has two unique settings as follows: Pseudo-Identity PID Settings: We introduce a new algorithmic step in AMCLHS construction where each user (sender and receiver) is assigned a PID to enable the sender to signcrypt identical messages for multiple receivers while keeping the identities of other receivers anonymous. The receiver anonymity is achieved by choosing random Real-Identity (ID_R) to generate PID of the users in key generation algorithm of AMCLHS scheme. Our approach relies on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm (ECDL) hardness assumptions, the hash function, and verification-based secret key of the Register Authority (RA), using time Delta T. mKEM-DEM Settings: We introduce the first construction that achieves optimal ciphertext from the Diffie-Hellman (DH) assumption using mKEM-DEM for Signcryption. Our scheme uses mKEM to generate a symmetric key for multiple-receivers and DEM to signcrypt message using the previously generated symmetric key and the sender's private key. mKEM for key setup and Signcryption for confidentiality and forward security, and DEM for key generation and unsigncryption for indistinguishability under Indistinguishability against Chosen Ciphertext Attack (IND-CCA2). Our scheme relies on DH and Bilinear Pairing (BP) assumption and uses a single key for all messages, which minimizes ciphertext length and ultimately reduces complexity overhead. The scheme operates in a multireceiver certificateless environment, preventing the key escrow problem, and demonstrates cryptographic notions for Indistinguishability under Chosen-Ciphertext Attack (IND-CCA2) and Existential Unforgeability against Chosen Message Attack (EUF-CMA) for Type-I and Type-II adversaries under q-Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Inversion (q-DBDHI) and ECDL hard assumptions. We compare the proposed scheme with existing multireceiver hybrid signcryption schemes in terms of computation cost, communication cost, and security requirements. We show that, compared to existing multireceiver schemes which has overall cost of O(n^2), our scheme is computationally more efficient and has optimal communication cost, with signcryption cost linear O(n) to the number of designated receivers while the unsigncryption cost remains constant O(1). Our scheme achieves confidentiality, authentication, anonymity, and simultaneously achieves unlinkability, non-repudiation, and forward security.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Hidden Stabilizers, the Isogeny To Endomorphism Ring Problem and the Cryptanalysis of pSIDH
Mingjie Chen, Muhammad Imran, Gábor Ivanyos, Péter Kutas, Antonin Leroux, and Christophe Petit
The Isogeny to Endomorphism Ring Problem (IsERP) asks to compute the endomorphism ring of the codomain of an isogeny between supersingular curves in characteristic $p$ given only a representation for this isogeny, i.e. some data and an algorithm to evaluate this isogeny on any torsion point. This problem plays a central role in isogeny-based cryptography; it underlies the security of pSIDH protocol (ASIACRYPT 2022) and it is at the heart of the recent attacks that broke the SIDH key exchange. Prior to this work, no efficient algorithm was known to solve IsERP for a generic isogeny degree, the hardest case seemingly when the degree is prime. In this paper, we introduce a new quantum polynomial-time algorithm to solve IsERP for isogenies whose degrees are odd and have $O(\log\log p)$ many prime factors. As main technical tools, our algorithm uses a quantum algorithm for computing hidden Borel subgroups, a group action on supersingular isogenies from EUROCRYPT 2021, various algorithms for the Deuring correspondence and a new algorithm to lift arbitrary quaternion order elements modulo an odd integer $N$ with $O(\log\log p)$ many prime factors to powersmooth elements. As a main consequence for cryptography, we obtain a quantum polynomial-time key recovery attack on pSIDH. The technical tools we use may also be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Bounded Verification for Finite-Field-Blasting (In a Compiler for Zero Knowledge Proofs)
Alex Ozdemir, Riad S. Wahby, Fraser Brown, and Clark Barrett
Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) are cryptographic protocols by which a prover convinces a verifier of the truth of a statement with- out revealing any other information. Typically, statements are expressed in a high-level language and then compiled to a low-level representation on which the ZKP operates. Thus, a bug in a ZKP compiler can com- promise the statement that the ZK proof is supposed to establish. This paper takes a step towards ZKP compiler correctness by partially veri- fying a field-blasting compiler pass, a pass that translates Boolean and bit-vector logic into equivalent operations in a finite field. First, we define correctness for field-blasters and ZKP compilers more generally. Next, we describe the specific field-blaster using a set of encoding rules and de- fine verification conditions for individual rules. Finally, we connect the rules and the correctness definition by showing that if our verification conditions hold, the field-blaster is correct. We have implemented our approach in the CirC ZKP compiler and have proved bounded versions of the corresponding verification conditions. We show that our partially verified field-blaster does not hurt the performance of the compiler or its output; we also report on four bugs uncovered during verification.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Too Many Hints - When LLL Breaks LWE
Alexander May and Julian Nowakowski
All modern lattice-based schemes build on variants of the LWE problem. Information leakage of the LWE secret $\mathbf s \in \mathbb{Z}_q^n$ is usually modeled via so-called hints, i.e., inner products of $\mathbf s$ with some (random, but known) vector. At Crypto`20, Dachman-Soled, Ducas, Gong and Rossi (DDGR) defined among other so-called perfect hints and modular hints. The trailblazing DDGR framework allows to integrate and combine hints successively into lattices, and estimates the resulting LWE security loss. We introduce a new methodology to integrate and combine an arbitrary number of perfect and modular in a single stroke. As opposed to DDGR, our methodology is significantly more efficient in constructing lattice bases, and thus easily allows for a large number of hints up to cryptographic dimensions, a regime that is impractical in DDGR. The efficiency of our method defines a large LWE parameter regime, in which we can fully carry out attacks faster than DDGR can solely estimate them. A key component of our new method is dimension reduction of $\mathbf s$, which significantly reduces LWE security. The benefits of our approach allow us to practically determine which number of hints is sufficient to efficiently break LWE-based lattice schemes in practice. For mod-$q$ hints, i.e., modular hints defined over $\mathbb{Z}_q$, we reconstruct Kyber-512 secret keys via LLL reduction (only!) with an amount of $449$ hints. For Falcon-512, NTRU-HRSS-701, Kyber-768 and Dilithium-1024 we need $452$, $622$, $702$ and $876$ modular hints, respectively. Our results for perfect hints significantly improve over these numbers, requiring for LWE dimension $n$ roughly $n/2$ perfect hints. Namely, we reconstruct via LLL reduction Kyber-512 keys with merely $234$ perfect hints. For secret keys of Falcon-512, NTRU-HRSS-701, Kyber-768 and Dilithium-1024 we require $233$, $332$, $390$ and $463$ perfect hints, respectively. We find such a small amount of perfect hints quite remarkable. If we resort to stronger lattice reduction techniques like BKZ, we need even fewer hints. For mod-$q$ hints our method is extremely efficient, taking total time for constructing our lattice bases and secret key recovery via LLL of around 20 mins for dimension 512, 40 mins for dimensions 701 and 768, and less than 10 hours for dimension 1024. For perfect hints we require around 3 hours (dim 512), 11 hours (dim 701), 1 day (dim 768), and one week (dim 1024). Our results demonstrate that especially perfect hints are powerful in practice, and stress the necessity to properly protect lattice schemes against leakage.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Quantum Attacks on Type-1 Generalized Feistel Schemes
Hong-Wei Sun, Bin-Bin Cai, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fei Gao
Generalized Feistel schemes (GFSs) are extremely important and extensively researched cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we investigate the security of Type-1 GFS in quantum circumstances. On the one hand, in the qCCA setting, we give a new quantum polynomial time distinguisher on (d^2 -1)-round Type-1 GFS with branches d >3, which extends the previous results by d-2 rounds. This leads to a more efficient analysis of type-1 GFS, that is, the complexity of some previous key-recovery attacks is reduced by a factor of 2^(((d-2)k)/2), where k is the key length of the internal round function. On the other hand, for CAST-256, which is a certain block cipher based on Type-1 GFS, we give a 17-round quantum distinguisher in the qCPA setting. As a result, we construct an r(r > 17) round quantum key-recovery attack with complexity O(2^(37(r-17))/2 ).
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Exact Security Analysis of ASCON
Bishwajit Chakraborty, Chandranan Dhar, and Mridul Nandi
The Ascon cipher suite, offering both authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) and hashing functionality, has recently emerged as the winner of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography (LwC) standardization process. The AEAD schemes within Ascon, namely Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a, have also been previously selected as the preferred lightweight authenticated encryption solutions in the CAESAR competition. In this paper, we present a tight and comprehensive security analysis of the Ascon AEAD schemes within the random permutation model. Existing integrity analyses of Ascon (and any Duplex AEAD scheme in general) commonly include the term $DT/2^c$, where $D$ and $T$ represent data and time complexities respectively, and $c$ denotes the capacity of the underlying sponge. In this paper, we demonstrate that Ascon achieves AE security when $T$ is bounded by $\min\{2^{\kappa}, 2^c\}$ (where $\kappa$ is the key size), and $DT$ is limited to $2^b$ (with $b$ being the size of the underlying permutation, which is 320 for Ascon). Our findings indicate that in accordance with NIST requirements, Ascon allows for a tag size as low as 64 bits while enabling a higher rate of 192 bits, surpassing the recommended rate.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Tagged Chameleon Hash from Lattice and Application to Redactable Blockchain
Yiming Li and Shengli Liu
Chameleon hash (CH) is a trapdoor hash function. Generally it is hard to find collisions, but with the help of trapdoor, finding collisions becomes easy. CH plays an important role in converting a conventional blockchain to a redactable one. However, most of the existing CH schemes are too weak to support redactable blockchain. The currently known CH schemes serving for redactable blockchain have the best security of so-called “full collision resistance (f-CR)”, but they are built either on random oracle model or rely on heavy tools like the simulation-sound extractable non-interactive zero-knowledge (SSE-NIZK) proof system. Moreover, up to now there is no CH scheme with post-quantum f-CR security in the standard model. Therefore, no CH can support redactable blockchain in a post-quantum way without relying on random oracles. In this paper, we introduce a variant of CH, namely tagged chameleon hash (tCH). Tagged chameleon hash takes a tag into hash evaluations and collision finding algorithms. We define two security notions for tCH, collision resistance (CR) and full collision resistance (f-CR), and prove the equivalence between CR and f-CR when tCH works in the one-time tag mode. We propose a tCH scheme from lattice without using any NIZK proof, and prove that its collision resistance is (almost) tightly reduced to the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption in the standard model. We also show how to apply tCH to a blockchain in one-time tag mode so that the blockchain can be compiled to a redactable one. Our tCH scheme provides the first post-quantum solution for redactable blockchains, without resorting to random oracles or NIZK proofs. Besides, we also construct a more efficient tCH scheme with CR tightly reduced to SIS in the random oracle model, which may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
An update on Keccak performance on ARMv7-M
Alexandre Adomnicai
This note provides an update on Keccak performance on the ARMv7-M processors. Starting from the XKCP implementation, we have applied architecture-specific optimizations that have yielded a performance gain of up to 21% for the largest permutation instance.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Classical and Quantum Meet-in-the-Middle Nostradamus Attacks on AES-like Hashing
Zhiyu Zhang, Siwei Sun, Caibing Wang, and Lei Hu
At EUROCRYPT 2006, Kelsey and Kohno proposed the so-called chosen target forced-prefix (CTFP) preimage attack, where for any challenge prefix $P$, the attacker can generate a suffix $S$ such that $H(P\|S) = y$ for some hash value $y$ published in advance by the attacker. Consequently, the attacker can pretend to predict some event represented by $P$ she did not know before, and thus this type of attack is also known as the Nostradamus attack. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Benedikt et al. convert Kelsey et al.'s attack to a quantum one, reducing the time complexity from $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n}\cdot 2^{2n/3})$ to $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt[3]{n} \cdot 2^{3n/7})$. CTFP preimage attack is less investigated in the literature than (second-)preimage and collision attacks and lacks dedicated methods. In this paper, we propose the first dedicated Nostradamus attack based on the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, and the MITM Nostradamus attack could be up to quadratically accelerated in the quantum setting. According to the recent works on MITM preimage attacks on AES-like hashing, we build an automatic tool to search for optimal MITM Nostradamus attacks and model the tradeoff between the offline and online phases. We apply our method to AES-MMO and Whirlpool, and obtain the first dedicated attack on round-reduced version of these hash functions. Our method and automatic tool are applicable to other AES-like hashings.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Revisiting Key Decomposition Techniques for FHE: Simpler, Faster and More Generic
Mariya Georgieva Belorgey, Sergiu Carpov, Nicolas Gama, Sandra Guasch, and Dimitar Jetchev
Ring-LWE based homomorphic encryption computations in large depth use a combination of two techniques: 1) decomposition of big numbers into small limbs/digits, and 2) efficient cyclotomic multiplications modulo $X^N+1$. It was long believed that the two mechanisms had to be strongly related, like in the full-RNS setting that uses a CRT decomposition of big numbers over an NTT-friendly family of prime numbers, and NTT over the same primes for multiplications. However, in this setting NTT was the bottleneck of all large-depth FHE computations. A breakthrough result from Crypto'2023 by Kim et al. managed to overcome this limitation by introducing a second gadget decomposition and by showing that it indeed shifts the bottleneck and renders the cost of NTT computations negligible compared to the rest of the computation. In this paper, we extend this result (far) beyond the Full-RNS settings and show that we can completely decouple the big number decomposition from the cyclotomic arithmetic aspects. As a result, we get modulus switching/rescaling for free, and the memory footprint for storing relinearization keys across different levels is considerably lower compared to the CRT-based counterparts, by typically a factor $\ell/3$ where $\ell$ is the deepest level of multiplication depth supported. We verify both in theory and in practice that the performance of key-switching, external and internal products and automorphisms using our representation are similar or faster than the one achieved by Kim et al. Crypto'2023 paper, and we discuss the high impact of these results for people who work on low-level or hardware optimizations as well as the benefits of the new parametrizations for people currently working on compilers for FHE. We even manage to lower the running time of the gate bootstrapping of TFHE by eliminating 12.5% of its FFTs.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Towards compressed permutation oracles
Dominique Unruh
Compressed oracles (Zhandry, Crypto 2019) are a powerful technique to reason about quantum random oracles, enabling a sort of lazy sampling in the presence of superposition queries. A long-standing open question is whether a similar technique can also be used to reason about random (efficiently invertible) permutations. In this work, we make a step towards answering this question. We first define the compressed permutation oracle and illustrate its use. While the soundness of this technique (i.e., the indistinguishability from a random permutation) remains a conjecture, we show a curious 2-for-1 theorem: If we use the compressed permutation oracle methodology to show that some construction (e.g., Luby-Rackoff) implements a random permutation (or strong qPRP), then we get the fact that this methodology is actually sound for free.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Brakedown's expander code
Ulrich Haböck
This write-up summarizes the sampling analysis of the expander code from Brakedown [GLSTW21]. We elaborate their convexity argument for general linear expansion bounds, and we combine their approach with the one from Spielman [Sp96] to achieve asymptotic linear-time under constant field size. Choosing tighter expansion bounds we obtain more efficient parameters than [GLSTW21] for their 128 bit large field, reducing the encoding costs by 25% and beyond, and we provide a similar parameter set for the Mersenne prime field with modulus $p = 2^{31} - 1$, optimized by the combined Spielman-Brakedown approach.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Owl: An Augmented Password-Authenticated Key Exchange Scheme
Feng Hao, Samiran Bag, Liqun Chen, and Paul C. van Oorschot
We present Owl, an augmented password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocol that is both efficient and supported by security proofs. Owl is motivated by recognized limitations in SRP-6a and OPAQUE. SRP-6a is the only augmented PAKE that has enjoyed wide use in practice to date, but it lacks the support of formal security proofs, and does not support elliptic curve settings. OPAQUE was proposed in 2018 as a provably secure and efficient alternative to SRP-6a, and was chosen by the IETF in 2020 for standardization, but open issues leave it unclear whether OPAQUE will replace SRP-6a in practice. Owl is obtained by efficiently adapting J-PAKE to an asymmetric setting, providing additional security against server compromise yet with lower computation than J-PAKE. Our scheme is provably secure, efficient and agile in supporting implementations in diverse multiplicative groups and elliptic curve settings. Owl is the first solution that provides systematic advantages over SRP-6a in terms of security, computation, message sizes, and agility. Owl’s agility across settings also contrasts ongoing issues related to how OPAQUE will instantiate a hash-to-curve operation in the elliptic curve setting (and what impact this will have on efficiency, security and forward compatibility with new elliptic curves in the future).
Last updated:  2023-05-26
LFHE: Fully Homomorphic Encryption with Bootstrapping Key Size Less than a Megabyte
Andrey Kim, Yongwoo Lee, Maxim Deryabin, Jieun Eom, and Rakyong Choi
Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) enables computations to be performed on encrypted data, so one can outsource computations of confidential information to an untrusted party. Ironically, FHE requires the client to generate massive evaluation keys and transfer them to the server side where all computations are supposed to be performed. In this paper, we propose LFHE, the Light-key FHE variant of the FHEW scheme introduced by Ducas and Micciancio in Eurocrypt 2015, and its improvement TFHE scheme proposed by Chillotti et al. in Asiacrypt 2016. In the proposed scheme the client generates small packed evaluation keys, which can be transferred to the server side with much smaller communication overhead compared to the original non-packed variant. The server employs a key reconstruction technique to obtain the evaluation keys needed for computations. This approach allowed us to achieve the FHE scheme with the packed evaluation key transferring size of less than a Megabyte, which is an order of magnitude improvement compared to the best-known methods.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Lattice-based Commit-Transferrable Signatures and Applications to Anonymous Credentials
Qiqi Lai, Feng-Hao Liu, Anna Lysyanskaya, and Zhedong Wang
Anonymous Credentials are an important tool to protect user's privacy for proving possession of certain credentials. Although various efficient constructions have been proposed based on pre-quantum assumptions, there have been limited accomplishments in the post-quantum and especially practical settings. This research aims to derive new methods that enhance the current state of the art. To achieve this, we make the following contributions. By distilling prior design insights, we propose a new primitive to instantiate \emph{signature with protocols}, called commit-transferrable signature (\CTS). When combined with a multi-theorem straight-line extractable non-interactive zero-knowledge proof of knowledge (\NIZKPoK), $\CTS$ gives a modular approach to construct anonymous credentials. We then show efficient instantiations of $\CTS$ and the required \NIZKPoK from lattices, which are believed to be post-quantum hard. Finally, we propose concrete parameters for the $\CTS$, \NIZKPoK, and the overall Anonymous Credentials, based on Module-\SIS~and Ring-\LWE. This would serve as an important guidance for future deployment in practice.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Threshold ECDSA in Three Rounds
Jack Doerner, Yashvanth Kondi, Eysa Lee, and abhi shelat
We present a three-round protocol for threshold ECDSA signing with malicious security against a dishonest majority, which information-theoretically UC-realizes a standard threshold signing functionality, assuming ideal commitment and two-party multiplication primitives. Our work improves upon and fully subsumes the DKLs $t$-of-$n$ and 2-of-$n$ protocols. This document focuses on providing a succinct but complete description of the protocol and its security proof, and contains little expository text.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Subversion-Resilient Authenticated Encryption without Random Oracles
Pascal Bemmann, Sebastian Berndt, Denis Diemert, Thomas Eisenbarth, and Tibor Jager
In 2013, the Snowden revelations have shown subversion of cryptographic implementations to be a relevant threat. Since then, the academic community has been pushing the development of models and constructions to defend against adversaries able to arbitrarily subvert cryptographic implementations. To capture these strong capabilities of adversaries, Russell, Tang, Yung, and Zhou (CCS'17) proposed CPA-secure encryption in a model that utilizes a trusted party called a watchdog testing an implementation before use to detect potential subversion. This model was used to construct subversion-resilient implementations of primitives such as random oracles by Russell, Tang, Yung, and Zhou (CRYPTO'18) or signature schemes by Chow et al. (PKC'19) but primitives aiming for a CCA-like security remained elusive in any watchdog model. In this work, we present the first subversion-resilient authenticated encryption scheme with associated data (AEAD) without making use of random oracles. At the core of our construction are subversion-resilient PRFs, which we obtain from weak PRFs in combination with the classical Naor-Reingold transformation. We revisit classical constructions based on PRFs to obtain subversion-resilient MACs, where both tagging and verification are subject to subversion, as well as subversion-resilient symmetric encryption in the form of stream ciphers. Finally, we observe that leveraging the classical Encrypt-then-MAC approach yields subversion-resilient AEAD. Our results are based on the trusted amalgamation model by Russell, Tang, Yung, and Zhou (ASIACRYPT'16) and the assumption of honest key generation.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Undetectable Watermarks for Language Models
Miranda Christ, Sam Gunn, and Or Zamir
Recent advances in the capabilities of large language models such as GPT-4 have spurred increasing concern about our ability to detect AI-generated text. Prior works have suggested methods of embedding watermarks in model outputs, by $\textit{noticeably}$ altering the output distribution. We ask: Is it possible to introduce a watermark without incurring $\textit{any detectable}$ change to the output distribution? To this end we introduce a cryptographically-inspired notion of undetectable watermarks for language models. That is, watermarks can be detected only with the knowledge of a secret key; without the secret key, it is computationally intractable to distinguish watermarked outputs from those of the original model. In particular, it is impossible for a user to observe any degradation in the quality of the text. Crucially, watermarks should remain undetectable even when the user is allowed to adaptively query the model with arbitrarily chosen prompts. We construct undetectable watermarks based on the existence of one-way functions, a standard assumption in cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
How to Design Fair Protocols in the Multi-Blockchain Setting
Sivanarayana Gaddam, Ranjit Kumaresan, Srinivasan Raghuraman, and Rohit Sinha
Recently, there have been several proposals for secure computation with fair output delivery that require the use of a bulletin board abstraction (in addition to a trusted execution environment (TEE)). These proposals require all protocol participants to have read/write access to the bulletin board. These works envision the use of (public or permissioned) blockchains to implement the bulletin board abstractions. With the advent of consortium blockchains which place restrictions on who can read/write contents on the blockchain, it is not clear how to extend prior proposals to a setting where (1) not all parties have read/write access on a single consortium blockchain, and (2) not all parties prefer to post on a public blockchain. In this paper, we address the above by showing the first protocols for fair secure computation in the multi-blockchain setting. More concretely, in a $n$-party setting where at most $t < n$ parties are corrupt, our protocol for fair secure computation works as long as (1) $t$ parties have access to a TEE (e.g., Intel SGX), and (2) each of the above $t$ parties are on some blockchain with each of the other parties. Furthermore, only these $t$ parties need write access on the blockchains. In an optimistic setting where parties behave honestly, our protocol runs completely off-chain.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
Nimble: Rollback Protection for Confidential Cloud Services (extended version)
Sebastian Angel, Aditya Basu, Weidong Cui, Trent Jaeger, Stella Lau, Srinath Setty, and Sudheesh Singanamalla
This paper introduces Nimble, a cloud service that helps applications running in trusted execution environments (TEEs) to detect rollback attacks (i.e., detect whether a data item retrieved from persistent storage is the latest version). To achieve this, Nimble realizes an append-only ledger service by employing a simple state machine running in a TEE in conjunction with a crash fault-tolerant storage service. Nimble then replicates this trusted state machine to ensure the system is available even if a minority of state machines crash. A salient aspect of Nimble is a new reconfiguration protocol that allows a cloud provider to replace the set of nodes running the trusted state machine whenever it wishes—without affecting safety. We have formally verified Nimble’s core protocol in Dafny, and have implemented Nimble such that its trusted state machine runs in multiple TEE platforms (Intel SGX and AMD SNP-SEV). Our results show that a deployment of Nimble on machines running in different availability zones can achieve from tens of thousands of requests/sec with an end-to-end latency of under 3.2 ms (based on an in-memory key-value store) to several thousands of requests/sec with a latency of 30ms (based on Azure Table).
Last updated:  2023-05-25
Time to Bribe: Measuring Block Construction Market
Anton Wahrstätter, Liyi Zhou, Kaihua Qin, Davor Svetinovic, and Arthur Gervais
With the emergence of Miner Extractable Value (MEV), block construction markets on blockchains have evolved into a competitive arena. Following Ethereum's transition from Proof of Work (PoW) to Proof of Stake (PoS), the Proposer Builder Separation (PBS) mechanism has emerged as the dominant force in the Ethereum block construction market. This paper presents an in-depth longitudinal study of the Ethereum block construction market, spanning from the introduction of PoS and PBS in September 2022 to May 2023. We analyze the market shares of builders and relays, their temporal changes, and the financial dynamics within the PBS system, including payments among builders and block proposers---commonly referred to as bribes. We introduce an MEV-time law quantifying the expected MEV revenue wrt. the time elapsed since the last proposed block. We provide empirical evidence that moments of crisis (e.g. the FTX collapse, USDC stablecoin de-peg) coincide with significant spikes in MEV payments compared to the baseline. Despite the intention of the PBS architecture to enhance decentralization by separating actor roles, it remains unclear whether its design is optimal. Implicit trust assumptions and conflicts of interest may benefit particular parties and foster the need for vertical integration. MEV-Boost was explicitly designed to foster decentralization, causing the side effect of enabling risk-free sandwich extraction from unsuspecting users, potentially raising concerns for regulators.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
Efficient TFHE Bootstrapping in the Multiparty Setting
Jeongeun Park and Sergi Rovira
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to efficiently compute TFHE bootstrapping keys for (predefined) multiple users. Hence, a fixed number of users can enjoy the same level of efficiency as in the single key setting, keeping their individual input privacy. Our construction relies on a novel algorithm called homomorphic indicator, which can be of independent interest. We provide a detailed analysis of the noise growth and a set of secure parameters suitable to be used in practice. Moreover, we compare the complexity of our technique with other state-of-the-art constructions and show which method performs better in what parameter sets, based on our noise analysis. We also provide a prototype implementation of our technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of TFHE in the multiparty setting.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
Scaling Mobile Private Contact Discovery to Billions of Users
Laura Hetz, Thomas Schneider, and Christian Weinert
Show abstract
Mobile contact discovery is a convenience feature of messengers such as WhatsApp or Telegram that helps users to identify which of their existing contacts are registered with the service. Unfortunately, the contact discovery implementation of many popular messengers massively violates the users' privacy as demonstrated by Hagen et al. (NDSS '21, ACM TOPS '23). Unbalanced private set intersection (PSI) protocols are a promising cryptographic solution to realize mobile private contact discovery, however, state-of-the-art protocols do not scale to real-world database sizes with billions of registered users in terms of communication and/or computation overhead. In our work, we make significant steps towards truly practical large-scale mobile private contact discovery. For this, we combine and substantially optimize the unbalanced PSI protocol of Kales et al. (USENIX Security '19) and the private information retrieval (PIR) protocol of Kogan and Corrigan-Gibbs (USENIX Security '21). Our resulting protocol has a total communication overhead that is sublinear in the size of the server's user database and also has sublinear online runtimes. We optimize our protocol by introducing database partitioning and efficient scheduling of user queries. To handle realistic change rates of databases and contact lists, we propose and evaluate different possibilities for efficient updates. We implement our protocol on smartphones and measure online runtimes of less than 2s to query up to 1024 contacts from a database with more than two billion entries. Furthermore, we achieve a reduction in setup communication up to factor 32x compared to state-of-the-art mobile private contact discovery protocols.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
A Note on ``On the Design of Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol in Internet of Vehicles-Enabled Intelligent Transportation System''
Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu
We remark that the key agreement scheme [IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 2021, 70(2): 1736--1751] fails to keep anonymity and untraceability, because the user $U_k$ needs to invoke the public key $PK_{U_j}$ to verify the signature generated by the user $U_j$. Since the public key is compulsively linked to the true identity $ID_{U_j}$ for authentication, any adversary can reveal the true identity by checking the signature.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
SDitH in the QROM
Carlos Aguilar-Melchor, Andreas Hülsing, David Joseph, Christian Majenz, Eyal Ronen, and Dongze Yue
The MPC in the Head (MPCitH) paradigm has recently led to significant improvements for signatures in the code-based setting. In this paper we consider some modifications to a recent twist of MPCitH, called Hypercube-MPCitH, that in the code-based setting provides the currently best known signature sizes. By compressing the Hypercube-MPCitH five round code-based identification into three rounds we obtain two main benefits. On the one hand, it allows us to further develop recent techniques to provide a tight security proof in the quantum-accessible random oracle model (QROM), avoiding the catastrophic reduction losses incurred using generic QROM-results for Fiat-Shamir. On the other hand, we can reduce the already low-cost online part of the signature to just a hash and some serialization. In addition, we propose the introduction of proof-of-work techniques to allow for a reduction in signature size. On the technical side, we develop generalizations of several QROM proof techniques and introduce a variant of the recently proposed extractable QROM.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
The security of Kyber's FO-transform
Manuel Barbosa and Andreas Hülsing
In this short note we give another direct proof for the variant of the FO transform used by Kyber in the QROM. At PKC'23 Maram & Xagawa gave the first direct proof which does not require the indirection via FO with explicit rejection, thereby avoiding either a non-tight bound, or the necessity to analyze the failure probability in a new setting. However, on the downside their proof produces a bound that incurs an additive collision bound term. We explore a different approach for a direct proof, which results in a simpler argument closer to prior proofs, but a slightly worse bound.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Batch Proofs are Statistically Hiding
Nir Bitansky, Chethan Kamath, Omer Paneth, Ron Rothblum, and Prashant Nalini Vasudevan
Batch proofs are proof systems that convince a verifier that $x_1,\dots, x_t \in L$, for some $NP$ language $L$, with communication that is much shorter than sending the $t$ witnesses. In the case of statistical soundness (where the cheating prover is unbounded but honest prover is efficient), interactive batch proofs are known for $UP$, the class of unique witness $NP$ languages. In the case of computational soundness (aka arguments, where both honest and dishonest provers are efficient), non-interactive solutions are now known for all of $NP$, assuming standard cryptographic assumptions. We study the necessary conditions for the existence of batch proofs in these two settings. Our main results are as follows. 1. Statistical Soundness: the existence of a statistically-sound batch proof for $L$ implies that $L$ has a statistically witness indistinguishable ($SWI$) proof, with inverse polynomial $SWI$ error, and a non-uniform honest prover. The implication is unconditional for public-coin protocols and relies on one-way functions in the private-coin case. This poses a barrier for achieving batch proofs beyond $UP$ (where witness indistinguishability is trivial). In particular, assuming that $NP$ does not have $SWI$ proofs, batch proofs for all of $NP$ do not exist. This motivates further study of the complexity class $SWI$, which, in contrast to the related class $SZK$, has been largely left unexplored. 2. Computational Soundness: the existence of batch arguments ($BARG$s) for $NP$, together with one-way functions, implies the existence of statistical zero-knowledge ($SZK$) arguments for $NP$ with roughly the same number of rounds, an inverse polynomial zero-knowledge error, and non-uniform honest prover. Thus, constant-round interactive $BARG$s from one-way functions would yield constant-round $SZK$ arguments from one-way functions. This would be surprising as $SZK$ arguments are currently only known assuming constant-round statistically-hiding commitments (which in turn are unlikely to follow from one-way functions). 3. Non-interactive: the existence of non-interactive $BARG$s for $NP$ and one-way functions, implies non-interactive statistical zero-knowledge arguments ($NISZKA$) for $NP$, with negligible soundness error, inverse polynomial zero-knowledge error, and non-uniform honest prover. Assuming also lossy public-key encryption, the statistical zero-knowledge error can be made negligible. We further show that $BARG$s satisfying a notion of honest somewhere extractability imply lossy public key encryption. All of our results stem from a common framework showing how to transform a batch protocol for a language $L$ into an $SWI$ protocol for $L$.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
A Faster Software Implementation of SQISign
Kaizhan Lin, Weize Wang, Zheng Xu, and Chang-An Zhao
Isogeny-based cryptography is famous for its short key size. As one of the most compact digital signatures, SQISign (Short Quaternion and Isogeny Signature) is attractive among post-quantum cryptography, but it is ineffcient compared to other post-quantum competitors because of complicated procedures in ideal to isogeny translation, which is the effciency bottleneck of the signing phase. In this paper, we recall the current implementation of SQISign and mainly discuss how to improve the execution of ideal to isogeny translation in SQISign. To be precise, we modify the SigningKLPT algorithm to accelerate the performance of generating the ideal $I_\sigma$. In addition, we explore how to save one of the two elliptic curve discrete logarithms and compute the remainder with the help of the reduced Tate pairing correctly and effciently. We speed up other procedures in ideal to isogeny translation with various techniques as well. It should be noted that our improvements also benefit the performances of key generation and verification in SQISign. In particular, in the instantiation with p3923 the improvements lead to a speedup of 8.82%, 8.50% and 18.94% for key generation, signature and verification, respectively
Last updated:  2023-05-24
Schnorr protocol in Jasmin
Denis Firsov, Tiago Oliveira, and Dominique Unruh
We implement the Schnorr proof system in assembler via the Jasmin toolchain, and prove the security (proof-of-knowledge property) and the absence of leakage through timing side-channels of that implementation in EasyCrypt. In order to do so, we show how leakage-freeness of Jasmin programs can be proven for probabilistic programs (that are not constant-time). We implement and verify algorithms for fast constant-time modular multiplication and exponentiation (using Barrett reduction and Montgomery ladder). We implement and verify the rejection sampling algorithm. And finally, we put it all together and show the security of the overall implementation (end-to-end verification) of the Schnorr protocol, by connecting our implementation to prior security analyses in EasyCrypt (Firsov, Unruh, CSF 2023).
Last updated:  2023-05-24
Scalable Agreement Protocols with Optimal Optimistic Efficiency
Yuval Gelles and Ilan Komargodski
Designing efficient distributed protocols for various agreement tasks such as Byzantine Agreement, Broadcast, and Committee Election is a fundamental problem. We are interested in $scalable$ protocols for these tasks, where each (honest) party communicates a number of bits which is sublinear in $n$, the number of parties. The first major step towards this goal is due to King et al. (SODA 2006) who showed a protocol where each party sends only $\tilde O(1)$ bits throughout $\tilde O(1)$ rounds, but guarantees only that $1-o(1)$ fraction of honest parties end up agreeing on a consistent output, assuming constant $<1/3$ fraction of static corruptions. Few years later, King et al. (ICDCN 2011) managed to get a full agreement protocol in the same model but where each party sends $\tilde O(\sqrt{n})$ bits throughout $\tilde O(1)$ rounds. Getting a full agreement protocol with $o(\sqrt{n})$ communication per party has been a major challenge ever since. In light of this barrier, we propose a new framework for designing efficient agreement protocols. Specifically, we design $\tilde O(1)$-round protocols for all of the above tasks (assuming constant $<1/3$ fraction of static corruptions) with optimistic and pessimistic guarantees: $\bullet$ $Optimistic$ $complexity$: In an honest execution, (honest) parties send only $\tilde O(1)$ bits. $\bullet$ <i> xxx</i>$Pessimistic$ $complexity$: In any other case, (honest) parties send $\tilde O(\sqrt{n})$ bits. Thus, all an adversary can gain from deviating from the honest execution is that honest parties will need to work harder (i.e., transmit more bits) to reach agreement and terminate. Besides the above agreement tasks, we also use our new framework to get a scalable secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocol with optimistic and pessimistic complexities. Technically, we identify a relaxation of Byzantine Agreement (of independent interest) that allows us to fall-back to a pessimistic execution in a coordinated way by all parties. We implement this relaxation with $\tilde O(1)$ communication bits per party and within $\tilde O(1)$ rounds.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
BAKSHEESH: Similar Yet Different From GIFT
Anubhab Baksi, Jakub Breier, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Tomáš Gerlich, Sylvain Guilley, Naina Gupta, Kai Hu, Takanori Isobe, Arpan Jati, Petr Jedlicka, Hyunjun Kim, Fukang Liu, Zdeněk Martinásek, Kosei Sakamoto, Hwajeong Seo, Rentaro Shiba, and Ritu Ranjan Shrivastwa
We propose a lightweight block cipher named BAKSHEESH, which follows up on the popular cipher GIFT-128 (CHES'17). BAKSHEESH runs for 35 rounds, which is 12.50 percent smaller compared to GIFT-128 (runs for 40 rounds) while maintaining the same security claims against the classical attacks. The crux of BAKSHEESH is to use a 4-bit SBox that has a non-trivial Linear Structure (LS). An SBox with one or more non-trivial LS has not been used in a cipher construction until DEFAULT (Asiacrypt'21). DEFAULT is pitched to have inherent protection against the Differential Fault Attack (DFA), thanks to its SBox having 3 non-trivial LS. BAKSHEESH, however, uses an SBox with only 1 non-trivial LS; and is a traditional cipher just like GIFT-128. The SBox requires a low number of AND gates, making BAKSHEESH suitable for side channel countermeasures (when compared to GIFT-128) and other niche applications. Indeed, our study on the cost of the threshold implementation shows that BAKSHEESH offers a few-fold advantage over other lightweight ciphers. The design is not much deviated from its predecessor (GIFT-128), thereby allowing for easy implementation (such as fix-slicing in software). However, BAKSHEESH opts for the full-round key XOR, compared to the half-round key XOR in GIFT. Thus, when taking everything into account, we show how a cipher construction can benefit from the unique vantage point of using 1 LS SBox, by combining the state-of-the-art progress in classical cryptanalysis and protection against device-dependent attacks. We, therefore, create a new paradigm of lightweight ciphers, by adequate deliberation on the design choice, and solidify it with appropriate security analysis and ample implementation/benchmark.
Last updated:  2023-05-24
Note on Subversion-Resilient Key Exchange
Magnus Ringerud
In this work, we set out to create a subversion resilient authenticated key exchange protocol. The first step was to design a meaningful security model for this primitive, and our goal was to avoid using building blocks like reverse firewalls and public watchdogs. We wanted to exclude these kinds of tools because we desired that our protocols to be self contained in the sense that we could prove security without relying on some outside, tamper-proof party. To define the model, we began by extending models for regular authenticated key exchange, as we wanted our model to retain all the properties from regular AKE. While trying to design protocols that would be secure in this model, we discovered that security depended on more than just the protocol, but also on engineering questions like how keys are stored and accessed in memory. Moreover, even if we assume that we can find solutions to these engineering challenges, other problems arise when trying to develop a secure protocol, partly because it's hard to define what secure means in this setting.It is in particular not clear how a subverted algorithm should affect the freshness predicate inherited from trivial attacks in regular AKE. The attack variety is large, and it is not intuitive how one should treat or classify the different attacks. In the end, we were unable to find a satisfying solution for our model, and hence we could not prove any meaningful security of the protocols we studied. This work is a summary of our attempt, and the challenges we faced before concluding it.
Last updated:  2023-05-24
Towards the Links of Cryptanalytic Methods on MPC/FHE/ZK-Friendly Symmetric-Key Primitives
Shiyao Chen, Chun Guo, Jian Guo, Li Liu, Meiqin Wang, Puwen Wei, and Zeyu Xu
Symmetric-key primitives designed over the prime field $\mathbb{F}_p$ with odd characteristics, rather than the traditional $\mathbb{F}_2^{n}$, are becoming the most popular choice for MPC/FHE/ZK-protocols for better efficiencies. However, the security of $\mathbb{F}_p$ is less understood as there are highly nontrivial gaps when extending the cryptanalysis tools and experiences built on $\mathbb{F}_2^{n}$ in the past few decades to $\mathbb{F}_p$. At CRYPTO 2015, Sun et al. established the links among impossible differential, zero-correlation linear, and integral cryptanalysis over $\mathbb{F}_2^{n}$ from the perspective of distinguishers. In this paper, following the definition of linear correlations over $\mathbb{F}_p$ by Baignéres, Stern and Vaudenay at SAC 2007, we successfully establish comprehensive links over $\mathbb{F}_p$, by reproducing the proofs and offering alternatives when necessary. Interesting and important differences between $\mathbb{F}_p$ and $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ are observed. - Zero-correlation linear hulls can not lead to integral distinguishers for some cases over $\mathbb{F}_p$, while this is always possible over $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ proven by Sun et al.. - When the newly established links are applied to GMiMC, its impossible differential, zero-correlation linear hull and integral distinguishers can be increased by up to 3 rounds for most of the cases, and even to an arbitrary number of rounds for some special and limited cases, which only appeared in $\mathbb{F}_p$. It should be noted that all these distinguishers do not invalidate GMiMC's security claims. The development of the theories over $\mathbb{F}_p$ behind these links, and properties identified (be it similar or different) will bring clearer and easier understanding of security of primitives in this emerging $\mathbb{F}_p$ field, which we believe will provide useful guides for future cryptanalysis and design.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Key-Range Attribute-Based Signatures for Range of Inner Product and Its Applications
Masahito Ishizaka
In attribute-based signatures (ABS) for range of inner product (ARIP), recently proposed by Ishizaka and Fukushima at ICISC 2022, a secret-key labeled with an $n$-dimensional vector $\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb{Z}_p^n$ for a prime $p$ can be used to sign a message under an $n$-dimensional vector $\mathbf{y}\in\mathbb{Z}_p^n$ and a range $[L,R]=\{L, L+1, \cdots, R-1, R\}$ with $L,R\in\mathbb{Z}_p$ iff their inner product is within the range, i.e., $\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y} \rangle \in [L,R]\pmod p$. We consider its key-range version, named key-range ARIP (KARIP), where the range $[L,R]$ is associated with a secret-key but not with a signature. We propose three generic KARIP constructions based on linearly homomorphic signatures and non-interactive witness-indistinguishable proof, which lead to concrete KARIP instantiations secure under standard assumptions with different features in terms of efficiency. We also show that KARIP has various applications, e.g., key-range ABS for range evaluation of polynomials/weighted averages/Hamming distance/Euclidean distance, key-range time-specific signatures, and key-range ABS for hyperellipsoid predicates.
Last updated:  2023-05-24
Homomorphic Signatures for Subset and Superset Mixed Predicates and Its Applications
Masahito Ishizaka and Kazuhide Fukushima
In homomorphic signatures for subset predicates (HSSB), each message (to be signed) is a set. Any signature on a set $M$ allows us to derive a signature on any subset $M'\subseteq M$. Its superset version, which should be called homomorphic signatures for superset predicates (HSSP), allows us to derive a signature on any superset $M'\supseteq M$. In this paper, we propose homomorphic signatures for subset and superset mixed predicates (HSSM) as a simple combination of HSSB and HSSP. In HSSM, any signature on a message of a set-pair $(M, W)$ allows us to derive a signature on any $(M', W')$ such that $M'\subseteq M$ and $W'\supseteq W$. We propose an original HSSM scheme which is unforgeable under the decisional linear assumption and completely context-hiding. We show that HSSM has various applications, which include disclosure-controllable HSSB, disclosure-controllable redactable signatures, (key-delegatable) superset/subset predicate signatures, and wildcarded identity-based signatures.
Last updated:  2023-05-24
PSI from ring-OLE
Wutichai Chongchitmate, Yuval Ishai, Steve Lu, and Rafail Ostrovsky
Private set intersection (PSI) is one of the most extensively studied instances of secure computation. PSI allows two parties to compute the intersection of their input sets without revealing anything else. Other useful variants include PSI-Payload, where the output includes payloads associated with members of the intersection, and PSI-Sum, where the output includes the sum of the payloads instead of individual ones. In this work, we make two related contributions. First, we construct simple and efficient protocols for PSI and PSI-Payload from a ring version of oblivious linear function evaluation (ring-OLE) that can be efficiently realized using recent ring-LPN based protocols. A standard OLE over a field F allows a sender with $a,b \in \mathbb{F}$ to deliver $ax+b$ to a receiver who holds $x \in \mathbb{F}$. Ring-OLE generalizes this to a ring $\mathcal{R}$, in particular, a polynomial ring over $\mathbb{F}$. Our second contribution is an efficient general reduction of a variant of PSI-Sum to PSI-Payload and secure inner product. Our protocols have better communication cost than state-of-the-art PSI protocols, especially when requiring security against malicious parties and when allowing input-independent preprocessing. Compared to previous maliciously secure PSI protocols that have a similar com- putational cost, our online communication is 2x better for small sets (28 − 212 elements) and 20% better for large sets (220 − 224). Our protocol is also simpler to describe and implement. We obtain even bigger improvements over the state of the art (4-5x better running time) for our variant of PSI-Sum.
Last updated:  2023-05-23
On Extremal Algebraic Graphs and implementations of new cubic Multivariate Public Keys
Vasyl Ustimenko, Tymoteusz Chojecki, and Michal Klisowski
Algebraic Constructions of Extremal Graph Theory were efficiently used for the construction of Low Density Parity Check Codes for satellite communication, constructions of stream ciphers and Postquantum Protocols of Noncommutative cryptography and corresponding El Gamal type cryptosystems. We shortly observe some results in these applications and present idea of the usage of algebraic graphs for the development of Multivariate Public Keys (MPK). Some MPK schemes are presented at theoretical level, implementation of one of them is discussed.
Last updated:  2023-05-23
On Sustainable Ring-based Anonymous Systems
Sherman S. M. Chow, Christoph Egger, Russell W. F. Lai, Viktoria Ronge, and Ivy K. Y. Woo
Anonymous systems (e.g. anonymous cryptocurrencies and updatable anonymous credentials) often follow a construction template where an account can only perform a single anonymous action, which in turn potentially spawns new (and still single-use) accounts (e.g. UTXO with a balance to spend or session with a score to claim). Due to the anonymous nature of the action, no party can be sure which account has taken part in an action and, therefore, must maintain an ever-growing list of potentially unused accounts to ensure that the system keeps running correctly. Consequently, anonymous systems constructed based on this common template are seemingly not sustainable. In this work, we study the sustainability of ring-based anonymous systems, where a user performing an anonymous action is hidden within a set of decoy users, traditionally called a ``ring''. On the positive side, we propose a general technique for ring-based anonymous systems to achieve sustainability. Along the way, we define a general model of decentralised anonymous systems (DAS) for arbitrary anonymous actions, and provide a generic construction which provably achieves sustainability. As a special case, we obtain the first construction of anonymous cryptocurrencies achieving sustainability without compromising availability. We also demonstrate the generality of our model by constructing sustainable decentralised anonymous social networks. On the negative side, we show empirically that Monero, one of the most popular anonymous cryptocurrencies, is unlikely to be sustainable without altering its current ring sampling strategy. The main subroutine is a sub-quadratic-time algorithm for detecting used accounts in a ring-based anonymous system.
Last updated:  2023-05-23
Finding Desirable Substitution Box with SASQUATCH
Manas Wadhwa, Anubhab Baksi, Kai Hu, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Takanori Isobe, and Dhiman Saha
This paper presents ``SASQUATCH'', an open-source tool, that aids in finding an unknown substitution box (SBox) given its properties. The inspiration of our work can be directly attributed to the DCC 2022 paper by Lu, Mesnager, Cui, Fan and Wang. Taking their work as the foundation (i.e., converting the problem of SBox search to a satisfiability modulo theory instance and then invoking a solver), we extend in multiple directions (including -- but not limiting to -- coverage of more options, imposing time limit, parallel execution for multiple SBoxes, non-bijective SBox), and package everything within an easy-to-use interface. We also present ASIC benchmarks for some of the SBoxes.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
The Referendum Problem in Anonymous Voting for Decentralized Autonomous Organizations
Artem Grigor, Vincenzo Iovino, and Giuseppe Visconti
A natural approach to anonymous voting over Ethereum assumes that there is an off-chain aggregator that performs the following task. The aggregator receives valid signatures of YES/NO preferences from eligible voters and uses them to compute a zk-SNARK proof of the fact that the majority of voters have cast a preference for YES or NO. Then, the aggregator sends to the smart contract the zk-SNARK proof, the smart contract verifies the proof and can trigger an action (e.g., a transfer of funds). As the zk-SNARK proof guarantees anonymity, the privacy of the voters is preserved by attackers not colluding with the aggregator. Moreover, if the SNARK proof verification is efficient the GAS cost will be independent on the number of participating voters and signatures submitted by voters to the aggregator. In this paper we show that this naive approach to run referenda over Ethereum can incur severe security problems. We propose both mitigations and hardness results for achieving voting procedures in which the proofs submitted on-chain are either ZK or succinct.
Last updated:  2023-05-23
Practical Robust DKG Protocols for CSIDH
Shahla Atapoor, Karim Baghery, Daniele Cozzo, and Robi Pedersen
A Distributed Key Generation (DKG) protocol is an essential component of threshold cryptography. DKGs enable a group of parties to generate a secret and public key pair in a distributed manner so that the secret key is protected from being exposed, even if a certain number of parties are compromised. Robustness further guarantees that the construction of the key pair is always successful, even if malicious parties try to sabotage the computation. In this paper, we construct two efficient robust DKG protocols in the CSIDH setting that work with Shamir secret sharing. Both the proposed protocols are proven to be actively secure in the quantum random oracle model and use an Information Theoretically (IT) secure Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS) scheme that is built using bivariate polynomials. As a tool, we construct a new piecewise verifiable proof system for structured public keys, that could be of independent interest. In terms of isogeny computations, our protocols outperform the previously proposed DKG protocols CSI-RAShi and Structured CSI-RAShi. As an instance, using our DKG protocols, 4 parties can sample a PK of size 4kB, for CSI-FiSh and CSI-SharK, respectively, 3.4 and 1.7 times faster than the current alternatives. On the other hand, since we use an IT-secure VSS, the fraction of corrupted parties is limited to less than a third and the communication cost of our schemes scales slightly worse with an increasing number of parties. For a low number of parties, our scheme still outperforms the alternatives in terms of communication.
Last updated:  2023-05-23
SMAUG: Pushing Lattice-based Key Encapsulation Mechanisms to the Limits
Jung Hee Cheon, Hyeongmin Choe, Dongyeon Hong, and MinJune Yi
Recently, NIST has announced Kyber, a lattice-based key encapsulation mechanism (KEM), as a post-quantum standard. However, it is not the most efficient scheme among the NIST's KEM finalists. Saber enjoys more compact sizes and faster performance, and Mera et al. (TCHES '21) further pushed its efficiency, proposing a shorter KEM, Sable. As KEM are frequently used on the Internet, such as in TLS protocols, it is essential to achieve high efficiency while maintaining sufficient security. In this paper, we further push the efficiency limit of lattice-based KEMs by proposing SMAUG, a new post-quantum KEM scheme submitted to the Korean Post-Quantum Cryptography (KPQC) competition, whose IND-CCA2 security is based on the combination of MLWE and MLWR problems. We adopt several recent developments in lattice-based cryptography, targeting the textit{smallest} and the \textit{fastest} KEM while maintaining high enough security against various attacks, with a full-fledged use of sparse secrets. Our design choices allow SMAUG to balance the decryption failure probability and ciphertext sizes without utilizing error correction codes, whose side-channel resistance remains open. With a constant-time C reference implementation, SMAUG achieves ciphertext sizes up to 12% and 9% smaller than Kyber and Saber, with much faster running time, up to 103% and 58%, respectively. Compared to Sable, SMAUG has the same ciphertext sizes but a larger public key, which gives a trade-off between the public key size versus performance; SMAUG has 39%-55% faster encapsulation and decapsulation speed in the parameter sets having comparable security.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
Extremal algebraic graphs, quadratic multivariate public keys and temporal rules
Vasyl Ustimenko and Aneta Wróblewska
We introduce large groups of quadratic transformations of a vector space over the finite fields defined via symbolic computations with the usage of algebraic constructions of Extremal Graph Theory. They can serve as platforms for the protocols of Noncommutative Cryptography with security based on the complexity of word decomposition problem in noncommutative polynomial transformation group. The modifications of these symbolic computations in the case of large fields of characteristic two allow us to define quadratic bijective multivariate public keys such that the inverses of public maps has a large polynomial degree. Another family of public keys is defined over arbitrary commutative ring with unity. We suggest the usage of constructed protocols for the private delivery of quadratic encryption maps instead of the public usage of these transformations, i.e. the idea of temporal multivariate rules with their periodical change.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
Differential properties of integer multiplication
Koustabh Ghosh and Joan Daemen
In this paper, we study the differential properties of integer multiplication between two $w$-bit integers, resulting in a $2w$-bit integer. Our objective is to gain insights into its resistance against differential cryptanalysis and asses its suitability as a source of non-linearity in symmetric key primitives.
Last updated:  2023-05-25
Private Eyes: Zero-Leakage Iris Searchable Encryption
Julie Ha, Chloe Cachet, Luke Demarest, Sohaib Ahmad, and Benjamin Fuller
Biometric databases are being deployed with few cryptographic protections. Because of the nature of biometrics, privacy breaches affect users for their entire life. This work introduces Private Eyes, the first zero-leakage biometric database. The only leakage of the system is unavoidable: 1) the log of the dataset size and 2) the fact that a query occurred. Private Eyes is built from symmetric searchable encryption. Proximity queries are the required functionality: given a noisy reading of a biometric, the goal is to retrieve all stored records that are close enough according to a distance metric. Private Eyes combines locality sensitive-hashing or LSHs (Indyk and Motwani, STOC 1998) and encrypted maps. One searches for the disjunction of the LSHs of a noisy biometric reading. The underlying encrypted map needs to efficiently answer disjunction queries. We focus on the iris biometric. Iris biometric data requires a large number of LSHs, approximately 1000. The most relevant prior work is in zero-leakage k-nearest-neighbor search (Boldyreva and Tang, PoPETS 2021), but that work is designed for a small number of LSHs. Our main cryptographic tool is a zero-leakage disjunctive map designed for the setting when most clauses do not match any records. For the iris, on average at most 6% of LSHs match any stored value. To aid in evaluation, we produce a synthetic iris generation tool to evaluate sizes beyond available iris datasets. This generation tool is a simple generative adversarial network. Accurate statistics are crucial to optimizing the cryptographic primitives so this tool may be of independent interest. Our scheme is implemented and open-sourced. For the largest tested parameters of 5000 stored irises, search requires 26 rounds of communication and 26 minutes of single-threaded computation.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
Privacy-preserving Attestation for Virtualized Network Infrastructures
Ghada Arfaoui, Thibaut Jacques, Marc Lacoste, Cristina Onete, and Léo Robert
In multi-tenant cloud environments, physical resources are shared between various parties (called tenants) through the use of virtual machines (VMs). Tenants can verify the state of their VMs by means of deep-attestation: a process by which a (physical or virtual) Trusted Platform Module --TPM -- generates attestation quotes about the integrity state of the VMs. Unfortunately, most existing deep-attestation solutions are either: limited to single-tenant environments, in which tenant {privacy is irrelevant; are inefficient in terms of {linking VM attestations to hypervisor attestations; or provide privacy and/or linking, but at the cost of modifying the TPM hardware. In this paper, we propose a privacy preserving TPM-based deep-attestation solution in multi-tenant environments, which provably guarantees: (i) Inter-tenant privacy: a tenant is unaware of whether or not the physical machine hosting its VMs also contains other VMs (belonging to other tenants); (ii) Configuration privacy: the hypervisor's configuration, used in the attestation process, remains private with respect to the tenants requiring a hypervisor attestation; and (iii) Layer linking: our protocol enables tenants to link hypervisors with the VMs, thus obtaining a guarantee that their VMs are running on specific physical machines. Our solution relies on vector commitments and ZK-SNARKs. We build on the security model of Arfaoui et al. and provide both formalizations of the properties we require and proofs that our scheme does, in fact attain them. Our protocol is scalable, and our implementation results prove that it is viable, even for a large number of VMs hosted on a single platform.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
TLS → Post-Quantum TLS: Inspecting the TLS landscape for PQC adoption on Android
Dimitri Mankowski, Thom Wiggers, and Veelasha Moonsamy
The ubiquitous use of smartphones has contributed to more and more users conducting their online browsing activities through apps, rather than web browsers. In order to provide a seamless browsing experience to the users, apps rely on a variety of HTTP-based APIs and third-party libraries, and make use of the TLS protocol to secure the underlying communication. With NIST's recent announcement of the first standards for post-quantum algorithms, there is a need to better understand the constraints and requirements of TLS usage by Android apps in order to make an informed decision for migration to the post-quantum world. In this paper, we performed an analysis of TLS usage by highest-ranked apps from Google Play Store to assess the resulting overhead for adoption of post-quantum algorithms. Our results show that apps set up large numbers of TLS connections with a median of 94, often to the same hosts. At the same time, many apps make little use of resumption to reduce the overhead of the TLS handshake. This will greatly magnify the impact of the transition to post-quantum cryptography, and we make recommendations for developers, server operators and the mobile operating systems to invest in making more use of these mitigating features or improving their accessibility. Finally, we briefly discuss how alternative proposals for post-quantum TLS handshakes might reduce the overhead.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
On implemented graph based generator of cryptographically strong pseudorandom sequences of multivariate nature
Vasyl Ustimenko and Tymoteusz Chojecki
Classical Multivariate Cryptography (MP) is searching for special families of functions of kind ^nF=T_1FTT_2 on the vector space V= (F_q)^n where F is a quadratic or cubical polynomial map of the space to itself, T_1 and T^2 are affine transformations and T is the piece of information such that the knowledge of the triple T_1, T_2, T allows the computation of reimage x of given nF(x) in polynomial time O(n^ᾳ). Traditionally F is given by the list of coefficients C(^nF) of its monomial terms ordered lexicographically. We consider the Inverse Problem of MP of finding T_1, T_2, T for F given in its standard form. The solution of inverse problem is harder than finding the procedure to compute the reimage of ^nF in time O(n^ᾳ). For general quadratic or cubic maps nF this is NP hard problem. In the case of special family some arguments on its inclusion to class NP has to be given.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
VerifMSI: Practical Verification of Hardware and Software Masking Schemes Implementations
Quentin L. Meunier and Abdul Rahman Taleb
Side-Channel Attacks are powerful attacks which can recover secret information in a cryptographic device by analysing physical quantities such as power consumption. Masking is a common countermeasure to these attacks which can be applied in software and hardware, and consists in splitting the secrets in several parts. Masking schemes and their implementations are often not trivial, and require the use of automated tools to check for their correctness. In this work, we propose a new practical tool named VerifMSI which extends an existing verification tool called LeakageVerif targeting software schemes. Compared to LeakageVerif, VerifMSI includes hardware constructs, namely gates and registers, what allows to take glitch propagation into account. Moreover, it includes a new representation of the inputs, making it possible to verify three existing security properties (Non-Interference, Strong Non-Interference, Probe Isolating Non-Interference) as well as a newly defined one called Relaxed Non-Interference, compared to the unique Threshold Probing Security verified in LeakageVerif. Finally, optimisations have been integrated in VerifMSI in order to speed up the verification. We evaluate VerifMSI on a set of 9 benchmarks from the literature, focusing on the hardware descriptions, and show that it performs well both in terms of accuracy and scalability.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
Fast Exhaustive Search for Polynomial Systems over F3
Bo-Yin Yang, Wei-Jeng Wang, Shang-Yi Yang, Char-Shin Miou, and Chen-Mou Cheng
Solving multivariate polynomial systems over finite fields is an important problem in cryptography. For random F2 low-degree systems with equally many variables and equations, enumeration is more efficient than advanced solvers for all practical problem sizes. Whether there are others remained an open problem. We here study and propose an exhaustive-search algorithm for low degrees systems over F3 which is suitable for parallelization. We implemented it on Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and commodity CPUs. Its optimizations and differences from the F2 case are also analyzed. We can solve 30+ quadratic equations in 30 variables on an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 980 Ti in 14 minutes; a cubic system takes 36 minutes. This well outperforms existing solvers. Using these results, we compare Gröbner Bases vs. enumeration for polynomial systems over small fields as the sizes go up.
Last updated:  2023-05-24
The Problem of Half Round Key XOR
Anubhab Baksi
In the design of GIFT, half round key XOR is used. This leads to the undesired consequence that the security against the differential/linear attacks are overestimated. This comes from the observation that; in the usual DDT/LAT based analysis of the differential/linear attacks, the inherent assumption is the full round key is XORed at each round.
Last updated:  2023-05-21
Compact Lattice Gadget and Its Applications to Hash-and-Sign Signatures
Yang Yu, Huiwen Jia, and Xiaoyun Wang
Lattice gadgets and the associated algorithms are the essential building blocks of lattice-based cryptography. In the past decade, they have been applied to build versatile and powerful cryptosystems. However, the practical optimizations and designs of gadget-based schemes generally lag their theoretical constructions. For example, the gadget-based signatures have elegant design and capability of extending to more advanced primitives, but they are far less efficient than other lattice-based signatures. This work aims to improve the practicality of gadget-based cryptosystems, with a focus on hash-and-sign signatures. To this end, we develop a compact gadget framework in which the used gadget is a square matrix instead of the short and fat one used in previous constructions. To work with this compact gadget, we devise a specialized gadget sampler, called semi-random sampler, to compute the approximate preimage. It first deterministically computes the error and then randomly samples the preimage. We show that for uniformly random targets, the preimage and error distributions are simulatable without knowing the trapdoor. This ensures the security of the signature applications. Compared to the Gaussian-distributed errors in previous algorithms, the deterministic errors have a smaller size, which lead to a substantial gain in security and enables a practically working instantiation. As the applications, we present two practically efficient gadget-based signature schemes based on NTRU and Ring-LWE respectively. The NTRU-based scheme offers comparable efficiency to Falcon and Mitaka and a simple implementation without the need of generating the NTRU trapdoor. The LWE-based scheme also achieves a desirable overall performance. It not only greatly outperforms the state-of-the-art LWE-based hash-and-sign signatures, but also has an even smaller size than the LWE-based Fiat-Shamir signature scheme Dilithium. These results fill the long-term gap in practical gadget-based signatures.
Last updated:  2023-05-21
SoK: Distributed Randomness Beacons
Kevin Choi, Aathira Manoj, and Joseph Bonneau
Motivated and inspired by the emergence of blockchains, many new protocols have recently been proposed for generating publicly verifiable randomness in a distributed yet secure fashion. These protocols work under different setups and assumptions, use various cryptographic tools, and entail unique trade-offs and characteristics. In this paper, we systematize the design of distributed randomness beacons (DRBs) as well as the cryptographic building blocks they rely on. We evaluate protocols on two key security properties, unbiasability and unpredictability, and discuss common attack vectors for predicting or biasing the beacon output and the countermeasures employed by protocols. We also compare protocols by communication and computational efficiency. Finally, we provide insights on the applicability of different protocols in various deployment scenarios and highlight possible directions for further research.
Last updated:  2023-05-20
Safeguarding Physical Sneaker Sale Through a Decentralized Medium
Marwan Zeggari, Aydin Abadi, Renaud Lambiotte, and Mohamad Kassab
Sneakers were designated as the most counterfeited fashion item online, with three times more risk in a trade than any other fashion purchase. As the market expands, the current sneaker scene displays several vulnerabilities and trust flaws, mostly related to the legitimacy of assets or actors. In this paper, we investigate various blockchain-based mechanisms to address these large-scale trust issues. We argue that (i) pre-certified and tracked assets through the use of non-fungible tokens can ensure the genuine nature of an asset and authenticate its owner more effectively during peer-to-peer trading across a marketplace; (ii) a game-theoretic-based system with economic incentives for participating users can greatly reduce the rate of online fraud and address missed delivery deadlines; (iii) a decentralized dispute resolution system biased in favour of an honest party can solve potential conflicts more reliably.
Last updated:  2023-05-19
A Note on ``A Secure Anonymous D2D Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Protocol for IoT''
Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu
We show that the key agreement scheme [Internet of Things, 2022(18): 100493] is flawed. (1) It neglects the structure of an elliptic curve and presents some false computations. (2) The scheme is insecure against key compromise impersonation attack.
Last updated:  2023-05-19
On Perfect Linear Approximations and Differentials over Two-Round SPNs
Christof Beierle, Patrick Felke, Gregor Leander, Patrick Neumann, and Lukas Stennes
Recent constructions of (tweakable) block ciphers with an embedded cryptographic backdoor relied on the existence of probability-one differentials or perfect (non-)linear approximations over a reduced-round version of the primitive. In this work, we study how the existence of probability-one differentials or perfect linear approximations over two rounds of a substitution-permutation network can be avoided by design. More precisely, we develop criteria on the s-box and the linear layer that guarantee the absence of probability-one differentials for all keys. We further present an algorithm that allows to efficiently exclude the existence of keys for which there exists a perfect linear approximation.
Last updated:  2023-05-19
Not so Difficult in the End: Breaking the ASCADv2 Dataset
Lichao Wu, Guilherme Perin, and Stjepan Picek
The ASCADv2 dataset ranks among the most secure publicly available datasets today. Two layers of countermeasures protect it: affine masking and shuffling, and the current attack approaches rely on strong assumptions. Specifically, besides having access to the source code, an adversary also requires prior knowledge of random shares. This paper forgoes reliance on such knowledge and proposes two attack approaches based on the vulnerabilities of the affine mask implementation. As a result, the first attack can retrieve all secret keys' reliance in less than a minute. Although the second attack is not entirely successful in recovering all keys, we believe more traces would help make such an attack fully functional.
Last updated:  2023-05-19
Non-Interactive Commitment from Non-Transitive Group Actions
Giuseppe D'Alconzo, Andrea Flamini, and Andrea Gangemi
Group actions are becoming a viable option for post-quantum cryptography assumptions. Indeed, in recent years some works have shown how to construct primitives from assumptions based on isogenies of elliptic curves, such as CSIDH, on tensors or on code equivalence problems. This paper presents a bit commitment scheme, built on non-transitive group actions, which is shown to be secure in the standard model, under the decisional Group Action Inversion Problem. In particular, the commitment is computationally hiding and perfectly binding, and is obtained from a novel and general framework that exploits the properties of some orbit-invariant functions, together with group actions. Previous constructions depend on an interaction between the sender and the receiver in the commitment phase, which results in an interactive bit commitment. We instead propose the first non-interactive bit commitment based on group actions. Then we show that, when the sender is honest, the constructed commitment enjoys an additional feature, i.e., it is possible to tell whether two commitments were obtained from the same input, without revealing the input. We define the security properties that such a construction must satisfy, and we call this primitive linkable commitment. Finally, as an example, an instantiation of the scheme using tensors with coefficients in a finite field is provided. In this case, the invariant function is the computation of the rank of a tensor, and the cryptographic assumption is related to the Tensor Isomorphism problem.
Last updated:  2023-05-19
Composing Bridges
Mugurel Barcau, Vicentiu Pasol, and George C Turcas
The present work builds on previous investigations of the authors (and their collaborators) regarding bridges, a certain type of morphisms between encryption schemes, making a step forward in developing a (category theory) language for studying relations between encryption schemes. Here we analyse the conditions under which bridges can be performed sequentially, formalizing the notion of composability. One of our results gives a sufficient condition for a pair of bridges to be composable. We illustrate that composing two bridges, each independently satisfying a previously established IND-CPA security definition, can actually lead to an insecure bridge. Our main result gives a sufficient condition that a pair of secure composable bridges should satisfy in order for their composition to be a secure bridge. We also introduce the concept of a complete bridge and show that it is connected to the notion of Fully composable Homomorphic Encryption (FcHE), recently considered by Micciancio. Moreover, we show that a result of Micciancio which gives a construction of FcHE schemes can be phrased in the language of complete bridges, where his insights can be formalised in a greater generality.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
A Fast RLWE-Based IPFE Library and its Application to Privacy-Preserving Biometric Authentication
Supriya Adhikary and Angshuman Karmakar
With the increased use of data and communication through the internet and the abundant misuse of personal data by many organizations, people are more sensitive about their privacy. Privacy-preserving computation is becoming increasingly important in this era. Functional encryption allows a user to evaluate a function on encrypted data without revealing sensitive information. Most implementations of functional encryption schemes are too time-consuming for practical use. Mera et al. first proposed an inner product functional encryption scheme based on ring learning with errors to improve efficiency. In this work, we optimize the implementation of their work and propose a fast inner product functional encryption library. Specifically, we identify the main performance bottleneck, which is the number theoretic transformation based polynomial multiplication used in the scheme. We also identify the micro and macro level parallel components of the scheme and propose novel techniques to improve the efficiency using $\textit{open multi-processing}$ and $\textit{advanced vector extensions 2}$ vector processor. Compared to the original implementation, our optimization methods translate to $89.72\%$, $83.06\%$, $59.30\%$, and $53.80\%$ improvements in the $\textbf{Setup}$, $\textbf{Encrypt}$, $\textbf{KeyGen}$, and $\textbf{Decrypt}$ operations respectively, in the scheme for standard security level. Designing privacy-preserving applications using functional encryption is ongoing research. Therefore, as an additional contribution to this work, we design a privacy-preserving biometric authentication scheme using inner product functional encryption primitives.
Last updated:  2023-05-18
MUSES: Efficient Multi-User Searchable Encrypted Database
Tung Le, Rouzbeh Behnia, Jorge Guajardo, and Thang Hoang
Show abstract
Searchable encrypted systems enable privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted data. Symmetric Searchable Encryption (SSE) achieves high security (e.g., forward privacy) and efficiency (i.e., sublinear search), but it only supports single-user. Public Key Searchable Encryption (PEKS) supports multi-user settings, however, it suffers from inherent security limitations such as being vulnerable to keyword-guessing attacks and the lack of forward privacy. Recent work has combined SSE and PEKS to achieve the best of both worlds: support multi-user settings, provide forward privacy while having sublinear complexity. However, despite their elegant design, the existing hybrid scheme inherits some of the security limitations of the underlying paradigms (e.g., patterns leakage, keyword-guessing) and might not be suitable for certain applications due to costly public-key operations (e.g., bilinear pairing). In this paper, we propose MUSES, a new multi-user encrypted search scheme that addresses the limitations in the existing hybrid design, while offering user efficiency. Specifically, MUSES permits multi-user functionalities (reader/writer separation, permission revocation), prevents keyword-guessing attacks, protects search/result patterns, achieves forward/backward privacy, and features minimal user overhead. In MUSES, we demonstrate a unique incorporation of various state-of-the-art distributed cryptographic protocols including Distributed Point Function, Distributed PRF, and Secret-Shared Shuffle. We also introduce a new oblivious shuffle protocol for the general 𝐿-party setting with dishonest majority, which can be of independent interest. Our experimental results indicated that the keyword search in our scheme is two orders of magnitude faster with 13× lower user bandwidth overhead than the state-of-the-art.
Last updated:  2023-05-18
Lower Bounds for Lattice-based Compact Functional Encryption
Erkan Tairi and Akın Ünal
Functional encryption (FE) is a primitive where the holder of a master secret key can control which functions a user can evaluate on encrypted data. It is a powerful primitive that even implies indistinguishability obfuscation (iO), given sufficiently compact ciphertexts (Ananth-Jain, CRYPTO'15 and Bitansky-Vaikuntanathan, FOCS'15). However, despite being extensively studied, there are FE schemes, such as function-hiding inner-product FE (Bishop-Jain-Kowalczyk, AC'15, Abdalla-Catalano-Fiore-Gay-Ursu, CRYPTO’18) and compact quadratic FE (Baltico-Catalano-Fiore-Gay, Lin, CRYPTO’17), that can be only realized using pairings. This raises whether there are some mathematical barriers which hinder us from realizing these FE schemes from other assumptions. In this paper, we study the difficulty of constructing lattice-based compact FE. We generalize the impossibility results of Ünal (EC'20) for lattice-based function-hiding FE, and extend it to the case of compact FE. Concretely, we prove lower bounds for lattice-based compact FE schemes which meet some (natural) algebraic restrictions at encryption and decryption, and have messages and ciphertexts of constant dimensions. We see our results as important indications of why it is hard to construct lattice-based FE schemes for new functionalities, and which mathematical barriers have to be overcome.
Last updated:  2023-05-18
Zero-Knowledge Proofs from the Action Subgraph
Giacomo Borin, Edoardo Persichetti, and Paolo Santini
In this work, we describe a technique to amplify the soundness of zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge for cryptographic group actions.
Last updated:  2023-05-18
Generic Error SDP and Generic Error CVE
Felice Manganiello and Freeman Slaughter
This paper introduces a new family of CVE schemes built from generic errors (GE-CVE) and identifies a vulnerability therein. To introduce the problem, we generalize the concept of error sets beyond those defined by a metric, and use the set-theoretic difference operator to characterize when these error sets are detectable or correctable by codes. We prove the existence of a general, metric-less form of the Gilbert-Varshamov bound, and show that - like in the Hamming setting - a random code corrects a generic error set with overwhelming probability. We define the generic error SDP (GE-SDP), which is contained in the complexity class of NP-hard problems, and use its hardness to demonstrate the security of GE-CVE. We prove that these schemes are complete, sound, and zero-knowledge. Finally, we identify a vulnerability of the GE-SDP for codes defined over large extension fields and without a very high rate. We show that certain GE-CVE parameters suffer from this vulnerability, notably the restricted CVE scheme.
Last updated:  2023-05-18
Towards High-speed ASIC Implementations of Post-Quantum Cryptography
Malik Imran, Aikata Aikata, Sujoy Sinha Roy, and Samuel pagliarini
In this brief, we realize different architectural techniques towards improving the performance of post-quantum cryptography (PQC) algorithms when implemented as hardware accelerators on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) platform. Having SABER as a case study, we designed a 256-bit wide architecture geared for high-speed cryptographic applications that incorporates smaller and distributed SRAM memory blocks. Moreover, we have adapted the building blocks of SABER to process 256-bit words. We have also used a buffer technique for efficient polynomial coefficient multiplications to reduce the clock cycle count. Finally, double-sponge functions are combined serially (one after another) in a high-speed KECCAK core to improve the hash operations of SHA/SHAKE. For key-generation, encapsulation, and decapsulation operations of SABER, our 256-bit wide accelerator with a single sponge function is 1.71x, 1.45x, and 1.78x faster compared to the raw clock cycle count of a serialized SABER design. Similarly, our 256-bit implementation with double-sponge functions takes 1.08x, 1.07x & 1.06x fewer clock cycles compared to its single-sponge counterpart. The studied optimization techniques are not specific to SABER - they can be utilized for improving the performance of other lattice-based PQC accelerators.
Last updated:  2023-05-18
Research Philosophy of Modern Cryptography
Fuchun Guo, Willy Susilo, Xiaofeng Chen, Peng Jiang, Jianchang Lai, and Zhen Zhao
Proposing novel cryptography schemes (e.g., encryption, signatures, and protocols) is one of the main research goals in modern cryptography. In this paper, based on more than 800 research papers since 1976 that we have surveyed, we introduce the research philosophy of cryptography behind these papers. We use ``benefits" and ``novelty" as the keywords to introduce the research philosophy of proposing new schemes, assuming that there is already one scheme proposed for a cryptography notion. Next, we introduce how benefits were explored in the literature and we have categorized the methodology into 3 ways for benefits, 6 types of benefits, and 17 benefit areas. As examples, we introduce 40 research strategies within these benefit areas that were invented in the literature. The introduced research strategies have covered most cryptography schemes published in top-tier cryptography conferences.
Last updated:  2023-05-28
A Two-Party Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets in Practice
ChihYun Chuang, IHung Hsu, and TingFang Lee
The applications of Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet are rapidly growing in various areas such as cryptocurrency exchanges and hardware wallets. Improving privacy and security is more important than ever. In this study, we proposed a protocol that fully support a two-party computation of BIP32. Our protocol, similar to the distributed key generation, can generate each party’s secret share, the common chain-code, and the public key without revealing a seed and any descendant private keys. We also provided a simulation-based proof of our protocol assuming a rushing, static, and malicious adversary in the hybrid model. Our master key generation protocol produces up to total of two bit leakages from a honest party given the feature that the seeds will be re-selected after each execution. The proposed hardened child key derivation protocol leads up to a one bit leakage in the worst situation of simulation from a honest party and will be accumulated with each execution. Fortunately, in reality, this issue can be largely mitigated by adding some validation criteria of boolean circuits and masking the input shares before each execution. We then implemented the proposed protocol and ran in a single thread on a laptop which turned out with practically acceptable execution time. Lastly, the outputs of our protocol can be easily integrated with many threshold sign protocols.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
KAIME : Central Bank Digital Currency with Realistic and Modular Privacy
Ali Dogan and Kemal Bicakci
Recently, with the increasing interest in Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), many countries have been working on researching and developing digital currency. The most important reasons for this interest are that CBDC eliminates the disadvantages of traditional currencies and provides a safer, faster, and more efficient payment system. These benefits also come with challenges, such as safeguarding individuals’ privacy and ensuring regulatory mechanisms. While most researches address the privacy conflict between users and regulatory agencies, they miss an important detail. Important parts of a financial system are banks and financial institutions. Some studies ignore the need for privacy and include these institutions in the CBDC system, no system currently offers a solution to the privacy conflict between banks, financial institutions, and users. In this study, while we offer a solution to the privacy conflict between the user and the regulatory agencies, we also provide a solution to the privacy conflict between the user and the banks. Our solution, KAIME has also a modular structure. The privacy of the sender and receiver can be hidden if desired. Compared to previous related research, security analysis and implementation of KAIME is substantially simpler because simple and well-known cryptographic methods are used.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
Optimizing Attribute-based Encryption for Circuits using Compartmented Access Structures
Alexandru Ionita
Attribute-based encryption (ABE) is an asymmetric encryption method that allows expressive access granting mechanisms, with high applicability in modern IT infrastructure, such as Cloud or IoT systems. (Ezhilarasi et al., 2021; Touati and Challal, 2016) One open problem regarding ABE is using Boolean circuits as access structures. While Boolean Formulae were supported since the first ABE scheme proposed, there is still no efficient construction that supports Boolean circuits. We propose a new ABE scheme for a new access structure type, situated between Boolean formulae and Boolean circuits in terms of expressiveness. This key point in our construction is the usage of CAS-nodes, a structure modeling compartmented groups access structures. We also show that our CAS-nodes can be used to improve the efficiency of existing ABE schemes for Boolean circuits. Our construction is secure in the Selective Set Model under the bilinear Decisional Diffie-Hellman Assumption.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
On the Quantum Security of HAWK
Serge Fehr and Yu-Hsuan Huang
In this paper, we prove the quantum security of the signature scheme HAWK, proposed by Ducas, Postlethwaite, Pulles and van Woerden (ASIACRYPT 2022). More precisely, we reduce its strong unforgeability in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) to the hardness of the one-more SVP problem, which is the computational problem on which also the classical security analysis of HAWK relies. Our security proof deals with the quantum aspects in a rather black-box way, making it accessible also to non-quantum-experts.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
PriFHEte: Achieving Full-Privacy in Account-based Cryptocurrencies is Possible
Varun Madathil and Alessandra Scafuro
In cryptocurrencies, all transactions are public. For their adoption, it is important that these transactions, while publicly verifiable, do not leak information about the identity and the balances of the transactors. For UTXO-based cryptocurrencies, there are well-established approaches (e.g., ZCash) that guarantee full privacy to the transactors. Full privacy in UTXO means that each transaction is anonymous within the set of all private transactions ever posted on the blockchain. In contrast, for account-based cryptocurrencies (e.g., Ethereum) full privacy, that is, privacy within the set of all accounts, seems to be impossible to achieve within the constraints of blockchain transactions (e.g., they have to fit in a block). Indeed, every approach proposed in the literature achieves only a much weaker privacy guarantee called $k-$anonymity where a transactor is private within a set of $k$ account holders. $k-$anonymity is achieved by adding $k$ accounts to the transaction, which concretely limits the anonymity guarantee to a very small constant (e.g., $~$64 for QuisQuis and $~$256 for anonymous Zether), compared to the set of all possible accounts. In this paper, we propose a completely new approach that does not achieve anonymity by including more accounts in the transaction, but instead makes the transaction itself ``smarter''. Our key contribution is to provide a mechanism whereby a compact transaction can be used to correctly update all accounts. Intuitively, this guarantees that all accounts are equally likely to be the recipients/sender of such a transaction. We, therefore, provide the first protocol that guarantees full privacy in account-based cryptocurrencies PriFHEte The contribution of this paper is theoretical. Our main objective is to demonstrate that achieving full privacy in account-based cryptocurrency is actually possible. We see our work as opening the door to new possibilities for anonymous account-based cryptocurrencies. Nonetheless, in this paper, we also discuss PriFHEte's potential to be developed in practice by leveraging the power of off-chain scalability solutions such as zk rollups.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
Migrating Applications to Post-Quantum Cryptography: Beyond Algorithm Replacement
Alexandre Augusto Giron
Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) defines cryptographic algorithms designed to resist the advent of the quantum computer. Most public-key cryptosystems today are vulnerable to quantum attackers, so a global-scale transition to PQC is expected. As a result, several entities foment efforts in PQC standardization, research, development, creation of Work Groups (WGs), and issuing adoption recommendations. However, there is a long road to broad PQC adoption in practice. This position paper describes why migrating to PQC is necessary and gathers evidence that the ``hybrid mode'' can help the migration process. Finally, it stresses that there are risks yet to be considered by the literature. Quantum-safe protocols are being evaluated, but more attention (and awareness) is needed for the software and protocols at the application layer. Lastly, this position paper gives further recommendations for a smother PQC migration.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
Kyber terminates
Manuel Barbosa and Peter Schwabe
The key generation of the lattice-based key-encapsulation mechanism CRYSTALS-Kyber (or short, just Kyber) involves a rejection-sampling routine to produce coefficients modulo $q=3329$ that look uniformly random. The input to this rejection sampling is output of the SHAKE-128 extendable output function (XOF). If this XOF is modelled as a random oracle with infinite output length, it is easy to see that Kyber terminates with probability 1; also, in this model, for any upper bound on the running time, the probability of termination is strictly smaller than 1. In this short note we show that an (unconditional) upper bound for the running time for Kyber exists. Computing a tight upper bound, however, is (likely to be) infeasible. We remark that the result has no real practical value, except that it may be useful for computer-assisted reasoning about Kyber using tools that require a simple proof of termination.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
Concurrent Security of Anonymous Credentials Light, Revisited
Julia Kastner, Julian Loss, and Omar Renawi
We revisit the concurrent security guarantees of the well-known Anonymous Credentials Light (ACL) scheme (Baldimtsi and Lysyanskaya, CCS'13). This scheme was originally proven secure when executed sequentially, and its concurrent security was left as an open problem. A later work of Benhamouda et al. (EUROCRYPT'21) gave an efficient attack on ACL when executed concurrently, seemingly resolving this question once and for all. In this work, we point out a subtle flaw in the attack of Benhamouda et al. on ACL and show, in spite of popular opinion, that it can be proven concurrently secure. Our modular proof in the algebraic group model uses an ID scheme as an intermediate step and leads to a major simplification of the complex security argument for Abe's Blind Signature scheme by Kastner et al. (PKC'22).
Last updated:  2023-05-17
Two-Message Authenticated Key Exchange from Public-Key Encryption
You Lyu and Shengli Liu
In two-message authenticated key exchange (AKE), it is necessary for the initiator to keep a round state after sending the first round-message, because he/she has to derive his/her session key after receiving the second round-message. Up to now almost all two-message AKEs constructed from public-key encryption (PKE) only achieve weak security which does not allow the adversary obtaining the round state. How to support state reveal to obtain a better security called IND-AA security has been an open problem proposed by Hövelmann et al. (PKC 2020). In this paper, we solve the open problem with a generic construction of two-message AKE from any CCA-secure Tagged Key Encapsulation Mechanism (TKEM). Our AKE supports state reveal and achieves IND-AA security. Given the fact that CCA-secure public-key encryption (PKE) implies CCA-secure TKEM, our AKE can be constructed from any CCA-secure PKE with proper message space. The abundant choices for CCA-secure PKE schemes lead to many IND-AA secure AKE schemes in the standard model. Moreover, following the online-extractability technique in recent work by Don et al. (Eurocrypt 2022), we can extend the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation to transform any CPA-secure PKE into a CCA-secure Tagged KEM in the QROM model. Therefore, we obtain the first generic construction of IND-AA secure two-message AKE from CPA-secure PKE in the QROM model. This construction does not need any signature scheme, and this result is especially helpful in the post-quantum world, since the current quantum-secure PKE schemes are much more efficient than their signature counterparts.
Last updated:  2023-05-26
Deniable Cryptosystems: Simpler Constructions and Achieving Leakage Resilience
Zhiyuan An, Haibo Tian, Chao Chen, and Fangguo Zhang
Deniable encryption (Canetti et al. CRYPTO ’97) is an intriguing primitive, which provides security guarantee against coercion by allowing a sender to convincingly open the ciphertext into a fake message. Despite the notable result by Sahai and Waters STOC ’14 and other efforts in functionality extension, all the deniable public key encryption (DPKE) schemes suffer from intolerable overhead due to the heavy building blocks, e.g., translucent sets or indistinguishability obfuscation. Besides, none of them considers the possible damage from leakage in the real world, obstructing these protocols from practical use. To fill the gap, in this work we first present a simple and generic approach of sender-DPKE from ciphertext-simulatable encryption, which can be instantiated with nearly all the common PKE schemes. The core of this design is a newly-designed framework for flipping a bit-string that offers inverse polynomial distinguishability. Then we theoretically expound and experimentally show how classic side-channel attacks (timing or simple power attacks), can help the coercer to break deniability, along with feasible countermeasures.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
Asymmetric Multi-Party Computation
Vipul Goyal, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, and Rafail Ostrovsky
Current protocols for Multi-Party Computation (MPC) consider the setting where all parties have access to similar resources. For example, all parties have access to channels bounded by the same worst-case delay upper bound $\Delta$, and all channels have the same cost of communication. As a consequence, the overall protocol performance (resp. the communication cost) may be heavily affected by the slowest (resp. the most expensive) channel, even when most channels are fast (resp. cheap). Given the state of affairs, we initiate a systematic study of 'asymmetric' MPC. In asymmetric MPC, the parties are divided into two categories: fast and slow parties, depending on whether they have access to high-end or low-end resources. We investigate two different models. In the first, we consider asymmetric communication delays: Fast parties are connected via channels with small delay $\delta$ among themselves, while channels connected to (at least) one slow party have a large delay $\Delta \gg \delta$. In the second model, we consider asymmetric communication costs: Fast parties benefit from channels with cheap communication, while channels connected to a slow party have an expensive communication. We provide a wide range of positive and negative results exploring the trade-offs between the achievable number of tolerated corruptions $t$ and slow parties $s$, versus the round complexity and communication cost in each of the models. Among others, we achieve the following results. In the model with asymmetric communication delays, focusing on the information-theoretic (i-t) setting: - An i-t asymmetric MPC protocol with security with abort as long as $t+s < n$ and $t<n/2$, in a constant number of slow rounds. - We show that achieving an i-t asymmetric MPC protocol for $t+s = n$ and with number of slow rounds independent of the circuit size implies an i-t synchronous MPC protocol with round complexity independent of the circuit size, which is a major problem in the field of round-complexity of MPC. - We identify a new primitive, \emph{asymmetric broadcast}, that allows to consistently distribute a value among the fast parties, and at a later time the same value to slow parties. We completely characterize the feasibility of asymmetric broadcast by showing that it is possible if and only if $2t + s < n$. - An i-t asymmetric MPC protocol with guaranteed output delivery as long as $t+s < n$ and $t<n/2$, in a number of slow rounds independent of the circuit size. In the model with asymmetric communication cost, we achieve an asymmetric MPC protocol for security with abort for $t+s<n$ and $t<n/2$, based on one-way functions (OWF). The protocol communicates a number of bits over expensive channels that is independent of the circuit size. We conjecture that assuming OWF is needed and further provide a partial result in this direction.
Last updated:  2023-05-17
BQP $\neq$ QMA
Ping Wang and Yiting Su
The relationship between complexity classes BQP and QMA is analogous to the relationship between P and NP. In this paper, we design a quantum bit commitment problem that is in QMA, but not in BQP. Therefore, it is proved that BQP $\neq$ QMA. That is, problems that are verifiable in quantum polynomial time are not necessarily solvable in quantum polynomial time, the quantum analog of P $\neq$ NP.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
Building Unclonable Cryptography: A Tale of Two No-cloning Paradigms
Ghada Almashaqbeh and Rohit Chatterjee
Unclonable cryptography builds primitives that enjoy some form of unclonability, such as quantum money, software copy protection, and bounded execution programs. These are impossible in the classical model as classical data is inherently clonable. Quantum computing, with its no-cloning principle, offers a solution. However, it is not enough to realize bounded execution programs; these require one-time memory devices that self-destruct after a single data retrieval query. Very recently, a new no-cloning technology has been introduced [Eurocrypt'22], showing that unclonable polymers---proteins---can be used to build bounded-query memory devices and unclonable cryptographic applications. In this paper, we investigate the relation between these two technologies; whether one can replace the other, or complement each other such that combining them brings the best of both worlds. Towards this goal, we review the quantum and unclonable polymer models, and existing unclonable cryptographic primitives. Then, we discuss whether these primitives can be built using the other technology, and show alternative constructions and notions when possible. We also offer insights and remarks for the road ahead. We believe that this study will contribute in advancing the field of unclonable cryptography on two fronts: developing new primitives, and realizing existing ones using new constructions.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
Differential Privacy for Free? Harnessing the Noise in Approximate Homomorphic Encryption
Tabitha Ogilvie
Homomorphic Encryption (HE) is a type of cryptography that allows computing on encrypted data, enabling computation on sensitive data to be outsourced securely. Many popular HE schemes rely on noise for their security. On the other hand, Differential Privacy seeks to guarantee the privacy of data subjects by obscuring any one individual's contribution to an output. Many mechanisms for achieving Differential Privacy involve adding appropriate noise. In this work, we investigate the extent to which the noise native to Homomorphic Encryption can provide Differential Privacy "for free". We identify the dependence of HE noise on the underlying data as a critical barrier to privacy, and derive new results on the Differential Privacy under this constraint. We apply these ideas to a proof of concept HE application, ridge regression training using gradient descent, and are able to achieve privacy budgets of $\varepsilon \approx 2$ after 50 iterations.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
PIE: $p$-adic Encoding for High-Precision Arithmetic in Homomorphic Encryption
Luke Harmon, Gaetan Delavignette, Arnab Roy, and David Silva
A large part of current research in homomorphic encryption (HE) aims towards making HE practical for real-world applications. In any practical HE, an important issue is to convert the application data (type) to the data type suitable for the HE. The main purpose of this work is to investigate an efficient HE-compatible encoding method that is generic, and can be easily adapted to apply to the HE schemes over integers or polynomials. $p$-adic number theory provides a way to transform rationals to integers, which makes it a natural candidate for encoding rationals. Although one may use naive number-theoretic techniques to perform rational-to-integer transformations without reference to $p$-adic numbers, we contend that the theory of $p$-adic numbers is the proper lens to view such transformations. In this work we identify mathematical techniques (supported by $p$-adic number theory) as appropriate tools to construct a generic rational encoder which is compatible with HE. Based on these techniques, we propose a new encoding scheme PIE, that can be easily combined with both AGCD-based and RLWE-based HE to perform high precision arithmetic. After presenting an abstract version of PIE, we show how it can be attached to two well-known HE schemes: the AGCD-based IDGHV scheme and the RLWE-based (modified) Fan-Vercauteren scheme. We also discuss the advantages of our encoding scheme in comparison with previous works.
Last updated:  2023-05-31
Lattice-based, more general anti-leakage model and its application in decentralization
Xiaokang Dai, Jingwei Chen, Wenyuan Wu, and Yong Feng
In the case of standard \LWE samples $(\mathbf{A},\mathbf{b = sA + e})$, $\mathbf{A}$ is typically uniformly over $\mathbb{Z}_q^{n \times m}$, and under the \LWE assumption, the conditional distribution of $\mathbf{s}$ given $\mathbf{b}$ and $\mathbf{s}$ should be consistent. However, if an adversary chooses $\mathbf{A}$ adaptively, the gap between the two may be larger. In this work, we are mainly interested in quantifying $\tilde{H}_\infty(\mathbf{s}|\mathbf{sA + e})$, while $\mathbf{A}$ an adversary chooses. Brakerski and D\"{o}ttling answered the question in one case: they proved that when $\mathbf{s}$ is uniformly chosen from $\mathbb{Z}_q^n$, it holds that $\tilde{H}_\infty(\mathbf{s}|\mathbf{sA + e}) \varpropto \rho_\sigma(\Lambda_q(\mathbf{A}))$. We prove that for any $d \leq q$, $\mathbf{s}$ is uniformly chosen from $\mathbb{Z}_d^n$ or is sampled from a discrete Gaussian, the above result still holds. In addition, as an independent result, we have also proved the regularity of the hash function mapped to the prime-order group and its Cartesian product. As an application of the above results, we improved the multi-key fully homomorphic encryption\cite{TCC:BraHalPol17} and answered the question raised at the end of their work positively: we have GSW-type ciphertext rather than Dual-GSW, and the improved scheme has shorter keys and ciphertexts
Last updated:  2023-05-16
A public-key based secure quantum-communication protocol using entangled qubits
S Murugesh
We propose a quantum algorithm that crucially involves the receiver's public-key to establish secure communication of an intended message string, using shared entangled-qubits. The public-key in question is a random bit string that proclaims the sequence of measurement basis used by the receiver. As opposed to known quantum key distribution protocols, wherein a random key string is generated at the end of the communication cycle, here the sender's intended bit string itself is communicated across securely. The quantum outlay for the proposed protocol is limited to the sender and receiver sharing pairs of entangled qubits, prepared in 𝘢 𝘱𝘳𝘪𝘰𝘳𝘪 known states, besides unitary manipulations and measurements that the sender and receiver individually perform on their respective qubits, within their confines.
Last updated:  2023-05-22
NFT Trades in Bitcoin with Off-chain Receipts
Mehmet Sabir Kiraz, Enrique Larraia, and Owen Vaughan
Abstract. Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) are digital representations of assets stored on a blockchain. It allows content creators to certify authenticity of their digital assets and transfer ownership in a transparent and decentralized way. Popular choices of NFT marketplaces infrastructure include blockchains with smart contract functionality or layer-2 solutions. Surprisingly, researchers have largely avoided building NFT schemes over Bitcoin-like blockchains, most likely due to high transaction fees in the BTC network and the belief that Bitcoin lacks enough programmability to implement fair exchanges. In this work we fill this gap. We propose an NFT scheme where trades are settled in a single Bitcoin transaction as opposed to executing complex smart contracts. We use zero-knowledge proofs (concretely, recursive SNARKs) to prove that two Bitcoin transactions, the issuance transaction $tx_0$ and the current trade transaction $tx_n$, are linked through a unique chain of transactions. Indeed, these proofs function as “off-chain receipts” of ownership that can be transferred from the current owner to the new owner using an insecure channel. The size of the proof receipt is short, independent of the total current number of trades $n$, and can be updated incrementally by anyone at anytime. Marketplaces typically require some degree of token ownership delegation, e.g., escrow accounts, to execute the trade between sellers and buyers that are not online concurrently, and to alleviate transaction fees they resort to off-chain trades. This raises concerns on the transparency and purportedly honest behaviour of marketplaces. We achieve fair and non-custodial trades by leveraging our off-chain receipts and letting the involved parties carefully sign the trade transaction with appropriate combinations of sighash flags.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
Universal Hashing Based on Field Multiplication and (Near-)MDS Matrices
Koustabh Ghosh, Jonathan Fuchs, Parisa Amiri Eliasi, and Joan Daemen
In this paper we propose a new construction for building universal hash functions, a specific instance called multi-265, and provide proofs for their universality. Our construction follows the key-then-hash parallel paradigm. In a first step it adds a variable length input message to a secret key and splits the result in blocks. Then it applies a fixed-length public function to each block and adds their results to form the output. The innovation presented in this work lies in the public function: we introduce the multiply-transform-multiply-construction that makes use of field multiplication and linear transformations. We prove upper bounds for the universality of key-then-hash parallel hash functions making use of a public function with our construction provided the linear transformation are maximum-distance-separable (MDS). We additionally propose a concrete instantiation of our construction multi-265, where the underlying public function uses a near-MDS linear transformation and prove it to be $2^{-154}$-universal. We also make the reference code for multi-265 available.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge from Non-Interactive Batch Arguments
Jeffrey Champion and David J. Wu
Zero-knowledge and succinctness are two important properties that arise in the study of non-interactive arguments. Previously, Kitagawa et al. (TCC 2020) showed how to obtain a non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) argument for NP from a succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for NP. In particular, their work demonstrates how to leverage the succinctness property from an argument system and transform it into a zero-knowledge property. In this work, we study a similar question of leveraging succinctness for zero-knowledge. Our starting point is a batch argument for NP, a primitive that allows a prover to convince a verifier of $T$ NP statements $x_1, \ldots, x_T$ with a proof whose size scales sublinearly with $T$. Unlike SNARGs for NP, batch arguments for NP can be built from group-based assumptions in both pairing and pairing-free groups and from lattice-based assumptions. The challenge with batch arguments is that the proof size is only amortized over the number of instances, but can still encode full information about the witness to a small number of instances. We show how to combine a batch argument for NP with a local pseudorandom generator (i.e., a pseudorandom generator where each output bit only depends on a small number of input bits) and a dual-mode commitment scheme to obtain a NIZK for NP. Our work provides a new generic approach of realizing zero-knowledge from succinctness and highlights a new connection between succinctness and zero-knowledge.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
VeriVoting: A decentralized, verifiable and privacy-preserving scheme for weighted voting
Xiaohan Yue
Decentralization, verifiability, and privacy-preserving are three fundamental properties of modern e-voting. In this paper, we conduct extensive investigations into them and present a novel e-voting scheme, VeriVoting, which is the first to satisfy these properties. More specifically, decentralization is realized through blockchain technology and the distribution of decryption power among competing entities, such as candidates. Furthermore, verifiability is satisfied when the public verifies the ballots and decryption keys. And finally, bidirectional unlinkability is achieved to help preserve privacy by decoupling voter identity from ballot content. Following the ideas above, we first leverage linear homomorphic encryption schemes and non-interactive zero-knowledge argument systems to construct a voting primitive, SemiVoting, which meets decentralization, decryption-key verifiability, and ballot privacy. To further achieve ballot ciphertext verifiability and anonymity, we extend this primitive with blockchain and verifiable computation to finally arrive at VeriVoting. Through security analysis and per-formance evaluations, VeriVoting offers a new trade-off between security and efficiency that differs from all previous e-voting schemes and provides a radically novel practical ap-proach to large-scale elections.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
LeakyOhm: Secret Bits Extraction using Impedance Analysis
Saleh Khalaj Monfared, Tahoura Mosavirik, and Shahin Tajik
The threat of physical side-channel attacks and their countermeasures is a widely researched field. Most physical side-channel attacks rely on the unavoidable influence of computation or storage on voltage or current fluctuations. Such data-dependent influence can be exploited by, for instance, power or electromagnetic analysis. In this work, we introduce a novel non-invasive physical side-channel attack, which exploits the data-dependent changes in the impedance of the chip. Our attack relies on the fact that the temporarily stored contents in registers alter the physical characteristics of the circuit, which results in changes in the die's impedance. To sense such impedance variations, we deploy a well-known RF/microwave method called scattering parameter analysis, in which we inject sine wave signals with high frequencies into the system's power distribution network (PDN) and measure the echo of the signals. We demonstrate that according to the content bits and physical location of a register, the reflected signal is modulated differently at various frequency points enabling the simultaneous and independent probing of individual registers. Such side-channel leakage violates the $t$-probing security model assumption used in masking, which is a prominent side-channel countermeasure. To validate our claims, we mount non-profiled and profiled impedance analysis attacks on hardware implementations of unprotected and high-order masked AES. We show that in the case of profiled attack, only a single trace is required to recover the secret key. Finally, we discuss how a specific class of hiding countermeasures might be effective against impedance leakage.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
On the Invalidity of LV16/Lin17 Obfuscation Schemes
Yupu Hu, Dong Siyue, Wang Baocang, and Dong Xingting
Indistinguishability obfuscation (IO) is at the frontier of cryptography research for several years. LV16/Lin17 obfuscation schemes are famous progresses towards simplifying obfuscation mechanism. In fact, these two schemes only constructed two compact functional encryption (CFE) algorithms, while other things were taken to AJ15 IO frame or BV15 IO frame. That is, CFE algorithms are inserted into AJ15 IO frame or BV15 IO frame to form a complete IO scheme. The basic structure of two CFE algorithms can be described in the following way. The polynomial-time-computable Boolean function is transformed into a group of low-degree low-locality component functions by using randomized encoding, while some public combination of values of component functions is the value of original Boolean function. The encryptor uses constant-degree multilinear maps (rather than polynomial-degree multilinear maps) to encrypt independent variables of component functions. The decryptor uses zero-testing tool of multilinear maps to obtain values of component functions (rather than to obtain values of independent variables), and then uses public combination to obtain the value of original Boolean function. In this paper we restrict IO to be a real white box (RWB). Under such restriction we point out that LV16/Lin17 CFE algorithms being inserted into AJ15 IO frame are invalid. More detailedly, such insertion makes the adversary gradually learn the shape of the function, therefore the scheme is not secure. In other words, such scheme is not a real IO scheme, but rather a garbling scheme. It needs to be said that RWB restriction is reasonable, which means the essential contribution of IO for cryptography research.
Last updated:  2023-05-16
Weak Fiat-Shamir Attacks on Modern Proof Systems
Quang Dao, Jim Miller, Opal Wright, and Paul Grubbs
A flurry of excitement amongst researchers and practitioners has produced modern proof systems built using novel technical ideas and seeing rapid deployment, especially in cryptocurrencies. Most of these modern proof systems use the Fiat-Shamir (F-S) transformation, a seminal method of removing interaction from a protocol with a public-coin verifier. Some prior work has shown that incorrectly applying F-S (i.e., using the so-called "weak" F-S transformation) can lead to breaks of classic protocols like Schnorr's discrete log proof; however, little is known about the risks of applying F-S incorrectly for modern proof systems seeing deployment today. In this paper, we fill this knowledge gap via a broad theoretical and practical study of F-S in implementations of modern proof systems. We perform a survey of open-source implementations and find 36 weak F-S implementations affecting 12 different proof systems. For four of these---Bulletproofs, Plonk, Spartan, and Wesolowski's VDF---we develop novel knowledge soundness attacks accompanied by rigorous proofs of their efficacy. We perform case studies of applications that use vulnerable implementations, and demonstrate that a weak F-S vulnerability could have led to the creation of unlimited currency in a private blockchain protocol. Finally, we discuss possible mitigations and takeaways for academics and practitioners.
Last updated:  2023-05-15
Invertible Quadratic Non-Linear Functions over $\mathbb F_p^n$ via Multiple Local Maps
Ginevra Giordani, Lorenzo Grassi, Silvia Onofri, and Marco Pedicini
The construction of invertible non-linear layers over $\mathbb F_p^n$ that minimize the multiplicative cost is crucial for the design of symmetric primitives targeting Multi Party Computation (MPC), Zero-Knowledge proofs (ZK), and Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE). At the current state of the art, only few non-linear functions are known to be invertible over $\mathbb F_p$, as the power maps $x\mapsto x^d$ for $\gcd(d,p-1)=1$. When working over $\mathbb F_p^n$ for $n\ge2$, a possible way to construct invertible non-linear layers $\mathcal S$ over $\mathbb F_p^n$ is by making use of a local map $F:\mathbb F_p^m\rightarrow \mathbb F_p$ for $m\le n$, that is, $\mathcal S_F(x_0, x_1, \ldots, x_{n-1}) = y_0\|y_1\|\ldots \|y_{n-1}$ where $y_i = F(x_i, x_{i+1}, \ldots, x_{i+m-1})$. This possibility has been recently studied by Grassi, Onofri, Pedicini and Sozzi at FSE/ToSC 2022. Given a quadratic local map $F:\mathbb F_p^m \rightarrow \mathbb F_p$ for $m\in\{1,2,3\}$, they proved that the shift-invariant non-linear function $\mathcal S_F$ over $\mathbb F_p^n$ defined as before is never invertible for any $n\ge 2\cdot m-1$. In this paper, we face the problem by generalizing such construction. Instead of a single local map, we admit multiple local maps, and we study the creation of nonlinear layers that can be efficiently verified and implemented by a similar shift-invariant lifting. After formally defining the construction, we focus our analysis on the case $\mathcal S_{F_0, F_1}(x_0, x_1, \ldots, x_{n-1}) = y_0\|y_1\|\ldots \|y_{n-1}$ for $F_0, F_1 :\mathbb F_p^2\rightarrow \mathbb F_p$ of degree at most 2. This is a generalization of the previous construction using two alternating functions $F_0,F_1$ instead of a single $F$. As main result, we prove that (i) if $n\ge3$, then $\mathcal S_{F_0, F_1}$ is never invertible if both $F_0$ and $F_1$ are quadratic, and that (ii) if $n\ge 4$, then $\mathcal S_{F_0, F_1}$ is invertible if and only if it is a Type-II Feistel scheme.
Last updated:  2023-05-15
Abraxas: Throughput-Efficient Hybrid Asynchronous Consensus
Erica Blum, Jonathan Katz, Julian Loss, Kartik Nayak, and Simon Ochsenreither
Protocols for state-machine replication (SMR) often trade off performance for resilience to network delay. In particular, protocols for asynchronous SMR tolerate arbitrary network delay but sacrifice throughput/latency when the network is fast, while partially synchronous protocols have good performance in a fast network but fail to make progress if the network experiences high delay. Existing hybrid protocols are resilient to arbitrary network delay and have good performance when the network is fast, but suffer from high overhead (``thrashing'') if the network repeatedly switches between being fast and slow (e.g., in a network that is typically fast but has intermittent message delays). We propose Abraxas, a generic approach for constructing a hybrid protocol based on any protocol $\Pi_\mathsf{fast}$ and any asynchronous protocol $\Pi_\mathsf{slow}$ to achieve (1)~security and performance equivalent to $\Pi_\mathsf{slow}$ under arbitrary network behavior; (2)~performance equivalent to $\Pi_\mathsf{fast}$ when conditions are favorable. We instantiate Abraxas with the best existing protocols for $\Pi_\mathsf{fast}$ (Jolteon) and $\Pi_\mathsf{slow}$ (2-chain VABA), and show experimentally that the resulting protocol significantly outperforms Ditto, the previous state-of-the-art hybrid protocol.
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