All papers (20761 results)

Last updated:  2023-09-24
Cascade: Leaderless State-Machine Replication with High Throughput
Hao Lu, Jian Liu, and Kui Ren
State-machine replication (SMR) allows a state machine to be replicated across a set of replicas and handle clients' requests as a single machine. Most existing SMR protocols are leader-based, i.e., requiring a leader to order requests and coordinate the protocol. This design places a disproportionately high load on the leader, inevitably impairing the scalability. If the leader fails, a complex and bug-prone fail-over protocol is needed to switch to a new leader. An adversary can also exploit the fail-over protocol to slow down the protocol. In this paper, we propose a crash-fault tolerant SMR named Cascade, with the following properties: • Leaderless: it does not require a leader, hence completely get rid of the fail-over protocol. • Scalable: it can scale to a large number of replicas. %its throughput increases with the number of replicas. • Robust: it behaves well even under a poor network connection. We provide a full-fledged implementation of Cascade and systematically evaluate its performance. Our benchmark results show that Cascade achieves a peak throughput of around two million TPS, up to 8.7$\times$ higher than the state-of-the-art leaderless SMR.
Last updated:  2023-09-25
High-precision RNS-CKKS on fixed but smaller word-size architectures: theory and application
Rashmi Agrawal, Jung Ho Ahn, Flavio Bergamaschi, Ro Cammarota, Jung Hee Cheon, Fillipe D. M. de Souza, Huijing Gong, Minsik Kang, Duhyeong Kim, Jongmin Kim, Hubert de Lassus, Jai Hyun Park, Michael Steiner, and Wen Wang
A prevalent issue in the residue number system (RNS) variant of the Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (CKKS) homomorphic encryption (HE) scheme is the challenge of efficiently achieving high precision on hardware architectures with a fixed, yet smaller, word-size of bit-length $W$, especially when the scaling factor satisfies $\log\Delta > W$. In this work, we introduce an efficient solution termed composite scaling. In this approach, we group multiple RNS primes as $q_\ell:= \prod_{j=0}^{t-1} q_{\ell,j}$ such that $\log q_{\ell,j} < W$ for $0\le j < t$, and use each composite $q_\ell$ in the rescaling procedure as $\mathsf{ct}\mapsto \lfloor \mathsf{ct} / q_\ell\rceil$. Here, the number of primes, denoted by $t$, is termed the composition degree. This strategy contrasts the traditional rescaling method in RNS-CKKS, where each $q_\ell$ is chosen as a single $\log\Delta$-bit prime, a method we designate as single scaling. To achieve higher precision in single scaling, where $\log\Delta > W$, one would either need a novel hardware architecture with word size $W' > \log\Delta$ or would have to resort to relatively inefficient solutions rooted in multi-precision arithmetic. This problem, however, doesn't arise in composite scaling. In the composite scaling approach, the larger the composition degree $t$, the greater the precision attainable with RNS-CKKS across an extensive range of secure parameters tailored for workload deployment. We have integrated composite scaling RNS-CKKS into both OpenFHE and Lattigo libraries. This integration was achieved via a concrete implementation of the method and its application to the most up-to-date workloads, specifically, logistic regression training and convolutional neural network inference. Our experiments demonstrate that single and composite scaling approaches are functionally equivalent, both theoretically and practically.
Last updated:  2023-09-24
Do Private Transaction Pools Mitigate Frontrunning Risk?
Agostino Capponi, Ruizhe Jia, and Ye Wang
Blockchain users who submit transactions through private pools are guaranteed pre-trade privacy but face execution risk. We argue that private pools serve the intended purpose of eliminating frontrunning risk, only if such risk is high. Otherwise, some validators may decide to avoid monitoring private pools to preserve rents extracted from frontrunning bots. Private pools intensify the execution arms race for bots, thus decreasing their payoffs {and increasing validators' rents}. The private pool option reduces blockspace allocative inefficiencies and raises aggregate welfare.
Last updated:  2023-09-23
Rigorous Foundations for Dual Attacks in Coding Theory
Charles Meyer-Hilfiger and Jean-Pierre Tillich
Dual attacks aiming at decoding generic linear codes have been found recently to outperform for certain parameters information set decoding techniques which have been for $60$ years the dominant tool for solving this problem and choosing the parameters of code-based cryptosystems. However, the analysis of the complexity of these dual attacks relies on some unproven assumptions that are not even fully backed up with experimental evidence. These dual attacks can actually be viewed as the code-based analogue of dual attacks in lattice based cryptography. Here too, dual attacks have been found out those past years to be strong competitors to primal attacks and a controversy has emerged whether similar heuristics made for instance on the independence of certain random variables really hold. We will show that the dual attacks in coding theory can be studied by providing in a first step a simple alternative expression of the fundamental quantity used in these dual attacks. We then show that this expression can be studied without relying on independence assumptions whatsoever. This study leads us to discover that there is indeed a problem with the latest and most powerful dual attack introduced in the recent Asiacrypt 2022 paper "Statistical decoding 2.0: Reducing Decoding to LPN" (RLPN) and that for the parameters chosen in this algorithm there are indeed false candidates which are produced and which are not predicted by the analysis provided there which relies on independence assumptions. We then suggest a slight modification of this algorithm consisting in a further verification step, analyze it thoroughly, provide experimental evidence that our analysis is accurate and show that the complexity claims made in RLPN are indeed valid for this modified algorithm. This approach provides a simple methodology for studying rigorously dual attacks which could turn out to be useful for further developing the subject.
Last updated:  2023-09-23
Identity-Based Threshold Signatures from Isogenies
Shahla Atapoor
The identity-based signature, initially introduced by Shamir [Sha84], plays a fundamental role in the domain of identity-based cryptography. It offers the capability to generate a signature on a message, allowing any user to verify the authenticity of the signature using the signer's identifier information (e.g., an email address), instead of relying on a public key stored in a digital certificate. Another significant concept in practical applications is the threshold signature, which serves as a valuable tool for distributing the signing authority. The notion of an identity-based threshold signature scheme pertains to the distribution of a secret key associated with a specific identity among multiple entities, rather than depending on a master secret key generated by a public key generator. This approach enables a qualified group of participants to jointly engage in the signing process. In this paper, we present two identity-based threshold signature schemes based on isogenies, each of which addresses a different aspect of security. The first scheme prioritizes efficiency but offers security with abort, while the second scheme focuses on robustness. Both schemes ensure active security in the quantum random oracle model. To build these identity-based threshold signatures, we begin by modifying the identity-based signature scheme proposed by Shaw and Dutta [SD21], to accommodate the CSI-SharK signature scheme. Subsequently, we leverage the resulting identity-based signature and build two threshold schemes within the CSIDH (Commutative Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman) framework. Our proposed identity-based threshold signatures are designed based on CSI-SharK and can be easily adapted with minimal adjustments to function with CSI-FiSh.
Last updated:  2023-09-23
A Further Study of Vectorial Dual-Bent Functions
Jiaxin Wang, Fang-Wei Fu, Yadi Wei, and Jing Yang
Vectorial dual-bent functions have recently attracted some researchers' interest as they play a significant role in constructing partial difference sets, association schemes, bent partitions and linear codes. In this paper, we further study vectorial dual-bent functions $F: V_{n}^{(p)}\rightarrow V_{m}^{(p)}$, where $2\leq m \leq \frac{n}{2}$, $V_{n}^{(p)}$ denotes an $n$-dimensional vector space over the prime field $\mathbb{F}_{p}$. We give new characterizations of certain vectorial dual-bent functions (called vectorial dual-bent functions with Condition A) in terms of amorphic association schemes, linear codes and generalized Hadamard matrices, respectively. When $p=2$, we characterize vectorial dual-bent functions with Condition A in terms of bent partitions. Furthermore, we characterize certain bent partitions in terms of amorphic association schemes, linear codes and generalized Hadamard matrices, respectively. For general vectorial dual-bent functions $F: V_{n}^{(p)}\rightarrow V_{m}^{(p)}$ with $F(0)=0, F(x)=F(-x)$ and $2\leq m \leq \frac{n}{2}$, we give a necessary and sufficient condition on constructing association schemes. Based on such a result, more association schemes are constructed from vectorial dual-bent functions.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Provable Security Analysis of the Secure Remote Password Protocol
Dennis Dayanikli and Anja Lehmann
This paper analyses the Secure Remote Password Protocol (SRP) in the context of provable security. SRP is an asymmetric Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (aPAKE) protocol introduced in 1998. It allows a client to establish a shared cryptographic key with a server based on a password of potentially low entropy. Although the protocol was part of several standardization efforts, and is deployed in numerous commercial applications such as Apple Homekit, 1Password or Telegram, it still lacks a formal proof of security. This is mainly due to some of the protocol's design choices which were implemented to circumvent patent issues. Our paper gives the first security analysis of SRP in the universal composability (UC) framework. We show that SRP is UC-secure against passive eavesdropping attacks under the standard CDH assumption in the random oracle model. We then highlight a major protocol change designed to thwart active attacks and propose a new assumption -- the additive Simultaneous Diffie Hellman (aSDH) assumption -- under which we can guarantee security in the presence of an active attacker. Using this new assumption as well as the Gap CDH assumption, we prove security of the SRP protocol against active attacks. Our proof is in the "Angel-based UC framework", a relaxation of the UC framework which gives all parties access to an oracle with super-polynomial power. In our proof, we assume that all parties have access to a DDH oracle (limited to finite fields). We further discuss the plausibility of this assumption and which level of security can be shown without it.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
The Generating Series of Support Minors MinRank Ideals
Daniel Smith-Tone
The support minors method has become indispensable to cryptanalysts in attacking various post-quantum cryptosystems in the areas of multivariate cryptography and rank-based cryptography. The complexity analysis for support minors minrank calculations is a bit messy, with no closed form for the Hilbert series of the ideal generated by the support minors equations (or, more correctly, for the quotient of the polynomial ring by this ideal). In this article, we provide a generating series whose coefficients are the Hilbert Series of related MinRank ideals. This simple series therefore reflects and relates the structure of all support minors ideals. Its simplicity also makes it practically useful in computing the complexity of support minors instances.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Efficient Secure Two Party ECDSA
Sermin Kocaman and Younes Talibi Alaoui
Distributing the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) has received increased attention in past years due to the wide range of applications that can benefit from this, particularly after the popularity that the blockchain technology has gained. Many schemes have been proposed in the literature to improve the efficiency of multi- party ECDSA. Most of these schemes either require heavy homomorphic encryption computation or multiple executions of a functionality that transforms Multiplicative shares to Additive shares (MtA). Xue et al. (CCS 2021) proposed a 2-party ECDSA protocol secure against mali- cious adversaries and only requires one execution of MtA, with an online phase that consists of only one party sending one field element to the other party with a computational overhead dominated by the verifica- tion step of the signature scheme. We propose a novel protocol, based on the assumption that the Computational Diffie-Hellman problem is hard, that offers the same online phase performance as the protocol of Xue et al., but improves the offline phase by reducing the computational cost by one elliptic curve multiplication and the communication cost by two field elements. To the best of our knowledge, our protocol offers the most efficient offline phase for a two-party ECDSA protocol with such an efficient online phase.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Scalable Off-Chain Auctions
Mohsen Minaei, Duc V. Le, Ranjit Kumaresan, Andrew Beams, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez, Yibin Yang, Srinivasan Raghuraman, Panagiotis Chatzigiannis, and Mahdi Zamani
Blockchain auction plays an important role in the price discovery of digital assets (e.g. NFTs). However, despite their importance, implementing auctions directly on blockchains such as Ethereum incurs scalability issues. In particular, the on-chain transactions scale poorly with the number of bidders, leading to network congestion, increased transaction fees, and slower transaction confirmation time. This lack of scalability significantly hampers the ability of the system to handle large-scale, high-speed auctions that are common in today's economy. In this work, we build a protocol where an auctioneer can conduct sealed bid auctions that run entirely off-chain when parties behave honestly, and in the event that $k$ bidders deviate (e.g., do not open their sealed bid) from an $n$-party auction protocol, then the on-chain complexity is only $O(k \log n)$. This improves over existing solutions that require $O(n)$ on-chain complexity, even if a single bidder deviates from the protocol. In the event of a malicious auctioneer, our protocol still guarantees that the auction will successfully terminate. We implement our protocol and show that it offers significant efficiency improvements compared to existing on-chain solutions. Our use of zkSnark to achieve scalability also ensures that the on-chain contract and other participants do not acquire any information about the bidders' identities and their respective bids, except for the winner and the winning bid amount.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Preimage and Collision Attacks on Reduced Ascon Using Algebraic Strategies
Qinggan Fu, Ye Luo, Qianqian Yang, and Ling Song
Ascon, a family of algorithms that supports hashing and authenticated encryption, is the winner of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography Project. In this paper, we propose an improved preimage attack against 2-round Ascon-XOF-64 with a complexity of $2^{32}$ via a better guessing strategy. Furthermore, in order to find a good guessing strategy efficiently, we build a MILP model and successfully extend the attack to 3 rounds. The time complexity is $2^{53}$ when $IV=0$, while for the real $IV$, the attack still works and the time complexity is $2^{51}$. Additionally, we also investigate the resistance of Ascon-HASH against collision attacks. We introduce the linearization of the inverse of S-boxes and then propose a practical free-start collision attack on 3-round Ascon-HASH using a differential trail searched dedicatedly. Furthermore, We construct different 2-round connectors using the linearization of the inverse of S-boxes and successfully extend the collision attack to 4 rounds and 5 rounds of Ascon-HASH with complexities of $2^{21}$ and $2^{41}$ respectively. Although our attacks do not compromise the security of the full 12-round Ascon-XOF and Ascon-HASH, they provide some insights into Ascon's security.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Commitments with Efficient Zero-Knowledge Arguments from Subset Sum Problems
Jules Maire and Damien Vergnaud
We present a cryptographic string commitment scheme that is computationally hiding and binding based on (modular) subset sum problems. It is believed that these NP-complete problems provide post-quantum security contrary to the number theory assumptions currently used in cryptography. Using techniques recently introduced by Feneuil, Maire, Rivain and Vergnaud, this simple commitment scheme enables an efficient zero-knowledge proof of knowledge for committed values as well as proofs showing Boolean relations amongst the committed bits. In particular, one can prove that committed bits $m_0, m_1, ..., m_\ell$ satisfy $m_0 = C(m_1, ..., m_\ell)$ for any Boolean circuit $C$ (without revealing any information on those bits). The proof system achieves good communication and computational complexity since for a security parameter $\lambda$, the protocol's communication complexity is $\tilde{O}(|C| \lambda + \lambda^2)$ (compared to $\tilde{O}(|C| \lambda^2)$ for the best code-based protocol due to Jain, Krenn, Pietrzak and Tentes).
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Counting Unpredictable Bits: A Simple PRG from One-way Functions
Noam Mazor and Rafael Pass
A central result in the theory of Cryptography, by Hastad, Imagliazzo, Luby and Levin [SICOMP’99], demonstrates that the existence one-way functions (OWF) implies the existence of pseudo-random generators (PRGs). Despite the fundamental importance of this result, and several elegant improvements/simplifications, analyses of constructions of PRGs from OWFs remain complex (both conceptually and technically). Our goal is to provide a construction of a PRG from OWFs with a simple proof of security; we thus focus on the setting of non-uniform security (i.e., we start off with a OWF secure against non-uniform PPT, and we aim to get a PRG secure against non-uniform PPT). Our main result is a construction of a PRG from OWFs with a self-contained, simple, proof of security, relying only on the Goldreich-Levin Theorem (and the Chernoff bound). Although our main goal is simplicity, the construction, and a variant there-of, also improves the efficiency—in terms of invocations and seed lengths—of the state-of-the-art constructions due to [Haitner-Reingold-Vadhan, STOC’10] and [Vadhan-Zheng, STOC’12], by a factor $O(\log^2 n)$. The key novelty in our analysis is a generalization of the Blum-Micali [FOCS’82] notion of unpredictabilty—rather than requiring that every bit in the output of a function is unpredictable, we count how many unpredictable bits a function has, and we show that any OWF on $n$ input bits (after hashing the input and the output) has $n + O(\log n)$ unpredictable output bits. Such unpredictable bits can next be “extracted” into a pseudorandom string using standard techniques.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Post-Quantum Fully Homomorphic Encryption with Group Ring Homomorphisms
Christopher Leonardi and Maya Gusak
Gentry's groundbreaking work showed that a fully homomorphic, provably secure scheme is possible via bootstrapping a somewhat homomorphic scheme. However, a major drawback of bootstrapping is its high computational cost. One alternative is to use a different metric for noise so that homomorphic operations do not accumulate noise, eliminating the need for boostrapping altogether. Leonardi and Ruiz-Lopez present a group-theoretic framework for such a ``noise non-accumulating'' multiplicative homomorphic scheme, but Agathocleous et al. expose weaknesses in this framework when working over finite abelian groups. Tangentially, Li and Wang present a ``noise non-accumulating'' fully homomorphic scheme by performing Ostrovsky and Skeith's transform on a multiplicative homomorphic scheme of non-abelian group rings. Unfortunately, the security of Li and Wang's scheme relies on the Factoring Large Numbers assumption, which is false given an adversary with a quantum computer. In this work, we seek to modify Li and Wang's scheme to be post-quantum secure by fitting it into the Leonardi and Ruiz-Lopez framework for non-abelian rings. We discuss improved security assumptions for Li and Wang encryption and assess the shortcomings of working in a non-abelian setting. Finally, we show that a large class of semisimple rings is incompatible with the Leonardi and Ruiz-Lopez framework.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Truncated Differential Attacks: New Insights and 10-round Attacks on QARMA
Zahra Ahmadian, Akram Khalesi, Dounia M'foukh, Hossein Moghimi, and María Naya-Plasencia
Truncated differential attacks were introduced by Knudsen in 1994 [1]. They are a well-known family that has arguably received less attention than some other variants of differential attacks. This paper gives some new insight on truncated differential attacks and provides the best-known attacks on both variants of the lightweight cipher QARMA, in the single tweak model, reaching for the first time 10 rounds while contradicting the security claims of this reduced version. These attacks use some new truncated distinguishers as well as some evolved key-recovery techniques.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
The supersingular endomorphism ring problem given one endomorphism
Arthur Herlédan Le Merdy and Benjamin Wesolowski
Given a supersingular elliptic curve $E$ and a non-scalar endomorphism $\alpha$ of $E$, we prove that the endomorphism ring of $E$ can be computed in classical time about $\text{disc}(\mathbb{Z}[\alpha])^{1/4}$ , and in quantum subexponential time, assuming the generalised Riemann hypothesis. Previous results either had higher complexities, or relied on heuristic assumptions. Along the way, we prove that the Primitivisation problem can be solved in polynomial time (a problem previously believed to be hard), and we prove that the action of smooth ideals on oriented elliptic curves can be computed in polynomial time (previous results of this form required the ideal to be powersmooth, i.e., not divisible by any large prime power). Following the attacks on SIDH, isogenies in high dimension are a central ingredient of our results.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Practical Round-Optimal Blind Signatures in the ROM from Standard Assumptions
Shuichi Katsumata, Michael Reichle, and Yusuke Sakai
Blind signatures serve as a foundational tool for privacy-preserving applications and have recently seen renewed interest due to new applications in blockchains and privacy-authentication tokens. With this, constructing practical round-optimal (i.e., signing consists of the minimum two rounds) blind signatures in the random oracle model (ROM) has been an active area of research, where several impossibility results indicate that either the ROM or a trusted setup is inherent. In this work, we present two round-optimal blind signatures under standard assumptions in the ROM with different approaches: one achieves the smallest sum of the signature and communication sizes, while the other achieves the smallest signature size. Both of our instantiations are based on standard assumptions over asymmetric pairing groups, i.e., CDH, DDH, and/or SXDH. Our first construction is a highly optimized variant of the generic blind signature construction by Fischlin (CRYPTO'06) and has signature and communication sizes 447 B and 303 B, respectively. We progressively weaken the building blocks required by Fischlin and we result in the first blind signature where the sum of the signature and communication sizes fit below 1 KB based on standard assumptions. Our second construction is a semi-generic construction from a specific class of randomizable signature schemes that admits an all-but-one reduction. The signature size is only 96 B while the communication size is 2.2 KB. This matches the previously known smallest signature size while improving the communication size by several orders of magnitude. Finally, both of our constructions rely on a (non-black box) fine-grained analysis of the forking lemma that may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
HE$^3$DB: An Efficient and Elastic Encrypted Database Via Arithmetic-And-Logic Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Song Bian, Zhou Zhang, Haowen Pan, Ran Mao, Zian Zhao, Yier Jin, and Zhenyu Guan
As concerns are increasingly raised about data privacy, encrypted database management system (DBMS) based on fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) attracts increasing research attention, as FHE permits DBMS to be directly outsourced to cloud servers without revealing any plaintext data. However, the real-world deployment of FHE-based DBMS faces two main challenges: i) high computational latency, and ii) lack of elastic query processing capability, both of which stem from the inherent limitations of the underlying FHE operators. Here, we introduce HE$^3$DB, a fully homomorphically encrypted, efficient and elastic DBMS framework based on a new FHE infrastructure. By proposing and integrating new arithmetic and logic homomorphic operators, we devise fast and high-precision homomorphic comparison and aggregation algorithms that enable a variety of SQL queries to be applied over FHE ciphertexts, e.g., compound filter-aggregation, sorting, grouping, and joining. In addition, in contrast to existing encrypted DBMS that only support aggregated information retrieval, our framework permits further server-side analytical processing over the queried FHE ciphertexts, such as private decision tree evaluation. In the experiment, we rigorously study the efficiency and flexibility of HE$^3$DB. We show that, compared to the state-of-the-art techniques,HE$^3$DB can homomorphically evaluate end-to-end SQL queries as much as $41\times$ -$299\times$ faster than the state-of-the-art solution, completing a TPC-H query over a 16-bit 10K-row database within 241 seconds.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
HEIR: A Unified Representation for Cross-Scheme Compilation of Fully Homomorphic Computation
Song Bian, Zian Zhao, Zhou Zhang, Ran Mao, Kohei Suenaga, Yier Jin, Zhenyu Guan, and Jianwei Liu
We propose a new compiler framework that automates code generation over multiple fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes. While it was recently shown that algorithms combining multiple FHE schemes (e.g., CKKS and TFHE) achieve high execution efficiency and task utility at the same time, developing fast cross-scheme FHE algorithms for real-world applications generally require heavy hand-tuned optimizations by cryptographic experts, resulting in either high usability costs or low computational efficiency. To solve the usability and efficiency dilemma, we design and implement HEIR, a compiler framework based on multi-level intermediate representation (IR). To achieve cross-scheme compilation of efficient FHE circuits, we develop a two-stage code-lowering structure based on our custom IR dialects. First, the plaintext program along with the associated data types are converted into FHE-friendly dialects in the transformation stage. Then, in the optimization stage, we apply FHE-specific optimizations to lower the transformed dialect into our bottom-level FHE library operators. In the experiment, we implement the entire software stack for HEIR, and demonstrate that complex end-to-end programs, such as homomorphic K-Means clustering and homomorphic data aggregation in databases, can easily be compiled to run $72$--$179\times$ faster than the program generated by the state-of-the-art FHE compilers.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
On Time-Space Lower Bounds for Finding Short Collisions in Sponge Hash Functions
Akshima, Xiaoqi Duan, Siyao Guo, and Qipeng Liu
Sponge paradigm, used in the design of SHA-3, is an alternative hashing technique to the popular Merkle-Damgård paradigm. We revisit the problem of finding $B$-block-long collisions in sponge hash functions in the auxiliary-input random permutation model, in which an attacker gets a piece of $S$-bit advice about the random permutation and makes $T$ (forward or inverse) oracle queries to the random permutation. Recently, significant progress has been made in the Merkle-Damgård setting and optimal bounds are known for a large range of parameters, including all constant values of $B$. However, the sponge setting is widely open: there exist significant gaps between known attacks and security bounds even for $B=1$. Freitag, Ghoshal and Komargodski (CRYPTO 2022) showed a novel attack for $B=1$ that takes advantage of the inverse queries and achieves advantage $\tilde{\Omega}(\min(S^2T^2/2^{2c}$, $ (S^2T/2^{2c})^{2/3})+T^2/2^r)$, where $r$ is bit-rate and $c$ is the capacity of the random permutation. However, they only showed an $\tilde{O}(ST/2^c+T^2/2^r)$ security bound, leaving open an intriguing quadratic gap. For $B=2$, they beat the general security bound by Coretti, Dodis, Guo (CRYPTO 2018) for arbitrary values of $B$. However, their highly non-trivial argument is quite laborious, and no better (than the general) bounds are known for $B\geq 3$. In this work, we study the possibility of proving better security bounds in the sponge setting. To this end, - For $B=1$, we prove an improved $\tilde{O}(S^2T^2/2^{2c}+S/2^c+T/2^c+T^2/2^r)$ bound. Our bound strictly improves the bound by Freitag et al., and is optimal for $ST^2\leq 2^c$. - For $B=2$, we give a considerably simpler and more modular proof, recovering the bound obtained by Freitag et al. - We obtain our bounds by adapting the recent multi-instance technique of Akshima, Guo and Liu (CRYPTO 2022) which bypasses the limitations of prior techniques in the Merkle-Damgård setting. To complement our results, we provably show that the recent multi-instance technique cannot further improve our bounds for $B=1,2$, and the general bound by Correti et al., for $B\geq 3$. Overall, our results yield state-of-the-art security bounds for finding short collisions and fully characterize the power of the multi-instance technique in the sponge setting.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Security with Functional Re-Encryption from CPA
Yevgeniy Dodis, Shai Halevi, and Daniel Wichs
The notion of functional re-encryption security (funcCPA) for public-key encryption schemes was recently introduced by Akavia et al. (TCC'22), in the context of homomorphic encryption. This notion lies in between CPA security and CCA security: we give the attacker a functional re-encryption oracle instead of the decryption oracle of CCA security. This oracle takes a ciphertext $c$ and a function $f$, and returns fresh encryption of the output of $f$ applied to the decryption of $c$; in symbols, $c'=Enc(f(Dec(c)))$. More generally, we even allow for a multi-input version, where the oracle takes an arbitrary number of ciphetexts $c_1,\ldots,c_\ell$ and outputs $c' = Enc(f(Dec(c_1), \ldots, Dec(c_\ell)))$. In this work we observe that funcCPA security may have applications beyond homomorphic encryption, and set out to study its properties. As our main contribution, we prove that funcCPA is ``closer to CPA than to CCA''; that is, funcCPA secure encryption can be constructed in a black-box manner from CPA-secure encryption. We stress that, prior to our work, this was not known even for basic re-encryption queries corresponding to the identity function $f$. At the core of our result is a new technique, showing how to handle adaptive functional re-encryption queries using tools previously developed in the context of non-malleable encryption, which roughly corresponds to a single non-adaptive parallel decryption query.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Everlasting ROBOT: the Marvin Attack
Hubert Kario
In this paper we show that Bleichenbacher-style attacks on RSA decryption are not only still possible, but also that vulnerable implementations are common. We have successfully attacked multiple implementations using only timing of decryption operation and shown that many others are vulnerable. To perform the attack we used more statistically rigorous techniques like the sign test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and bootstrapping of median of pairwise differences. We publish a set of tools for testing libraries that perform RSA decryption against timing side-channel attacks, including one that can test arbitrary TLS servers with no need to write a test harnesses. Finally, we propose a set of workarounds that implementations can employ if they can't avoid the use of RSA.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Out of the Box Testing
Hubert Kario
In this paper we analyse typical timing data that can be collected over loopback interface, in local, and in metropolitan area networks. We evaluate performance of few statistical test for detecting differences in timing of server responses. The evaluated tests include the popular Box test, as well as sign test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and paired sample t-test. We found that the Box test offers poor performance, as it's an incorrect test to use for the measurements we collected. Use of appropriate tests also allows for robust differentiation between much smaller differences than the existing literature would suggest. We were able to detect side channels of single-digit CPU cycles over regular gigabit Ethernet. Those alternative tests were also found to be robust against noise in production networks, allowing detection of side channel of just few nanoseconds with 6 network hops between test systems.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Comment on Enhanced DNA and ElGamal cryptosystem for secure data storage and retrieval in cloud
Chenglian Liu and Sonia Chien-I Chen
Thangavel and Varalakshmi proposed an enhanced DNA and ElGamal cryptosystem for secure data storage and retrieval in cloud. They modified ElGamal algorithm which it calls enhanced ElGamal cryptosystem. We prove that their enhanced ElGamal scheme, which does not require two random numbers by data owner. Although the attacker is unable to find out what message the data owner gave to the data user. However, the attackers can still confuse the issue of sending messages to data users. On the other hand, this scheme can not against insider attack, therefore it is insecure.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Dynamic Security Aspects of Onion Routing
Alessandro Melloni, Martijn Stam, and Øyvind Ytrehus
An anonymous communication network (ACN) is designed to protect the identities of two parties communicating through it, even if an adversary controls or observes parts of the network. Among the ACNs, Tor represents a practical trade-off between offering a reasonable level of anonymity and, simultaneously, an acceptable transmission delay. Due to its practical impact, there is abundant literature on the performance of Tor concerning both communication and security aspects. Recently, a static framework was suggested for evaluating and comparing, in a quantifiable way, the effect of different scenarios (attacks, defence mechanisms, and other protocol changes). Although a static model is useful, many scenarios involve parameters and stochastic variables that change or evolve over time, or that may be influenced by active and malicious adversaries. In this paper, we propose a dynamic framework for evaluating such scenarios. We identify several scenarios where this framework is applicable, and illustrate our framework by considering the guard node mechanism in Tor. We evaluate and compare variations on the guard node concept suggested in the literature with respect to relevant performance metrics and, using the framework, support our evaluation with a theoretical analysis.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Private Web Search with Tiptoe
Alexandra Henzinger, Emma Dauterman, Henry Corrigan-Gibbs, and Nickolai Zeldovich
Tiptoe is a private web search engine that allows clients to search over hundreds of millions of documents, while revealing no information about their search query to the search engine’s servers. Tiptoe’s privacy guarantee is based on cryptography alone; it does not require hardware enclaves or non-colluding servers. Tiptoe uses semantic embeddings to reduce the problem of private full-text search to private nearest-neighbor search. Then, Tiptoe implements private nearest-neighbor search with a new, high-throughput protocol based on linearly homomorphic encryption. Running on a 45-server cluster, Tiptoe can privately search over 360 million web pages with 145 core-seconds of server compute, 56.9 MiB of client-server communication (74% of which occurs before the client enters its search query), and 2.7 seconds of end-to-end latency. Tiptoe’s search works best on conceptual queries (“knee pain”) and less well on exact string matches (“123 Main Street, New York”). On the MS MARCO search-quality benchmark, Tiptoe ranks the best-matching result in position 7.7 on average. This is worse than a state-of-the-art, non-private neural search algorithm (average rank: 2.3), but is close to the classical tf-idf algorithm (average rank: 6.7). Finally, Tiptoe is extensible: it also supports private text-to-image search and, with minor modifications, it can search over audio, code, and more.
Last updated:  2023-09-24
KpqBench: Performance and Implementation Security Analysis of KpqC Competition Round 1 Candidates
YongRyeol Choi, MinGi Kim, YoungBeom Kim, JinGyo Song, JaeHwan Jin, HeeSeok Kim, and Seog Chung Seo
As the global migration to post-quantum cryptography (PQC) continues to progress actively, in Korea, the Post-Quantum Cryptography Research Center has been established to acquire PQC technology, leading the KpqC Competition. In February 2022, the KpqC Competition issued a call for proposals for PQC algorithms. By November 2022, a total of 16 candidates were selected for the first round (7 KEMs and 9 DSAs). Currently, round 1 submissions are being evaluated with respect to security, efficiency, and scalability in various environments. At the current stage, evaluating the software through an analysis to improve the software quality of the first-round submissions is judged appropriately. In this paper, we present analysis results regarding performance and implementation security on based dependency-free approach of external libraries. Namely, we configure extensive tests for an analysis with no dependencies by replacing external libraries that can complicate the build process with hard coding. From the performance perspective, we provide analysis results of performance profiling, execution time, and memory usage for each of KpqC candidates. From the implementation security perspective, we examine bugs and errors in the actual implementations using Valgrind software, metamorphic testing methodology that can include wide test coverage and constant-time implementation against the timing attack. As a result, we found implementation bugs and errors in two submissions, metamorphic testing errors in one submission, and non-constant-time implementation in one submission. Until the KpqC standard algorithm is announced, we argue that continuous integration of extensive tests will lead to higher-level software quality of KpqC candidates.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Cryptanalysis of Elisabeth-4
Henri Gilbert, Rachelle Heim Boissier, Jérémy Jean, and Jean-René Reinhard
Elisabeth-4 is a stream cipher tailored for usage in hybrid homomorphic encryption applications that has been introduced by Cosseron et al. at ASIACRYPT 2022. In this paper, we present several variants of a key-recovery attack on the full Elisabeth-4 that break the 128-bit security claim of that cipher. Our most optimized attack is a chosen-IV attack with a time complexity of $2^{88}$ elementary operations, a memory complexity of $2^{54}$ bits and a data complexity of $2^{41}$ bits. Our attack applies the linearization technique to a nonlinear system of equations relating some keystream bits to the key bits and exploits specificities of the cipher to solve the resulting linear system efficiently. First, due to the structure of the cipher, the system to solve happens to be very sparse, which enables to rely on sparse linear algebra and most notably on the Block Wiedemann algorithm. Secondly, the algebraic properties of the two nonlinear ingredients of the filtering function cause rank defects which can be leveraged to solve the linearized system more efficiently with a decreased data and time complexity. We have implemented our attack on a toy version of Elisabeth-4 to verify its correctness. It uses the efficient implementation of the Block Wiedemann algorithm of CADO-NFS for the sparse linear algebra.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Identity-Based Matchmaking Encryption, Revisited: Strong Security and Practical Constructions from Standard Classical and Post-Quantum Assumptions
Sohto Chiku, Keitaro Hashimoto, Keisuke Hara, and Junji Shikata
Identity-based matchmaking encryption (IB-ME), proposed by Ateniese et al. at Crypto 2019, allows users to communicate privately in an anonymous and authenticated manner. In this work, we revisit the security definitions and construction of IB-ME. First, we re-formalize the existing security notions for IB-ME. We reorganize privacy and authenticity notions into respective three and four definitions, which allows us to compare IB-ME schemes accurately. Second, we propose a highly efficient and strongly secure IB-ME scheme from the bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model. This scheme is based on the IB-ME scheme proposed by Ateniese et al., but we introduce several techniques to improve its security and efficiency. Third, we propose a new generic construction of IB-ME from anonymous identity-based encryption and identity-based signature. This is the first generic construction that does not rely on hierarchical identity-based encryption. Through this construction, we obtain various IB-ME schemes from both classical and post-quantum assumptions. For example, we obtain a more efficient scheme from the symmetric external Diffie-Hellman assumption in the standard model, and a practical scheme from lattices in the quantum random oracle model whose secret keys and ciphertexts are less than 10 Kilobytes. Moreover, our generic construction produces the first pairing-free IB-ME scheme in the standard model and the first tightly secure lattice-based IB-ME scheme in the quantum random oracle model.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
An Efficient Strong Asymmetric PAKE Compiler Instantiable from Group Actions
Ian McQuoid and Jiayu Xu
Password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) is a class of protocols enabling two parties to convert a shared (possibly low-entropy) password into a high-entropy joint session key. Strong asymmetric PAKE (saPAKE), an extension that models the client-server setting where servers may store a client's password for repeated authentication, was the subject of standardization efforts by the IETF in 2019-20. In this work, we present the most computationally efficient saPAKE protocol so far: a compiler from PAKE to saPAKE which costs only 2 messages and 7 group exponentiations in total (3 for client and 4 for server) when instantiated with suitable underlying PAKE protocols. In addition to being efficient, our saPAKE protocol is conceptually simple and achieves the strongest notion of universally composable (UC) security. In addition to classical assumptions and classical PAKE, we may instantiate our PAKE-to-saPAKE compiler with cryptographic group actions, such as the isogeny-based CSIDH, and post-quantum PAKE. This yields the first saPAKE protocol from post-quantum assumptions as all previous constructions rely on cryptographic assumptions weak to Shor's algorithm.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
A polynomial-time attack on instances of M-SIDH and FESTA
Wouter Castryck and Frederik Vercauteren
The recent devastating attacks on SIDH rely on the fact that the protocol reveals the images $\varphi(P)$ and $\varphi(Q)$ of the secret isogeny $\varphi : E_0 \rightarrow E$ on a basis $\{P, Q\}$ of the $N$-torsion subgroup $E_0[N]$ where $N^2 > \deg(\varphi)$. To thwart this attack, two recent proposals, M-SIDH and FESTA, proceed by only revealing the images upto unknown scalars $\lambda_1, \lambda_2 \in \mathbb{Z}_N^\times$, i.e., only $\lambda_1 \varphi(P)$ and $\lambda_2 \varphi(Q)$ are revealed, where $\lambda_1 = \lambda_2$ for M-SIDH and $\lambda_1 = \lambda_2^{-1}$ for FESTA. Similar information is leaked in CSIDH since $\varphi$ maps the eigenspaces of Frobenius on $E_0$ to the corresponding eigenspaces on $E$. In this paper, we introduce a new polynomial time attack that generalizes the well known "lollipop" attack and analyze how it applies to M-SIDH, FESTA and CSIDH. We show that M-SIDH can be broken in polynomial time whenever $E_0$ or $E$ is $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, even when the endomorphism rings of $E_0$ and $E$ are unknown. This can be generalized to the case where the starting (or end) curve is not $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, but is connected to its Frobenius conjugate by an isogeny of small degree. For FESTA, where the curve $E_0$ is already $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, we obtain a polynomial time attack under the added requirement that at least one of the basis points $P, Q$ spans an eigenspace of Frobenius, of an endomorphism of low degree, or of a composition of both. We note that the current implementation of FESTA does not choose such a basis. Since it is always possible to construct an endomorphism, typically of large degree, with either $P, Q$ an eigenvector, we conclude that FESTA with overstretched parameters is insecure. Although the information leaked in CSIDH is very similar to FESTA, we show that our attack does not reveal any new information about the secret isogeny, i.e., we only learn that it is $\mathbb{F}_p$-rational, which is a priori knowledge. Finally, we analyze if and how it would be possible to backdoor M-SIDH and FESTA by choosing system parameters that look inconspicuous, but in fact reduce to the special cases above via a secret isogeny chosen by the adversary.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Populating the Zoo of Rugged Pseudorandom Permutations
Jean Paul Degabriele and Vukašin Karadžić
A Rugged Pseudorandom Permutation (RPRP) is a variable-input-length tweakable cipher satisfying a security notion that is intermediate between tweakable PRP and tweakable SPRP. It was introduced at CRYPTO 2022 by Degabriele and Karadžić, who additionally showed how to generically convert such a primitive into nonce-based and nonce-hiding AEAD schemes satisfying either misuse-resistance or release-of-unverified-plaintext security as well as Nonce-Set AEAD which has applications in protocols like QUIC and DTLS. Their work shows that RPRPs are powerful and versatile cryptographic primitives. However, the RPRP security notion itself can seem rather contrived, and the motivation behind it is not immediately clear. Moreover, they only provided a single RPRP construction, called UIV, which puts into question the generality of their modular approach and whether other instantiations are even possible. In this work, we address this question positively by presenting new RPRP constructions, thereby validating their modular approach and providing further justification in support of the RPRP security definition. Furthermore, we present a more refined view of their results by showing that strictly weaker RPRP variants, which we introduce, suffice for many of their transformations. From a theoretical perspective, our results show that the well-known three-round Feistel structure achieves stronger security as a permutation than a mere pseudorandom permutation---as was established in the seminal result by Luby and Rackoff. We conclude on a more practical note by showing how to extend the left domain of one RPRP construction for applications that require larger values in order to meet the desired level of security.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Forgery Attacks on Several Beyond-Birthday-Bound Secure MACs
Yaobin Shen, François-Xavier Standaert, and Lei Wang
At CRYPTO'18, Datta et al. proposed nPolyMAC and proved the security up to 2^{2n/3} authentication queries and 2^{n} verification queries. At EUROCRYPT'19, Dutta et al. proposed CWC+ and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. At FSE'19, Datta et al. proposed PolyMAC and its key-reduced variant 2k-PolyMAC, and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. This security bound was then improved by Kim et al. (EUROCRYPT'20) and Datta et al (FSE'23) respectively to 2^{3n/4} and in the multi-user setting. At FSE'20, Chakraborti et al. proposed PDM*MAC and 1k-PDM*MAC and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. Recently, Chen et al. proposed nEHtM_p^+ and showed the security up to 2^{2n/3} queries. In this paper, we show forgery attacks on nPolyMAC, CWC+, PolyMAC, 2k-PolyMAC, PDM*MAC, 1k-PDM*MAC and nEHtM_p^+. Our attacks exploit some vulnerability in the underlying polynomial hash function Poly, and (i) require only one authentication query and one verification query; (ii) are nonce-respecting; (iii) succeed with probability 1. Thus, our attacks disprove the provable high security claims of these schemes. We then revisit their security analyses and identify what went wrong. Finally, we propose two solutions that can restore the beyond-birthday-bound security.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
A note on ``ISG-SLAS: secure and lightweight authentication and key agreement scheme for industrial smart grid using fuzzy extractor''
Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu
We show that the key agreement scheme [J. Syst. Archit., 131:102698, 2022] fails to keep user anonymity and service provider anonymity, not as claimed. The scheme simply thinks that user anonymity is equivalent to protecting the target user's identity against exposure, while its long-term pseudo-identity can be exposed. We want to clarify that the true anonymity means that an adversary cannot attribute different sessions to different target users, even if the true identifier cannot be retrieved from the exposed pseudo-identifier.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Leveraging GPU in Homomorphic Encryption: Framework Design and Analysis of BFV Variants
Shiyu Shen, Hao Yang, Wangchen Dai, Lu Zhou, Zhe Liu, and Yunlei Zhao
Homomorphic Encryption (HE) enhances data security by facilitating computations on encrypted data, opening new paths for privacy-focused computations. The Brakerski-Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) scheme, a promising HE scheme, raises considerable performance challenges. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), with considerable parallel processing abilities, have emerged as an effective solution. In this work, we present an in-depth study focusing on accelerating and comparing BFV variants on GPUs, including Bajard-Eynard-Hasan-Zucca (BEHZ), Halevi-Polyakov-Shoup (HPS), and other recent variants. We introduce a universal framework accommodating all variants, propose optimized BEHZ implementation, and first support HPS variants with large parameter sets on GPUs. Moreover, we devise several optimizations for both low-level arithmetic and high-level operations, including minimizing instructions for modular operations, enhancing hardware utilization for base conversion, implementing efficient reuse strategies, and introducing intra-arithmetic and inner-conversion fusion methods, thus decreasing the overall computational and memory consumption. Leveraging our framework, we offer comprehensive comparative analyses. Our performance evaluation showcases a marked speed improvement, achieving 31.9× over OpenFHE running on a multi-threaded CPU and 39.7% and 29.9% improvement, respectively, over the state-of-the-art GPU BEHZ implementation. Our implementation of the leveled HPS variant records up to 4× speedup over other variants, positioning it as a highly promising alternative for specific applications.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
XNET: A Real-Time Unified Secure Inference Framework Using Homomorphic Encryption
Hao Yang, Shiyu Shen, Siyang Jiang, Lu Zhou, Wangchen Dai, and Yunlei Zhao
Homomorphic Encryption (HE) presents a promising solution to securing neural networks for Machine Learning as a Service (MLaaS). Despite its potential, the real-time applicability of current HE-based solutions remains a challenge, and the diversity in network structures often results in inefficient implementations and maintenance. To address these issues, we introduce a unified and compact network structure for real-time inference in convolutional neural networks based on HE. We further propose several optimization strategies, including an innovative compression and encoding technique and rearrangement in the pixel encoding sequence, enabling a highly efficient batched computation and reducing the demand for time-consuming HE operations. To further expedite computation, we propose a GPU acceleration engine to leverage the massive thread-level parallelism to speed up computations. We test our framework with the MNIST, Fashion-MNIST, and CIFAR-10 datasets, demonstrating accuracies of 99.14%, 90.8%, and 61.09%, respectively. Furthermore, our framework maintains a steady processing speed of 0.46 seconds on a single-thread CPU, and a brisk 31.862 milliseconds on an A100 GPU for all datasets. This represents an enhancement in speed more than 3000 times compared to pervious work, paving the way for future explorations in the realm of secure and real-time machine learning applications.
Last updated:  2023-09-21
Efficient Hardware RNS Decomposition for Post-Quantum Signature Scheme FALCON
Samuel Coulon, Pengzhou He, Tianyou Bao, and Jiafeng Xie
The recently announced National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Post-quantum cryptography (PQC) third-round standardization process has released its candidates to be standardized and Falcon is one of them. On the other hand, however, very few hardware implementation works for Falcon have been released due to its very complicated computation procedure and intensive complexity. With this background, in this paper, we propose an efficient hardware structure to implement residue numeral system (RNS) decomposition within NTRUSolve (a key arithmetic component for key generation of Falcon). In total, we have proposed three stages of coherent interdependent efforts to finish the proposed work. First, we have identified the necessary algorithmic operation related to RNS decomposition. Then, we have innovatively designed a hardware structure to realize these algorithms. Finally, field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based implementation has been carried out to verify the superior performance of the proposed hardware structure. For instance, the proposed hardware design involves at least 3.91x faster operational time than the software implementation. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first paper about the hardware acceleration of RNS decomposition for Falcon, and we hope the outcome of this work will facilitate the research in this area.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Arithmetic Circuit Implementations of S-boxes for SKINNY and PHOTON in MPC
Aysajan Abidin, Erik Pohle, and Bart Preneel
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) enables multiple distrusting parties to compute a function while keeping their respective inputs private. In a threshold implementation of a symmetric primitive, e.g., of a block cipher, each party holds a share of the secret key or of the input block. The output block is computed without reconstructing the secret key. This enables the construction of distributed TPMs or transciphering for secure data transmission in/out of the MPC context. This paper investigates implementation approaches for the lightweight primitives SKINNY and PHOTON in arithmetic circuits. For these primitives, we identify arithmetic expressions for the S-box that result in smaller arithmetic circuits compared to the Boolean expressions from the literature. We validate the optimization using a generic actively secure MPC protocol and obtain 18% faster execution time with 49% less communication data for SKINNY-64-128 and 27% to 74% faster execution time with 49% to 81% less data for PHOTON $P_{100}$ and $P_{288}$. Furthermore, we find a new set of parameters for the heuristic method of polynomial decomposition, introduced by Coron, Roy and Vivek, specialized for SKINNY's 8-bit S-box. We reduce the multiplicative depth from 9 to 5.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Popping “R-propping”: breaking hardness assumptions for matrix groups over F_{2^8}
Fernando Virdia
A recent series of works (Hecht, IACR ePrint, 2020–2021) propose to build post-quantum public-key encapsulation, digital signatures, group key agreement and oblivious transfer from "R-propped" variants of the Symmetrical Decomposition and Discrete Logarithm problems for matrix groups over $\mathbb{F}_{2^8}$. We break all four proposals by presenting a linearisation attack on the Symmetrical Decomposition platform, a forgery attack on the signature scheme, and a demonstration of the insecurity of the instances of the Discrete Logarithm Problem used for signatures, group key agreement and oblivious transfer, showing that none of the schemes provides adequate security.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
PRIVATON - Privacy Preserving Automaton for Proof of Computations
Bala Subramanyan
Amid the landscape of confidential computing, where security and privacy reign supreme, PRIVATON emerges as a pioneering and practical solution to safeguard sensitive data and computations. A verifiable proof of computation model, with one of its variant built upon the dual sandbox strategy, PRIVATON combines Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) technologies with WebAssembly (WASM) runtime environments to establish an ecosystem for privacy-preserving computations. This approach involves fine grained modeling of computations as finite state automatons, guided by verifiable proofs that attest to their unerring execution. PRIVATON is guided by the profound principles of "least privilege" and "intentional use." Through the former, each computation module's privileges are meticulously constrained, reducing vulnerability vectors. The latter ensures that privileges are allocated explicitly, fostering comprehension and security. This rigorous adherence minimizes privilege misuse and information leakage, bolstering the overall security posture. At its core, PRIVATON's innovation lies in its comprehensive assurance of data privacy and security. State machine proofs not only attest to the absence of data leakage but also prevent unauthorized data transmission. By providing unassailable proof of computation integrity, PRIVATON shields against code misuse within the system. This proactive stance fortifies its mission to safeguard the sanctity of data, computations, and the privacy of all stakeholders. Evidenced by its real-world application, PRIVATON has been validated within the cryptocurrency trading ecosystem, where it acts as a distributed and privacy-preserving credit oracle. Its implementation within Credora’s landscape underlines its potential to transform data-centric paradigms, empowering stakeholders with an unshakeable confidence in data security. In a world where data privacy is paramount, PRIVATON stands as a guardian, epitomizing the convergence of technology, security, and trust.
Last updated:  2023-09-25
Quantum Lattice Enumeration in Limited Depth
Nina Bindel, Xavier Bonnetain, Marcel Tiepelt, and Fernando Virdia
In 2018, Aono et al. (ASIACRYPT 2018) proposed to use quantum backtracking algorithms (Montanaro, TOC 2018; Ambainis and Kokainis, STOC 2017) to speedup lattice point enumeration. Quantum lattice sieving algorithms had already been proposed (Laarhoven et al., PQCRYPTO 2013), being shown to provide an asymptotic speedup over classical counterparts, but also to lose competitivity at relevant dimensions to cryptography if practical considerations on quantum computer architecture were taken into account (Albrecht et al., ASIACRYPT 2020). Aono et al.’s work argued that quantum walk speedups can be applied to lattice enumeration, achieving at least a quadratic asymptotic speedup à la Grover search while not requiring exponential amounts of quantum accessible classical memory, as it is the case for sieving. In this work, we explore how to lower bound the cost of using Aono et al.’s techniques on lattice enumeration with extreme cylinder pruning assuming a limit to the maximum depth that a quantum computation can achieve without decohering, with the objective of better understanding the practical applicability of quantum backtracking in lattice cryptanalysis.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Tight Security Bound of 2k-LightMAC Plus
Nilanjan Datta, Avijit Dutta, and Samir Kundu
In ASIACRYPT'17, Naito proposed a beyond-birthday-bound variant of the LightMAC construction, called LightMAC_Plus, which is built on three independently keyed $n$-bit block ciphers, and showed that the construction achieves $2n/3$-bits PRF security. Later, Kim et al. claimed (without giving any formal proof) its security bound to $2^{3n/4}$. In FSE'18, Datta et al. have proposed a two-keyed variant of the LightMAC_Plus construction, called 2k-LightMAC_Plus, which is built on two independently keyed $n$-bit block ciphers, and showed that the construction achieves $2n/3$-bits PRF security. In this paper, we show a tight security bound on the 2k-LightMAC_Plus construction. In particular, we show that it provably achieves security up to $2^{3n/4}$ queries. We also exhibit a matching attack on the construction with the same query complexity and hence establishing the tightness of the security bound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that provably shows a message length independent $3n/4$-bit tight security bound on a block cipher based variable input length PRF with two block cipher keys.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Efficient Secure Storage with Version Control and Key Rotation
Long Chen, Hui Guo, Ya-Nan Li, and Qiang Tang
Periodic key rotation is a widely used technique to enhance key compromise resilience. Updatable encryption (UE) schemes provide an efficient approach to key rotation, ensuring post-compromise security for both confidentiality and integrity. However, these UE techniques cannot be directly applied to frequently updated databases due to the risk of a malicious server inducing the client to accept an outdated version of a file instead of the latest one. To address this issue, we propose a scheme called Updatable Secure Storage (USS), which provides a secure and key updatable solution for dynamic databases. USS ensures both data confidentiality and integrity, even in the presence of key compromises. By using efficient key rotation and file update procedures, the communication costs of these operations are independent of the size of the database. This makes USS particularly well-suited for managing large and frequently updated databases with secure version control. Unlike existing UE schemes, the integrity provided by USS holds even when the server learns the current secret key and intentionally violates the key update protocol.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Rogue-Instance Security for Batch Knowledge Proofs
Gil Segev, Amit Sharabi, and Eylon Yogev
We propose a new notion of knowledge soundness, denoted rogue-instance security, for interactive and non-interactive batch knowledge proofs. Our notion, inspired by the standard notion of rogue-key security for multi-signature schemes, considers a setting in which a malicious prover is provided with an honestly-generated instance $x_1$, and may then be able to maliciously generate related "rogue" instances $x_2,\ldots,x_k$ for convincing a verifier in a batch knowledge proof of corresponding witnesses $w_1,\ldots,w_k$ for all $k$ instances - without actually having knowledge of the witness $w_1$ corresponding to the honestly-generated instance. This setting provides a powerful security guarantee for batch versions of a wide variety of practically-relevant protocols, such as Schnorr's protocol and similar ones. We present a highly-efficient generic construction of a batch proof-of-knowledge applicable to any algebraic Sigma protocols. The algebraic property refers to a homomorphic structure of the underlying group and includes Schnorr's protocol and others. We provide an almost tight security analysis for our generic batch protocol, which significantly improves upon the previously known security bounds even for the specific case of batch Schnorr protocol. We extend our results beyond algebraic Sigma protocols. We analyze the rogue-instance security of a general batch protocol with plus-one special soundness (a generalization of standard special soundness) and achieve improved security bounds in the generic case. Our results use a particular type of high-moment assumptions introduced by Rotem and Segev (CRYPTO 2021). These assumptions consider the hardness of a relation against algorithms with bounded expected running time. Although Rotem and Segev introduced these assumptions, they did not provide evidence to support their hardness. To substantiate and validate the high-moment assumptions, we present a new framework for assessing the concrete hardness of cryptographic problems against oracle algorithms with bounded expected runtime. Our framework covers generic models, including the generic group model, random oracle model, and more. Utilizing our framework, we achieve the first hardness result for these high-moment assumptions. In particular, we establish the second-moment hardness of the discrete-logarithm problem against expected-time algorithms in the generic group model.
Last updated:  2023-09-24
Improving the Rectangle Attack on GIFT-64
Yincen Chen, Nana Zhang, Xuanyu Liang, Ling Song, Qianqian Yang, and Zhuohui Feng
GIFT is a family of lightweight block ciphers based on SPN structure and composed of two versions named GIFT-64 and GIFT-128. In this paper, we reevaluate the security of GIFT-64 against the rectangle attack under the related-key setting. Investigating the previous rectangle key recovery attack on GIFT-64, we obtain the core idea of improving the attack——trading off the time complexity of each attack phase. We flexibly guess part of the involved subkey bits to balance the time cost of each phase so that the overall time complexity of the attack is reduced. Moreover, the reused subkey bits are identified according to the linear key schedule of GIFT-64 and bring additional advantages for our attacks. Furthermore, we incorporate the above ideas and propose a dedicated MILP model for finding the best rectangle key recovery attack on GIFT-64. As a result, we get the improved rectangle attacks on 26-round GIFT-64, which are the best attacks on it in terms of time complexity so far.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Short Concurrent Covert Authenticated Key Exchange (Short cAKE)
Karim Eldafrawy, Nicholas Genise, and Stanislaw Jarecki
Von Ahn, Hopper and Langford introduced the notion of steganographic a.k.a. covert computation, to capture distributed computation where the attackers must not be able to distinguish honest parties from entities emitting random bitstrings. This indistinguishability should hold for the duration of the computation except for what is revealed by the intended outputs of the computed functionality. An important case of covert computation is mutually authenticated key exchange, a.k.a. mutual authentication. Mutual authentication is a fundamental primitive often preceding more complex secure protocols used for distributed computation. However, standard authentication implementations are not covert, which allows a network adversary to target or block parties who engage in authentication. Therefore, mutual authentication is one of the premier use cases of covert computation and has numerous real-world applications, e.g., for enabling authentication over steganographic channels in a network controlled by a discriminatory entity. We improve on the state of the art in covert authentication by presenting a protocol that retains covertness and security under concurrent composition, has minimal message complexity, and reduces protocol bandwidth by an order of magnitude compared to previous constructions. To model the security of our scheme we develop a UC model which captures standard features of secure mutual authentication but extends them to covertness. We prove our construction secure in this UC model. We also provide a proof-of-concept implementation of our scheme.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
Improved Quantum Circuits for AES: Reducing the Depth and the Number of Qubits
Qun Liu, Bart Preneel, Zheng Zhao, and Meiqin Wang
Quantum computers hold the potential to solve problems that are intractable for classical computers, thereby driving increased interest in the development of new cryptanalytic ciphers. In NIST's post-quantum standardization process, the security categories are defined by the costs of quantum key search against AES. However, the cost estimates provided by Grassl et al. for the search are high. NIST has acknowledged that these initial classifications should be approached cautiously, since the costs of the most advanced attacks can be significantly reduced. Therefore, accurate resource estimations are crucial for evaluating the security of ciphers against quantum adversaries. This paper presents a set of generic techniques for implementing AES quantum oracles, which are essential for quantum attacks such as Grover's algorithms. Firstly, we introduce the mixing-XOR technique to reuse the ancilla qubits. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Huang et al. proposed an S-box structure with 120 ancilla qubits. We are able to reduce the number of ancilla qubits to 83 without increasing the T-depth. Secondly, we propose the combined pipeline architecture with the share technique to combine the S-box and its reverse, which achieves it with only 98 ancilla qubits, resulting in a significant reduction of 59% compared to the independent structure. Thirdly, we use a general algorithm to determine the depth of quantum circuits, searching for the in-place circuit of AES MixColumns with depth 16. Applying these improvements, we achieve the lower quantum depth of AES circuits, obtaining more precise resource estimates for Grover's algorithm. For AES-128, -192, and -256, we only require the depth of 730, 876, and 1,018, respectively. Recently, the community has also focused on the trade-off of the time and space cost of quantum circuits for AES. In this regard, we present quantum implementations of AES circuits with a lower DW-cost on the zig-zag architecture. Compared with the circuit proposed by Huang et al., the DW-cost is reduced by 35%.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
On Black-Box Knowledge-Sound Commit-And-Prove SNARKs
Helger Lipmaa
Gentry and Wichs proved that adaptively sound SNARGs for hard languages need non-falsifiable assumptions. Lipmaa and Pavlyk claimed Gentry-Wichs is tight by constructing a non-adaptively sound zk-SNARG FANA for NP from falsifiable assumptions. We show that FANA is flawed. We define and construct a fully algebraic $F$-position-binding vector commitment scheme VCF. We construct a concretely efficient commit-and-prove zk-SNARK Punic, a version of FANA with an additional VCF commitment to the witness. Punic satisfies semi-adaptive black-box $G$-knowledge-soundness, a new natural knowledge-soundness notion for commit-and-prove SNARKs. We use a new proof technique to achieve global consistency using a functional somewhere-extractable commitment scheme to extract vector commitment's local proofs.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Generalized Fuzzy Password-Authenticated Key Exchange from Error Correcting Codes
Jonathan Bootle, Sebastian Faller, Julia Hesse, Kristina Hostáková, and Johannes Ottenhues
Fuzzy Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (fuzzy PAKE) allows cryptographic keys to be generated from authentication data that is both fuzzy and of low entropy. The strong protection against offline attacks offered by fuzzy PAKE opens an interesting avenue towards secure biometric authentication, typo-tolerant password authentication, and automated IoT device pairing. Previous constructions of fuzzy PAKE are either based on Error Correcting Codes (ECC) or generic multi-party computation techniques such as Garbled Circuits. While ECC-based constructions are significantly more efficient, they rely on multiple special properties of error correcting codes such as maximum distance separability and smoothness. We contribute to the line of research on fuzzy PAKE in two ways. First, we identify a subtle but devastating gap in the security analysis of the currently most efficient fuzzy PAKE construction (Dupont et al., Eurocrypt 2018), allowing a man-in-the-middle attacker to test individual password characters. Second, we provide a new fuzzy PAKE scheme based on ECC and PAKE that provides a built-in protection against individual password character guesses and requires fewer, more standard properties of the underlying ECC. Additionally, our construction offers better error correction capabilities than previous ECC-based fuzzy PAKEs.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Differential-Linear Approximation Semi-Unconstrained Searching and Partition Tree: Application to LEA and Speck
Yi Chen, Zhenzhen Bao, and Hongbo Yu
The differential-linear attack is one of the most effective attacks against ARX ciphers. However, two technical problems are preventing it from being more effective and having more applications: (1) there is no efficient method to search for good differential-linear approximations. Existing methods either have many constraints or are currently inefficient. (2) partitioning technique has great potential to reduce the time complexity of the key-recovery attack, but there is no general tool to construct partitions for ARX ciphers. In this work, we step forward in solving the two problems. First, we propose a novel idea for generating new good differential-linear approximations from known ones, based on which new searching algorithms are designed. Second, we propose a general tool named partition tree, for constructing partitions for ARX ciphers. Based on these new techniques, we present better attacks for two ISO/IEC standards, i.e., LEA and Speck. For LEA, we present the first 17-round distinguisher which is 1 round longer than the previous best distinguisher. Furthermore, we present the first key recovery attacks on 17-round LEA-128, 18-round LEA-192, and 18-round LEA-256, which attack 3, 4, and 3 rounds more than the previous best attacks. For Speck, we find better differential-linear distinguishers for Speck48 and Speck64. The first differential-linear distinguishers for Speck96 and Speck128 are also presented.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Scalable Multi-party Private Set Union from Multi-Query Secret-Shared Private Membership Test
Xiang Liu and Ying Gao
Multi-party private set union (MPSU) allows \(k(k\geq 3)\) parties, each holding a dataset of known size, to compute the union of their sets without revealing any additional information. Although two-party PSU has made rapid progress in recent years, applying its effective techniques to the multi-party setting would render information leakage and thus cannot be directly extended. Existing MPSU protocols heavily rely on computationally expensive public-key operations or generic secure multi-party computation techniques, which are not scalable. In this work, we present a new efficient framework of MPSU from multi-party secret-shared shuffle and a newly introduced protocol called multi-query secret-shared private membership test (mq-ssPMT). Our MPSU is mainly based on symmetric-key operations and is secure against any semi-honest adversary that does not corrupt the leader and clients simultaneously. We also propose new frameworks for computing other multi-party private set operations (MPSO), such as the intersection, and the cardinality of the union and the intersection, meeting the same security requirements. We demonstrate the scalability of our MPSU protocol with an implementation and a comparison with the state-of-the-art MPSU. Experiments show that when computing on datasets of \(2^{10}\) elements, our protocol is \(109\times\) faster than the state-of-the-art MPSU, and the improvement becomes more significant as the set size increases. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first protocol that reports on large-size experiments. For 7 parties with datasets of \(2^{20}\) elements each, our protocol requires only 46 seconds.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Algebraic isomorphic spaces of ideal lattices, reduction of Ring-SIS problem, and new reduction of Ring-LWE problem
Zhuang Shan, Leyou Zhang, Qing Wu, and Qiqi Lai
The main focus of this article is on an open problem, namely the Ring-SIS reduction problem.We first utilize a spatial isomorphism approach to reduce the Ring-SIS problem to the classic SIS problem in lattices, indirectly reducing it to the classic SIVP in lattices. This provides theoretical assurance to some extent for the difficulty and resistance against quantum attacks of the Ring-SIS problem. Additionally, we reduce the Ring-LWE problem to the Ring-SIS problem, which guarantees the security of encryption schemes based on Ring-LWE to a certain degree. Finally, this article proves that the difficulty of the Ring-SIS problem and the Ring-LWE problem is relatively average with respect to the spatial dimension or polynomial degree.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
zk-SNARKs from Codes with Rank Metrics
Xuan-Thanh Do, Dang-Truong Mac, and Quoc-Huy Vu
Succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge (zk-SNARKs) are a type of non-interactive proof system enabling efficient privacy-preserving proofs of membership for NP languages. A great deal of works has studied candidate constructions that are secure against quantum attackers, which are based on either lattice assumptions, or post-quantum collision-resistant hash functions. In this paper, we propose a code-based zk-SNARK scheme, whose security is based on the rank support learning (RSL) problem, a variant of the random linear code decoding problem in the rank metric. Our construction follows the general framework of Gennaro et al. (CCS'18), which is based on square span programs (SSPs). Due to the fundamental differences between the hardness assumptions, our proof of security cannot apply the techniques from the lattice-based constructions, and indeed, it distinguishes itself by the use of techniques from coding theory. We also provide the scheme with a set of concrete parameters.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Two Algorithms for Fast GPU Implementation of NTT
Ali Şah Özcan and Erkay Savaş
The number theoretic transform (NTT) permits a very efficient method to perform multiplication of very large degree polynomials, which is the most time-consuming operation in fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes and a class of non-interactive succinct zero-knowledge proof systems such as zk-SNARK. Efficient modular arithmetic plays an important role in the performance of NTT, and therefore it is studied extensively. The access pattern to the memory, on the other hand, may play much greater role, as the NTT execution time is mostly memory-bound due to large degree polynomials. In this paper, we propose two algorithms for fast computation of NTT on a class of graphical processing units (GPU) by optimizing the memory access patterns. We present an approach i) to optimize the number of accesses to slow global memory for thread synchronization, and ii) to make better use of spatial locality in global memory accesses. It turns out that by controlling certain parameters in CUDA platform for general-purpose GPU computing (GPGPU) such as kernel count, block size and block shape, we can affect the performance of NTT. To best of our knowledge, this work is unique for it suggests a recipe for selecting optimum CUDA parameters to obtain the best NTT performance for a given polynomial degree. Our implementation results on various GPU devices for all power-of-two polynomial degrees from $2^{12}$ to $2^{28}$ show that our algorithms compare favorably with the other state-of-the-art GPU implementations in the literature with the optimum selection of these three CUDA parameters.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Solving the Hidden Number Problem for CSIDH and CSURF via Automated Coppersmith
Jonas Meers and Julian Nowakowski
We define and analyze the Commutative Isogeny Hidden Number Problem which is the natural analogue of the Hidden Number Problem in the CSIDH and CSURF setting. In short, the task is as follows: Given two supersingular elliptic curves \(E_A\), \(E_B\) and access to an oracle that outputs some of the most significant bits of the \({\mathsf{CDH}}\) of two curves, an adversary must compute the shared curve \(E_{AB}={\mathsf{CDH}}(E_A,E_B)\). We show that we can recover \(E_{AB}\) in polynomial time by using Coppersmith's method as long as the oracle outputs \({\frac{13}{24}} + \varepsilon \approx 54\%\) (CSIDH) and \({\frac{31}{41}} + \varepsilon \approx 76\%\) (CSURF) of the most significant bits of the \({\mathsf{CDH}}\), where $\varepsilon > 0$ is an arbitrarily small constant. To this end, we give a purely combinatorial restatement of Coppersmith's method, effectively concealing the intricate aspects of lattice theory and allowing for near-complete automation. By leveraging this approach, we attain recovery attacks with $\varepsilon$ close to zero within a few minutes of computation.
Last updated:  2023-09-19
Correlation Cube Attack Revisited: Improved Cube Search and Superpoly Recovery Techniques
Jianhua Wang, Lu Qin, and Baofeng Wu
In this paper, we improve the cube attack by exploiting low-degree factors of the superpoly w.r.t. certain "special" index set of cube (ISoC). This can be viewed as a special case of the correlation cube attack proposed at Eurocrypt 2018, but under our framework more beneficial equations on the key variables can be obtained in the key-recovery phase. To mount our attack, one has two challenging problems: (1) effectively recover algebraic normal form of the superpoly and extract out its low-degree factors; and (2) efficiently search a large quantity of good ISoCs. We bring in new techniques to solve both of them. First, we propose the variable substitution technique for middle rounds of a cipher, in which polynomials on the key variables in the algebraic expressions of internal states are substituted by new variables. This will improve computational complexity of the superpoly recovery and promise more compact superpolys that can be easily decomposed with respect to the new variables. Second, we propose the vector numeric mapping technique, which seeks out a tradeoff between efficiency of the numeric mapping technique (Crypto 2019) and accuracy of the monomial prediction technique (Asiacrypt 2020) in degree evaluation of superpolys. Combining with this technique, a fast pruning method is given and modeled by MILP to filter good ISoCs of which the algebraic degree satisfies some fixed threshold. Thanks to automated MILP solvers, it becomes practical to comprehensively search for good cubes across the entire search space. To illustrate the power of our techniques, we apply all of them to Trivium stream cipher. As a result, we have recovered the superpolys of three cubes given by Kesarwani et al. in 2020, only to find they do not have zero-sum property up to 842 rounds as claimed in their paper. To our knowledge, the previous best practical key recovery attack was on 820-round Trivium with complexity $2^{53.17}$. We put forward 820-, 825- and 830-round practical key-recovery attacks, in which there are $\mathbf{2^{80}\times 87.8\%}$, $\mathbf{2^{80}\times 83\%}$ and $\mathbf{2^{80}\times 65.7\%}$ keys that could be practically recovered, respectively, if we consider $\mathbf{2^{60}}$ as the upper bound for practical computational complexity. Besides, even for computers with computational power not exceeding $\mathbf{2^{52}}$ (resp. $\mathbf{2^{55}}$), we can still recover $\mathbf{58\%}$ (resp. $\mathbf{46.6\%}$) of the keys in the key space for 820 rounds (resp. 830 rounds). Our attacks have led 10 rounds more than the previous best practical attack.
Last updated:  2023-09-25
Fully Homomorphic Encryption-Based Protocols for Enhanced Private Set Intersection Functionalities
JINGWEI HU, Junyan Chen, Wangchen Dai, and Huaxiong Wang
This study delves into secure computations for set intersections using fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) within the semi-honest setting. Our protocols facilitate joint computations between two parties, each holding a set of inputs denoted as $N_s$ and $N_r$ in size, respectively. The primary objective is to determine various functionalities, such as intersection size and sum, while maintaining data confidentiality. These functionalities extend the classic private set intersection (PSI) and have practical applications in contact tracing, ad conversion analysis, and online dating, each abstracted into specialized PSI protocols. Our work demonstrates that these extended PSI functionalities are interconnected, with the PSI-cardinality protocol serving as the foundation. By adapting this protocol, we naturally arrive at PSI-sum-cardinality. Additionally, PSI-token-threshold is achieved by augmenting PSI-cardinality with FHE-based oblivious polynomial evaluation (OPE). The tPSI protocol combines PSI-token-threshold and standard PSI, allowing information sharing when the intersection size exceeds a threshold. Our protocols excel in simplicity, enhancing ease of understanding, implementation, optimization, and long-term maintenance. They also exhibit sublinear communication complexity concerning the larger sender's set, rendering them well-suited for scenarios involving substantial data. Various optimization techniques further bolster their practical efficiency.
Last updated:  2023-09-25
Sigmabus: Binding Sigmas in Circuits for Fast Curve Operations
George Kadianakis, Mary Maller, and Andrija Novakovic
This paper introduces Sigmabus, a technique designed to enhance the efficiency of zero-knowledge circuits by relocating computationally expensive operations outside the circuit. Specifically, Sigmabus focuses on moving elliptic curve group operations, typically proven with expensive non-native field arithmetic, to external computations. By leveraging Sigma protocols, elliptic curve group operations are proven outside the circuit, while additional constraints are applied to the circuit to ensure correct execution of the Sigma protocol. This approach can achieve significant performance improvements in zero-knowledge circuits. This paper presents the Sigmabus protocol along with its security proofs, and demonstrates its practical implications through various use cases.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Lattice-based Succinct Arguments from Vanishing Polynomials
Valerio Cini, Russell W. F. Lai, and Giulio Malavolta
Succinct arguments allow a prover to convince a verifier of the validity of any statement in a language, with minimal communication and verifier's work. Among other approaches, lattice-based protocols offer solid theoretical foundations, post-quantum security, and a rich algebraic structure. In this work, we present some new approaches to constructing efficient lattice-based succinct arguments. Our main technical ingredient is a new commitment scheme based on vanishing polynomials, a notion borrowed from algebraic geometry. We analyse the security of such a commitment scheme, and show how to take advantage of the additional algebraic structure to build new lattice-based succinct arguments. A few highlights amongst our results are: - The first recursive folding (i.e. Bulletproofs-like) protocol for linear relations with polylogarithmic verifier runtime. Traditionally, the verifier runtime has been the efficiency bottleneck for such protocols (regardless of the underlying assumptions). - The first verifiable delay function (VDF) based on lattices, building on a recently introduced sequential relation. - The first lattice-based \emph{linear-time prover} succinct argument for NP, in the preprocessing model. The soundness of the scheme is based on (knowledge)-k-R-ISIS assumption [Albrecht et al., CRYPTO'22].
Last updated:  2023-09-18
(Verifiable) Delay Functions from Lucas Sequences
Charlotte Hoffmann, Pavel Hubáček, Chethan Kamath, and Tomáš Krňák
Lucas sequences are constant-recursive integer sequences with a long history of applications in cryptography, both in the design of cryptographic schemes and cryptanalysis. In this work, we study the sequential hardness of computing Lucas sequences over an RSA modulus. First, we show that modular Lucas sequences are at least as sequentially hard as the classical delay function given by iterated modular squaring proposed by Rivest, Shamir, and Wagner (MIT Tech. Rep. 1996) in the context of time-lock puzzles. Moreover, there is no obvious reduction in the other direction, which suggests that the assumption of sequential hardness of modular Lucas sequences is strictly weaker than that of iterated modular squaring. In other words, the sequential hardness of modular Lucas sequences might hold even in the case of an algorithmic improvement violating the sequential hardness of iterated modular squaring. Moreover, we note that modular Lucas sequences also yield a time-lock puzzle, similar to the classical construction of Rivest, Shamir and Wagner. Second, we demonstrate the feasibility of constructing practically-efficient verifiable delay functions based on the sequential hardness of modular Lucas sequences. Our construction builds on the work of Pietrzak (ITCS 2019) by leveraging the intrinsic connection between the problem of computing modular Lucas sequences and exponentiation in an appropriate extension field.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Searching for ELFs in the Cryptographic Forest
Marc Fischlin and Felix Rohrbach
Extremely Lossy Functions (ELFs) are families of functions that, depending on the choice during key generation, either operate in injective mode or instead have only a polynomial image size. The choice of the mode is indistinguishable to an outsider. ELFs were introduced by Zhandry (Crypto 2016) and have been shown to be very useful in replacing random oracles in a number of applications. One open question is to determine the minimal assumption needed to instantiate ELFs. While all constructions of ELFs depend on some form of exponentially-secure public-key primitive, it was conjectured that exponentially-secure secret-key primitives, such as one-way functions, hash functions or one-way product functions, might be sufficient to build ELFs. In this work we answer this conjecture mostly negative: We show that no primitive, which can be derived from a random oracle (which includes all secret-key primitives mentioned above), is enough to construct even moderately lossy functions in a black-box manner. However, we also show that (extremely) lossy functions themselves do not imply public-key cryptography, leaving open the option to build ELFs from some intermediate primitive between the classical categories of secret-key and public-key cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Fully Homomorphic Encryption: A Mathematical Introduction
Sara Logsdon
This paper offers a mathematical introduction to fully homomorphic encryption, a concept that enables computation on encrypted data. We trace the historical development of FHE, describe Fully Homomorphic Encryption over the Torus (TFHE) and how it performs certain mathematical operations, and explore bootstrapping and the possibility for adjusting computational depth. This paper equips readers with a brief understanding of FHE's evolution and the essential mechanisms facilitating practical implementation.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
On the Multi-User Security of LWE-based NIKE
Roman Langrehr
Non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) schemes like the Diffie-Hellman key exchange are a widespread building block in several cryptographic protocols. Since the Diffie-Hellman key exchange is not post-quantum secure, it is important to investigate post-quantum alternatives. We analyze the security of the LWE-based NIKE by Ding et al. (ePrint 2012) and Peikert (PQCrypt 2014) in a multi-user setting where the same public key is used to generate shared keys with multiple other users. The Diffie-Hellman key exchange achieves this security notion. The mentioned LWE-based NIKE scheme comes with an inherent correctness error (Guo et al., PKC 2020), and this has significant implications for the multi-user security, necessitating a closer examination. Single-user security generically implies multi-user security when all users generate their keys honestly for NIKE schemes with negligible correctness error. However, the LWE-based NIKE requires a super-polynomial modulus to achieve a negligible correctness error, which makes the scheme less efficient. We show that - generically, single-user security does not imply multi-user security when the correctness error is non-negligible, but despite this - the LWE-based NIKE with polynomial modulus is multi-user secure for honest users when the number of users is fixed in advance. This result takes advantage of the leakage-resilience properties of LWE. We then turn to a stronger model of multi-user security that allows adversarially generated public keys. For this model, we consider a variant of the LWE-based NIKE where each public key is equipped with a NIZKPoK of the secret key. Adding NIZKPoKs is a standard technique for this stronger model and Hesse et al. (Crypto 2018) showed that this is sufficient to achieve security in the stronger multi-user security model for perfectly correct NIKEs (which the LWE-based NIKE is not). We show that - for certain parameters that include all parameters with polynomial modulus, the LWE-based NIKE can be efficiently attacked with adversarially generated public keys, despite the use of NIZKPoKs, but - for suitable parameters (that require a super-polynomial modulus), this security notion is achieved by the LWE-based NIKE with NIZKPoKs. This stronger security notion has been previously achieved for LWE-based NIKE only in the QROM, while all our results are in the standard model.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Efficient Updatable Public-Key Encryption from Lattices
Calvin Abou Haidar, Alain Passelègue, and Damien Stehlé
Updatable public key encryption has recently been introduced as a solution to achieve forward-security in the context of secure group messaging without hurting efficiency, but so far, no efficient lattice-based instantiation of this primitive is known. In this work, we construct the first LWE-based UPKE scheme with polynomial modulus-to-noise rate, which is CPA-secure in the standard model. At the core of our security analysis is a generalized reduction from the standard LWE problem to (a stronger version of) the Extended LWE problem. We further extend our construction to achieve stronger security notions by proposing two generic transforms. Our first transform allows to obtain CCA security in the random oracle model and adapts the Fujisaki-Okamoto transform to the UPKE setting. Our second transform allows to achieve security against malicious updates by adding a NIZK argument in the update mechanism. In the process, we also introduce the notion of Updatable Key Encapsulation Mechanism (UKEM), as the updatable variant of KEMs. Overall, we obtain a CCA-secure UKEM in the random oracle model whose ciphertext sizes are of the same order of magnitude as that of CRYSTALS-Kyber.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
The supersingular Endomorphism Ring and One Endomorphism problems are equivalent
Aurel Page and Benjamin Wesolowski
The supersingular Endomorphism Ring problem is the following: given a supersingular elliptic curve, compute all of its endomorphisms. The presumed hardness of this problem is foundational for isogeny-based cryptography. The One Endomorphism problem only asks to find a single non-scalar endomorphism. We prove that these two problems are equivalent, under probabilistic polynomial time reductions. We prove a number of consequences. First, assuming the hardness of the endomorphism ring problem, the Charles–Goren–Lauter hash function is collision resistant, and the SQIsign identification protocol is sound. Second, the endomorphism ring problem is equivalent to the problem of computing arbitrary isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves, a result previously known only for isogenies of smooth degree. Third, there exists an unconditional probabilistic algorithm to solve the endomorphism ring problem in time $\tilde O(p^{1/2})$, a result that previously required to assume the generalized Riemann hypothesis. To prove our main result, we introduce a flexible framework for the study of isogeny graphs with additional information. We prove a general and easy-to-use rapid mixing theorem.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
To attest or not to attest, this is the question – Provable attestation in FIDO2
Nina Bindel, Nicolas Gama, Sandra Guasch, and Eyal Ronen
FIDO2 is currently the main initiative for passwordless authentication in web servers. It mandates the use of secure hardware authenticators to protect the authentication protocol’s secrets from compromise. However, to ensure that only secure authenticators are being used, web servers need a method to attest their properties. The FIDO2 specifications allow for authenticators and web servers to choose between different attestation modes to prove the characteristics of an authenticator, however the properties of most these modes have not been analysed in the context of FIDO2. In this work, we analyse the security and privacy properties of FIDO2 when different attestation modes included in the standard are used, and show that they lack good balance between security, privacy and revocation of corrupted devices. For example, the basic attestation mode prevents remote servers from tracing user’s actions across different services while requiring reduced trust assumptions. However in case one device is compromised, all the devices from the same batch (e.g., of the same brand or model) need to be recalled, which can be quite complex (and arguably impractical) in consumer scenarios. As a consequence we suggest a new attestation mode based on the recently proposed TokenWeaver, which provides more convenient mechanisms for revoking a single token while maintaining user privacy.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Algebraic Attacks on Round-Reduced RAIN and Full AIM-III
Kaiyi Zhang, Qingju Wang, Yu Yu, Chun Guo, and Hongrui Cui
Picnic is a NIST PQC Round 3 Alternate signature candidate that builds upon symmetric primitives following the MPC-in-the-head paradigm. Recently, researchers have been exploring more secure/efficient signature schemes from conservative one-way functions based on AES, or new low complexity one-way functions like Rain (CCS 2022) and AIM (CCS 2023). The signature schemes based on Rain and AIM are currently the most efficient among MPC-in-the-head-based schemes, making them promising post-quantum digital signature candidates. However, the exact hardness of these new one-way functions deserves further study and scrutiny. This work presents algebraic attacks on RAIN and AIM for certain instances, where one-round Rain can be compromised in $2^{n/2}$ for security parameter $n\in \{128,192,256\}$, and two-round Rain can be broken in $2^{120.3}$, $2^{180.4}$, and $2^{243.1}$ encryptions, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrate an attack on AIM-III (which aims at 192-bit security) with a complexity of $2^{186.5}$ encryptions. These attacks exploit the algebraic structure of the power function over fields with characteristic 2, which provides potential insights into the algebraic structures of some symmetric primitives and thus might be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Parallel Hardware for Isogeny-based VDF: Attacker's Perspective
David Jacquemin, Anisha Mukherjee, Ahmet Can Mert, and Sujoy Sinha Roy
The long running time of isogeny-based cryptographic constructions has proved to be a boon in disguise for one particular type of primitive called Verifiable Delay Functions (VDFs). VDFs are characterised by sequential function evaluation but an immediate output verification. In order to ensure secure use of VDFs in real-world applications, it is important to determine the fastest implementation. Considering the point of view of an attacker (say with unbounded resources), this paper aims to achieve the fastest possible hardware implementation of isogeny-based VDFs. It is the first work that implements the $2^T$-isogeny walk involved in the evaluation step of an isogeny VDF. To meet our goal, we use redundant representations of integers and introduce a new lookup table-based algorithm for modular reduction. We also provide a survey of elliptic curve arithmetic to arrive at the most cost-effective curve computations and propose an improvement of the point doubling algorithm for better parallelism. The evaluation step of a VDF is defined to be sequential, which means that there is limited scope for parallelism. Nevertheless, taking this constraint into account our proposed design targets the highest levels of parallelism possible on an architectural level of an isogeny VDF implementation. We provide detailed analysis of all our arithmetic modules as well as estimates for their critical path delays and area consumption. Our 28nm ASIC design computes a $4^{100} = 2^{200}$-isogeny in 7.1$\mu s$. It is the first high-performance ASIC implementation for evaluation of isogeny VDFs.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Generic SCARE: reverse engineering without knowing the algorithm nor the machine
Ronan Lashermes and Hélène Le Bouder
We introduce a novel side-channel-based reverse engineering technique capable of reconstructing a procedure solely from inputs, outputs, and traces of execution. Beyond generic restrictions, we do not assume any prior knowledge of the procedure or the chip it operates on. These restrictions confine our analysis to 8-bit RISC constant-time software implementations. Specifically, we demonstrate the feasibility of reconstructing a symmetric cryptographic cipher, even in scenarios where traces are sampled with information loss and noise, such as when measuring the power consumption of the chip.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Incrementally Verifiable Computation via Rate-1 Batch Arguments
Omer Paneth and Rafael Pass
Non-interactive delegation schemes enable producing succinct proofs (that can be efficiently verified) that a machine $M$ transitions from $c_1$ to $c_2$ in a certain number of deterministic steps. We here consider the problem of efficiently \emph{merging} such proofs: given a proof $\Pi_1$ that $M$ transitions from $c_1$ to $c_2$, and a proof $\Pi_2$ that $M$ transitions from $c_2$ to $c_3$, can these proofs be efficiently merged into a single short proof (of roughly the same size as the original proofs) that $M$ transitions from $c_1$ to $c_3$? To date, the only known constructions of such a mergeable delegation scheme rely on strong non-falsifiable ``knowledge extraction" assumptions. In this work, we present a provably secure construction based on the standard LWE assumption. As an application of mergeable delegation, we obtain a construction of incrementally verifiable computation (IVC) (with polylogarithmic length proofs) for any (unbounded) polynomial number of steps based on LWE; as far as we know, this is the first such construction based on any falsifiable (as opposed to knowledge-extraction) assumption. The central building block that we rely on, and construct based on LWE, is a rate-1 batch argument (BARG): this is a non-interactive argument for NP that enables proving $k$ NP statements $x_1,..., x_k$ with communication/verifier complexity $m+o(m)$, where $m$ is the length of one witness. Rate-1 BARGs are particularly useful as they can be recursively composed a super-constant number of times.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
OpenVoting: Recoverability from Failures in Dual Voting
Prashant Agrawal, Kabir Tomer, Abhinav Nakarmi, Mahabir Prasad Jhanwar, Subodh Sharma, and Subhashis Banerjee
In this paper we address the problem of recovery from failures without re-running entire elections when elections fail to verify. We consider the setting of $\textit{dual voting}$ protocols, where the cryptographic guarantees of end-to-end verifiable voting (E2E-V) are combined with the simplicity of audit using voter-verified paper records (VVPR). We first consider the design requirements of such a system and then suggest a protocol called $\textit{OpenVoting}$, which identifies a verifiable subset of error-free votes consistent with the VVPRs, and the polling booths corresponding to the votes that fail to verify with possible reasons for the failures.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Robust Publicly Verifiable Covert Security: Limited Information Leakage and Guaranteed Correctness with Low Overhead
Yi Liu, Junzuo Lai, Qi Wang, Xianrui Qin, Anjia Yang, and Jian Weng
Protocols with \emph{publicly verifiable covert (PVC) security} offer high efficiency and an appealing feature: a covert party may deviate from the protocol, but with a probability (\eg $90\%$, referred to as the \emph{deterrence factor}), the honest party can identify this deviation and expose it using a publicly verifiable certificate. These protocols are particularly suitable for practical applications involving reputation-conscious parties. However, in the cases where misbehavior goes undetected (\eg with a probability of $10\%$), \emph{no security guarantee is provided for the honest party}, potentially resulting in a complete loss of input privacy and output correctness. In this paper, we tackle this critical problem by presenting a highly effective solution. We introduce and formally define an enhanced notion called \emph{robust PVC security}, such that even if the misbehavior remains undetected, the malicious party can only gain an additional $1$-bit of information about the honest party's input while maintaining the correctness of the output. We propose a novel approach leveraging \emph{dual execution} and \emph{time-lock puzzles} to design a robust PVC-secure two-party protocol with \emph{low overhead} (depending on the deterrence factor). For instance, with a deterrence factor of $90\%$, our robust PVC-secure protocol incurs \emph{only additional ${\sim}10\%$ overhead} compared to the state-of-the-art PVC-secure protocol. Given the stronger security guarantees with low overhead, our protocol is highly suitable for practical applications of secure two-party computation.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
More Insight on Deep Learning-aided Cryptanalysis
Zhenzhen Bao, Jinyu Lu, Yiran Yao, and Liu Zhang
In CRYPTO 2019, Gohr showed that well-trained neural networks could perform cryptanalytic distinguishing tasks superior to differential distribution table (DDT)-based distinguishers. This suggests that the differential-neural distinguisher (ND) may use additional information besides pure ciphertext differences. However, the explicit knowledge beyond differential distribution is still unclear. In this work, we provide explicit rules that can be used alongside DDTs to enhance the effectiveness of distinguishers compared to pure DDT-based distinguishers. These rules are based on strong correlations between bit values in right pairs of XOR-differential propagation through addition modulo $2^n$. Interestingly, they can be closely linked to the earlier study of the multi-bit constraints and the recent study of the fixed-key differential probability. In contrast, combining these rules does not improve the NDs' performance. This suggests that these rules or their equivalent form have already been exploited by NDs, highlighting the power of neural networks in cryptanalysis. In addition, we find that to enhance the differential-neural distinguisher's accuracy and the number of rounds, regulating the differential propagation is imperative. Introducing differences into the keys is typically believed to help eliminate differences in encryption states, resulting in stronger differential propagations. However, differential-neural attacks differ from traditional ones as they don't specify output differences or follow a single differential trail. This questions the usefulness of introducing differences in a key in differential-neural attacks and the resistance of Speck against such attacks in the related-key setting. This work shows that the power of differential-neural cryptanalysis in the related-key setting can exceed that in the single-key setting by successfully conducting a 14-round key recovery attack on Speck32/64.
Last updated:  2023-09-17
Comparse: Provably Secure Formats for Cryptographic Protocols
Théophile Wallez, Jonathan Protzenko, and Karthikeyan Bhargavan
Data formats used for cryptographic inputs have historically been the source of many attacks on cryptographic protocols, but their security guarantees remain poorly studied. One reason is that, due to their low-level nature, formats often fall outside of the security model. Another reason is that studying all of the uses of all of the formats within one protocol is too difficult to do by hand, and requires a comprehensive, automated framework. We propose a new framework, “Comparse”, that specifically tackles the security analysis of data formats in cryptographic protocols. Comparse forces the protocol analyst to systematically think about data formats, formalize them precisely, and show that they enjoy strong enough properties to guarantee the security of the protocol. Our methodology is developed in three steps. First, we introduce a high-level cryptographic API that lifts the traditional game-based cryptographic assumptions over bitstrings to work over high-level messages, using formats. This allows us to derive the conditions that secure formats must obey in order for their usage to be secure. Second, equipped with these security criteria, we implement a framework for specifying and verifying secure formats in the F* proof assistant. Our approach is based on format combinators, which enable compositional and modular proofs. In many cases, we relieve the user of having to write those combinators by hand, using compile-time term synthesis via Meta-F*. Finally, we show that our F* implementation can replace the symbolic notion of message formats previously implemented in the DY* protocol analysis framework. Our newer, bit-level precise accounting of formats closes the modeling gap, and allows DY* to reason about concrete messages and identify protocol flaws that it was previously oblivious to. We evaluate Comparse over several classic and real-world protocols. Our largest case studies use Comparse to formalize and provide security proofs for the formats used in TLS 1.3, as well as upcoming protocols like MLS and Compact TLS 1.3 (cTLS), providing confidence and feedback in the design of these protocols.
Last updated:  2023-09-18
Cuckoo Commitments: Registration-Based Encryption and Key-Value Map Commitments for Large Spaces
Dario Fiore, Dimitris Kolonelos, and Paola de Perthuis
Registration-Based Encryption (RBE) [Garg et al. TCC'18] is a public-key encryption mechanism in which users generate their own public and secret keys, and register their public keys with a central authority called the key curator. Similarly to Identity-Based Encryption (IBE), in RBE users can encrypt by only knowing the public parameters and the public identity of the recipient. Unlike IBE, though, RBE does not suffer the key escrow problem — one of the main obstacles of IBE's adoption in practice — since the key curator holds no secret. In this work, we put forward a new methodology to construct RBE schemes that support large users identities (i.e., arbitrary strings). Our main result is the first efficient pairing-based RBE for large identities. Prior to our work, the most efficient RBE is that of [Glaeser et al. ePrint'22] which only supports small identities. The only known RBE schemes with large identities are realized either through expensive non-black-box techniques (ciphertexts of 3.6 TB for 1000 users), or via a specialized lattice-based construction [Döttling et al. Eurocrypt'23] (ciphertexts of 2.4 GB), or through the more complex notion of Registered Attribute-Based Encryption [Hohenberger et al. Eurocrypt’23]. By unlocking the use of pairings for RBE with large identity space, we enable a further improvement of three orders of magnitude, as our ciphertexts for a system with 1000 users are 1.7 MB. The core technique of our approach is a novel use of cuckoo hashing in cryptography that can be of independent interest. We give two main applications. The first one is the aforementioned RBE methodology, where we use cuckoo hashing to compile an RBE with small identities into one for large identities. The second one is a way to convert any vector commitment scheme into a key-value map commitment. For instance, this leads to the first algebraic pairing-based key-value map commitments.
Last updated:  2023-09-22
Sigma Protocols from Verifiable Secret Sharing and Their Applications
Min Zhang, Yu Chen, Chuanzhou Yao, and Zhichao Wang
Sigma protocols are one of the most common and efficient zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs). Over the decades, a large number of Sigma protocols are proposed, yet few works pay attention to the common design principal. In this work, we propose a generic framework of Sigma protocols for algebraic statements from verifiable secret sharing (VSS) schemes. Our framework provides a general and unified approach to understanding Sigma protocols. It not only neatly explains the classic protocols such as Schnorr, Guillou–Quisquater and Okamoto protocols, but also leads to new Sigma protocols that were not previously known. Furthermore, we show an application of our framework in designing ZKPs for composite statements, which contain both algebraic and non-algebraic statements. We give a generic construction of non-interactive ZKPs for composite statements by combining Sigma protocols from VSS and ZKPs following MPC-in-the-head paradigm in a seamless way via a technique of \textit{witness sharing reusing}. Our construction has advantages of requiring no “glue” proofs for combining algebraic and non-algebraic statements. By instantiating our construction using Ligero++ (Bhadauria et al., CCS 2020) and designing an associated Sigma protocol from VSS, we obtain a concrete ZKP for composite statements which achieves a tradeoff between running time and proof size, thus resolving the open problem left by Backes et al. (PKC 2019).
Last updated:  2023-09-17
Blockwise Rank Decoding Problem and LRPC Codes: Cryptosystems with Smaller Sizes
Yongcheng Song, Jiang Zhang, Xinyi Huang, and Wei Wu
In this paper, we initiate the study of the Rank Decoding (RD) problem and LRPC codes with blockwise structures in rank-based cryptosystems. First, we introduce the blockwise errors ($\ell$-errors) where each error consists of $\ell$ blocks of coordinates with disjoint supports, and define the blockwise RD ($\ell$-RD) problem as a natural generalization of the RD problem whose solutions are $\ell$-errors (note that the standard RD problem is actually a special $\ell$-RD problem with $\ell=1$). We adapt the typical attacks on the RD problem to the $\ell$-RD problem, and find that the blockwise structures do not ease the problem too much: the $\ell$-RD problem is still exponentially hard for appropriate choices of $\ell>1$. Second, we introduce blockwise LRPC ($\ell$-LRPC) codes as generalizations of the standard LPRC codes whose parity-check matrices can be divided into $\ell$ sub-matrices with disjoint supports, i.e., the intersection of two subspaces generated by the entries of any two sub-matrices is a null space, and investigate the decoding algorithms for $\ell$-errors. We find that the gain of using $\ell$-errors in decoding capacity outweighs the complexity loss in solving the $\ell$-RD problem, which makes it possible to design more efficient rank-based cryptosystems with flexible choices of parameters. As an application, we show that the two rank-based cryptosystems submitted to the NIST PQC competition, namely, RQC and ROLLO, can be greatly improved by using the ideal variants of the $\ell$-RD problem and $\ell$-LRPC codes. Concretely, for 128-bit security, our RQC has total public key and ciphertext sizes of 2.5 KB, which is not only about 50% more compact than the original RQC, but also smaller than the NIST Round 4 code-based submissions HQC, BIKE, and Classic McEliece.
Last updated:  2023-09-16
Improving Privacy of Anonymous Proof-of-Stake Protocols
Shichen Wu, Zhiying Song, Puwen Wei, Peng Tang, and Quan Yuan
The proof of stake (PoS) mechanism, which allows stakeholders to issue a block with a probability proportional to their wealth instead of computational power, is believed to be an energy-efficient alternative to the proof of work (PoW). The privacy concern of PoS, however, is more subtle than that of PoW. Recent research has shown that current anonymous PoS (APoS) protocols do not suffice to protect the stakeholder's identity and stake, and the loss of privacy is theoretically inherent for any (deterministic) PoS protocol that provides liveness guarantees. In this paper, we consider the concrete stake privacy of PoS when considering the limitations of attacks in practice. To quantify the concrete stake privacy of PoS, we introduce the notion of $(T, \delta, \epsilon)$-privacy. Our analysis of $(T, \delta, \epsilon)$-privacy on Cardano shows to what extent the stake privacy can be broken in practice, which also implies possible parameters setting of rational $(T, \delta, \epsilon)$-privacy for PoS in the real world. The data analysis of Cardano demonstrates that the $(T, \delta, \epsilon)$-privacy of current APoS is not satisfactory, mainly due to the deterministic leader election predicate in current PoS constructions. Inspired by the differential privacy technique, we propose an efficient non-deterministic leader election predicate, which can be used as a plugin to APoS protocols to protect stakes against frequency analysis. Based on our leader election predicate, we construct anonymous PoS with noise (APoS-N), which can offer better $(T, \delta, \epsilon)$-privacy than state-of-the-art works. Furthermore, we propose a method of proving the basic security properties of PoS in the noise setting, which can minimize the impact of the noise on the security threshold. This method can also be applied to the setting of PoS with variable stakes, which is of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-09-15
WhatsUpp with Sender Keys? Analysis, Improvements and Security Proofs
David Balbás, Daniel Collins, and Phillip Gajland
Developing end-to-end encrypted instant messaging solutions for group conversations is an ongoing challenge that has garnered significant attention from practitioners and the cryptographic community alike. Notably, industry-leading messaging apps such as WhatsApp and Signal Messenger have adopted the Sender Keys protocol, where each group member shares their own symmetric encryption key with others. Despite its widespread adoption, Sender Keys has never been formally modelled in the cryptographic literature, raising the following natural question: What can be proven about the security of the Sender Keys protocol, and how can we practically mitigate its shortcomings? In addressing this question, we first introduce a novel security model to suit protocols like Sender Keys, deviating from conventional group key agreement-based abstractions. Our framework allows for a natural integration of two-party messaging within group messaging sessions that may be of independent interest. Leveraging this framework, we conduct the first formal analysis of the Sender Keys protocol, and prove it satisfies a weak notion of security. Towards improving security, we propose a series of efficient modifications to Sender Keys without imposing significant performance overhead. We combine these refinements into a new protocol that we call Sender Keys+, which may be of interest both in theory and practice.
Last updated:  2023-09-15
Application of Mordell-Weil lattices with large kissing numbers to acceleration of multi-scalar multiplication on elliptic curves
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article aims to speed up (the precomputation stage of) multi-scalar multiplication (MSM) on ordinary elliptic curves of $j$-invariant $0$ with respect to specific ''independent'' (a.k.a. ''basis'') points. For this purpose, so-called Mordell--Weil lattices (up to rank $8$) with large kissing numbers (up to $240$) are employed. In a nutshell, the new approach consists in obtaining more efficiently a considerable number (up to $240$) of certain elementary linear combinations of the ``independent'' points. By scaling the point (re)generation process, it is thus possible to get a significant performance gain. As usual, the resulting curve points can be then regularly used in the main stage of an MSM algorithm to avoid repeating computations. Seemingly, this is the first usage of lattices with large kissing numbers in cryptography, while such lattices have already found numerous applications in other mathematical domains. Without exaggeration, the article results can strongly affect performance of today's real-world elliptic cryptography, since MSM is a widespread primitive (often the unique bottleneck) in modern protocols. Moreover, the new (re)generation technique is prone to further improvements by considering Mordell--Weil lattices with even greater kissing numbers.
Last updated:  2023-09-15
Registered ABE via Predicate Encodings
Ziqi Zhu, Kai Zhang, Junqing Gong, and Haifeng Qian
This paper presents the first generic black-box construction of registered attribute-based encryption (Reg-ABE) via predicate encoding [TCC'14]. The generic scheme is based on $k$-Lin assumption in the prime-order bilinear group and implies the following concrete schemes that improve existing results: - the first Reg-ABE scheme for span program in the prime-order group; prior work uses composite-order group; - the first Reg-ABE scheme for zero inner-product predicate from $k$-Lin assumption; prior work relies on generic group model (GGM); - the first Reg-ABE scheme for arithmetic branching program (ABP) which has not been achieved previously. Technically, we follow the blueprint of Hohenberger et al. [EUROCRYPT'23] but start from the prime-order dual-system ABE by Chen et al. [EUROCRYPT'15], which transforms a predicate encoding into an ABE. The proof follows the dual-system method in the context of Reg-ABE: we conceptually consider helper keys as secret keys; furthermore, malicious public keys are handled via pairing-based quasi-adaptive non-interactive zero-knowledge argument by Kiltz and Wee [EUROCRYPT'15].
Last updated:  2023-09-15
HELM: Navigating Homomorphic Encryption through Gates and Lookup Tables
Charles Gouert, Dimitris Mouris, and Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos
As cloud computing continues to gain widespread adoption, safeguarding the confidentiality of data entrusted to third-party cloud service providers becomes a critical concern. While traditional encryption methods offer protection for data at rest and in transit, they fall short when it comes to where it matters the most, i.e., during data processing. To address this limitation, we present HELM, a framework for privacy-preserving data processing using homomorphic encryption. HELM automatically transforms arbitrary programs expressed in a Hardware Description Language (HDL), such as Verilog, into equivalent homomorphic circuits, which can then be efficiently evaluated using encrypted inputs. HELM features two modes of encrypted evaluation: a) a gate mode that consists of standard Boolean gates, and b) a lookup table mode which significantly reduces the size of the circuit by combining multiple gates into lookup tables. Finally, HELM introduces a scheduler that enables embarrassingly parallel processing in the encrypted domain. We evaluate HELM with the ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 benchmark suites as well as real-world applications such as AES and image filtering. Our results outperform prior works by up to $65\times$.
Last updated:  2023-09-14
Sometimes You Can’t Distribute Random-Oracle-Based Proofs
Jack Doerner, Yashvanth Kondi, and Leah Namisa Rosenbloom
We investigate the conditions under which straight-line extractable NIZKs in the random oracle model (i.e. without a CRS) permit multiparty realizations that are black-box in the same random oracle. We show that even in the semi-honest setting, any MPC protocol to compute such a NIZK cannot make black-box use of the random oracle or a hash function instantiating it if security against all-but-one corruptions is desired, unless the size of the NIZK grows with the number of parties. This presents a fundamental barrier to constructing efficient protocols to securely distribute the computation of NIZKs (and signatures) based on MPC-in-the-head, PCPs/IOPs, and sigma protocols compiled with transformations due to Fischlin, Pass, or Unruh. When the adversary is restricted to corrupt only a constant fraction of parties, we give a positive result by means of a tailored construction, which demonstrates that our impossibility does not extend to weaker corruptions models in general.
Last updated:  2023-09-14
Tighter Security for Generic Authenticated Key Exchange in the QROM
Jiaxin Pan, Benedikt Wagner, and Runzhi Zeng
We give a tighter security proof for authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocols that are generically constructed from key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). Previous works (Hövelmanns et al., PKC 2020) gave reductions for such a KEM-based AKE protocol in the QROM to the underlying primitives with square-root loss and a security loss in the number of users and total sessions. Our proof is much tighter and does not have square-root loss. Namely, it only loses a factor depending on the number of users, not on the number of sessions. Our main enabler is a new variant of lossy encryption which we call parameter lossy encryption. In this variant, there are not only lossy public keys but also lossy system parameters. This allows us to embed a computational assumption into the system parameters, and the lossy public keys are statistically close to the normal public keys. Combining with the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, we obtain the first tightly IND-CCA secure KEM in the QROM in a multi-user (without corruption), multi-challenge setting. Finally, we show that a multi-user, multi-challenge KEM implies a square-root-tight and session-tight AKE protocol in the QROM. By implementing the parameter lossy encryption tightly from lattices, we obtain the first square-root-tight and session-tight AKE from lattices in the QROM.
Last updated:  2023-09-20
GLEVIAN and VIGORNIAN: Robust beyond-birthday AEAD modes
Peter Campbell
The National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) is the government organisation responsible for mitigating cyber security risks to the UK. Our work securing UK public- and private-sector networks involves (amongst many other security measures) research into cryptographic design, primarily to protect data requiring long-term security or data for which we have a particularly low tolerance of risk to its transmission and storage. Our algorithms prioritise robustness over other important considerations, such as performance, more highly than other designs. We present GLEVIAN and VIGORNIAN: two AEAD modes with proofs of beyond-birthday security, security against nonce misuse, and against the release of unverified plaintext – both of the latter in strong notions of these security properties. We discuss our hierarchy of requirements for AEAD modes, and the rationale for the design choices made. GLEVIAN and VIGORNIAN demonstrate we can achieve significantly improved robustness over GCM for use cases where some performance degradation is acceptable. We are not aware of other designs offering exactly the security properties of GLEVIAN and VIGORNIAN, and are publishing our designs to support the research that will inform the recently announced effort by NIST to standardise new modes of operation. We believe our work could be of interest to those with use cases similar to ours, and we offer suggestions for future research that might build on the work in this paper.
Last updated:  2023-09-14
Advisor-Verifier-Prover Games and the Hardness of Information Theoretic Cryptography
Benny Applebaum and Oded Nir
A major open problem in information-theoretic cryptography is to obtain a super-polynomial lower bound for the communication complexity of basic cryptographic tasks. This question is wide open even for very powerful non-interactive primitives such as private information retrieval (or locally-decodable codes), general secret sharing schemes, conditional disclosure of secrets, and fully-decomposable randomized encoding (or garbling schemes). In fact, for all these primitives we do not even have super-linear lower bounds. Furthermore, it is unknown how to relate these questions to each other or to other complexity-theoretic questions. In this note, we relate all these questions to the classical topic of query/space trade-offs, lifted to the setting of interactive proof systems. Specifically, we consider the following Advisor-Verifier-Prover (AVP) game: First, a function $f$ is given to the advisor who computes an advice $a$. Next, an input $x$ is given to the verifier and to the prover who claims that $f(x)=1$. The verifier should check this claim via a single round of interaction based on the private advice $a$ and without having any additional information on $f$. We focus on the case where the prover is laconic and communicates only a constant number of bits, and, mostly restrict the attention to the simplest, purely information-theoretic setting, where all parties are allowed to be computationally unbounded. The goal is to minimize the total communication complexity which is dominated by the length of the advice plus the length of the verifier's query. As our main result, we show that a super-polynomial lower bound for AVPs implies a super-polynomial lower bound for a wide range of information-theoretic cryptographic tasks. In particular, we present a communication-efficient transformation from any of the above primitives into an AVP protocol. Interestingly, each primitive induces some additional property over the resulting protocol. Thus AVP games form a new common yardstick that highlights the differences between all the above primitives. Equipped with this view, we revisit the existing (somewhat weak) lower bounds for the above primitives, and show that many of these lower bounds can be unified by proving a single counting-based lower bound on the communication of AVPs, whereas some techniques are inherently limited to specific domains. The latter is shown by proving the first polynomial separations between the complexity of secret-sharing schemes and conditional disclosure of secrets and between the complexity of randomized encodings and conditional disclosure of secrets.
Last updated:  2023-09-14
Janus: Fast Privacy-Preserving Data Provenance For TLS 1.3
Jan Lauinger, Jens Ernstberger, Andreas Finkenzeller, and Sebastian Steinhorst
TLS oracles guard the transition of web data from an authenticated session between a client and a server to a data representation that any third party can verify. Current TLS oracles resolve weak security assumptions with cryptographic algorithms that provide strong security guarantees (e.g., maliciously secure two-party computation). However, we notice that the conditions and characteristics of TLS 1.3 allow for reconsidering security assumptions. Our work shows that the deployment of semi-honest two-party computation is feasible with a single exception, while retaining equivalent security properties. Further, we introduce a new parity checksum construction to decouple the integrity verification over AEAD stream ciphers into dedicated proof systems and improve end-to-end performance benchmarks. We achieve a selective and privacy-preserving data opening on 16 kB of TLS 1.3 data in 2.11 seconds and open 10x more data compared to related approaches. Thus, our work sets new boundaries for privacy-preserving TLS 1.3 data proofs.
Last updated:  2023-09-14
Bootstrapping Homomorphic Encryption via Functional Encryption
Nir bitansky and Tomer Solomon
Homomorphic encryption is a central object in modern cryptography, with far-reaching applications. Constructions supporting homomorphic evaluation of arbitrary Boolean circuits have been known for over a decade, based on standard lattice assumptions. However, these constructions are leveled, meaning that they only support circuits up to some a-priori bounded depth. These leveled constructions can be bootstrapped into fully homomorphic ones, but this requires additional circular security assumptions, which are construction-dependent, and where reductions to standard lattice assumptions are no longer known. Alternative constructions are known based on indistinguishability obfuscation, which has been recently constructed under standard assumptions. However, this alternative requires subexponential hardness of the underlying primitives. We prove a new bootstrapping theorem relying on functional encryption, which is known based on standard polynomial hardness assumptions. As a result we obtain the first fully homomorphic encryption scheme that avoids both circular security assumptions and super-polynomial hardness assumptions. The construction is secure against uniform adversaries, and can be made non-uniformly secure, under a widely-believed worst-case complexity assumption (essentially that non-uniformity does not allow arbitrary polynomial speedup). At the heart of the construction is a new proof technique based on cryptographic puzzles. Unlike most cryptographic reductions, our security reduction does not fully treat the adversary as a black box, but rather makes explicit use of its running time (or circuit size).
Last updated:  2023-09-14
DeepCover DS28C36: A Hardware Vulnerability Identification and Exploitation Using T-Test and Double Laser Fault Injection
Karim M. Abdellatif and Olivier Hériveaux
DeepCover is a secure authenticator circuit family developed by Analog Devices. It was designed to provide cryptographic functions, true random number generation, and EEPROM secure storage. DS28C36 is one of the DeepCover family, which is widely used in secure boot and secure download for IoT. It has been recently deployed in the Coldcard Mk4 hardware wallet as a second secure element to enhance its security. In this paper, we present for the first time, a detailed evaluation for the DS28C36 secure EEPROM against Laser Fault Injection (LFI). In the context of a black box approach, we prove by experimental results that the chip resists single fault attacks. In order to overcome this, we present the use of leakage detection such as Welch’s T-test to facilitate finding the correct moments for injecting successful faults, which is not common in Fault Injection (FI) as this method has been used only for Side-Channel Attacks (SCAs). By using this knowledge, we found two moments for injecting laser pulses to extract the protected EEPROM user pages with 99% success rate. The attack can be reproduced within a day. The presented attack negatively impacts the users of DS28C36 (including Coldcard Mk4).
Last updated:  2023-09-14
On Weighted-Sum Orthogonal Latin Squares and Secret Sharing
Koji Nuida and Tomoko Adachi
Latin squares are a classical and well-studied topic of discrete mathematics, and recently Takeuti and Adachi (IACR ePrint, 2023) proposed (2,n)-threshold secret sharing based on mutually orthogonal Latin squares (MOLS). Hence efficient constructions of as large sets of MOLS as possible are also important from practical viewpoints. In this letter, we determine the maximum number of MOLS among a known class of Latin squares defined by weighted sums. We also mention some known property of Latin squares interpreted via the relation to secret sharing and a connection of Takeuti-Adachi's scheme to Shamir's secret sharing scheme.
Last updated:  2023-09-13
Reframing And Extending The Random Probing Expansion
Giuseppe Manzoni
In the context of circuits leaking the internal state, there are various models to analyze what the adversary can see, like the $p$-random probing model in which the adversary can see the value of each wire with probability $p$. In this model, for a fixed $p$, it's possible to reach an arbitrary security by 'expanding' a stateless circuit via iterated compilation, reaching a security of $2^{-\kappa}$ with a polynomial size in $\kappa$. The existing proofs of the expansion work by first compiling the gadgets multiple times, and then by compiling the circuit with the resulting gadgets while assuming the worst from the original circuit. Instead, we reframe the expansion as a security reduction from the compiled circuit to the original one. Additionally, we extend it to support a broader range of encodings, and arbitrary probabilistic gates with an arbitrary number of inputs and outputs. This allows us to obtain two concrete results: (i) At the cost of an additional size factor $\mathcal{O}(\log(d)^3)$, any $d$-probing secure compiler can be used to produce stateless circuits with security $2^{-d}$ against any adversary that sees all wires with a constant SD-noise of $2^{-7.41}/p$, where $p$ is the characteristic of the circuit's field. (ii) Any $n$-shares compiler with $(t,f)$-RPE gadgets needs $t+1$ (which in practice is $\lceil\frac{n}{2}\rceil$) randoms in the random gadget instead of $n$.
Last updated:  2023-09-15
Cryptographic Key Exchange: An Innovation Outlook
Gideon Samid
This article evaluates the innovation landscape facing the challenge of generating fresh shared randomness for cryptographic key exchange and various cyber security protocols. It discusses the main innovation thrust today, focused on quantum entanglement and on efficient engineering solutions to BB84, and its related alternatives. This innovation outlook highlights non-quantum solutions, and describes NEPSAR – a mechanical complexity based solution, which is applicable to any number of key sharing parties. Short-lived secret keys are also mentioned, as well as emerging innovation routes based on Richard Feynman’s observation: “there is plenty of room at the bottom,” extracting plenty of digital randomness from tiny amounts of matter, yielding very many measurable attributes (nanotechnology).
Last updated:  2023-09-13
Oracle Recording for Non-Uniform Random Oracles, and its Applications
Minki Hhan and Aaram Yun
In Crypto 2019, Zhandry showed how to define compressed oracles, which record quantum superposition queries to the quantum random oracle. In this paper, we extend Zhandry's compressed oracle technique to non-uniformly distributed functions with independently sampled outputs. We define two quantum oracles $\mathsf{CStO}_D$ and $\mathsf{CPhsO}_D$, which are indistinguishable to the non-uniform quantum random oracle where quantum access is given to a random function $H$ whose images $H(x)$ are sampled from a probability distribution $D$ independently for each $x$. We show that these compressed oracles record the adversarial quantum superposition queries. Also, we re-prove the optimality of Grover search and the collision resistance of non-uniform random functions, using our extended compressed oracle technique.
Last updated:  2023-09-13
Ideal-SVP is Hard for Small-Norm Uniform Prime Ideals
Joël Felderhoff, Alice Pellet-Mary, Damien Stehlé, and Benjamin Wesolowski
The presumed hardness of the Shortest Vector Problem for ideal lattices (Ideal-SVP) has been a fruitful assumption to understand other assumptions on algebraic lattices and as a security foundation of cryptosystems. Gentry [CRYPTO'10] proved that Ideal-SVP enjoys a worst-case to average-case reduction, where the average-case distribution is the uniform distribution over the set of inverses of prime ideals of small algebraic norm (below $d^{O(d)}$ for cyclotomic fields, here $d$ refers to the field degree). De Boer et al. [CRYPTO'20] obtained another random self-reducibility result for an average-case distribution involving integral ideals of norm $2^{O(d^2)}$. In this work, we show that Ideal-SVP for the uniform distribution over inverses of small-norm prime ideals reduces to Ideal-SVP for the uniform distribution over small-norm prime ideals. Combined with Gentry's reduction, this leads to a worst-case to average-case reduction for the uniform distribution over the set of \emph{small-norm prime ideals}. Using the reduction from Pellet-Mary and Stehl\'e [ASIACRYPT'21], this notably leads to the first distribution over NTRU instances with a polynomial modulus whose hardness is supported by a worst-case lattice problem.
Last updated:  2023-09-16
Ramp hyper-invertible matrices and their applications to MPC protocols
Hongqing Liu, Chaoping Xing, Yanjiang Yang, and Chen Yuan
Beerliová-Trubíniová and Hirt introduced hyper-invertible matrix technique to construct the first perfectly secure MPC protocol in the presence of maximal malicious corruptions $\lfloor \frac{n-1}{3} \rfloor$ with linear communication complexity per multiplication gate [5]. This matrix allows MPC protocol to generate correct shares of uniformly random secrets in the presence of malicious adversary. Moreover, the amortized communication complexity of generating each sharing is linear. Due to this prominent feature, the hyper-invertible matrix plays an important role in the construction of MPC protocol and zero-knowledge proof protocol where the randomness needs to be jointly generated. However, the downside of this matrix is that the size of its base field is linear in the size of its matrix. This means if we construct an $n$-party MPC protocol over $\mathbb{F}_q$ via hyper-invertible matrix, $q$ is at least $2n$. In this paper, we propose the ramp hyper-invertible matrix which can be seen as the generalization of hyper-invertible matrix. Our ramp hyper-invertible matrix can be defined over constant-size field regardless of the size of this matrix. Similar to the arithmetic secret sharing scheme, to apply our ramp hyper-invertible matrix to perfectly secure MPC protocol, the maximum number of corruptions has to be compromised to $\frac{(1-\epsilon)n}{3}$. As a consequence, we present the first perfectly secure MPC protocol in the presence of $\frac{(1-\epsilon)n}{3}$ malicious corruptions with constant communication complexity. Besides presenting the variant of hyper-invertible matrix, we overcome several obstacles in the construction of this MPC protocol. Our arithmetic secret sharing scheme over constant-size field is compatible with the player elimination technique, i.e., it supports the dynamic changes of party number and corrupted party number. Moreover, we rewrite the public reconstruction protocol to support the sharings over constant-size field. Putting these together leads to the constant-size field variant of celebrated MPC protocol in [5]. We note that although it was widely acknowledged that there exists an MPC protocol with constant communication complexity by replacing Shamir secret sharing scheme with arithmetic secret sharing scheme, there is no reference seriously describing such protocol in detail. Our work fills the missing detail by providing MPC primitive for any applications relying on MPC protocol of constant communication complexity. As an application of our perfectly secure MPC protocol which implies perfect robustness in the MPC-in-the-Head framework, we present the constant-rate zero-knowledge proof with $3$ communication rounds. The previous work achieves constant-rate with $5$ communication rounds [32] due to the statistical robustness of their MPC protocol. Another application of our ramp hyper-invertible matrix is the information-theoretic multi-verifier zero-knowledge for circuit satisfiability[43]. We manage to remove the dependence of the size of circuit and security parameter from the share size.
Last updated:  2023-09-12
Towards post-quantum secure PAKE - A tight security proof for OCAKE in the BPR model
Nouri Alnahawi, Kathrin Hövelmanns, Andreas Hülsing, Silvia Ritsch, and Alexander Wiesmaier
We revisit OCAKE (ACNS 23), a generic recipe that constructs password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) from key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) in a black-box way. This allows to potentially achieve post-quantum security by instantiating the KEM with a post-quantum KEM like KYBER. It was left as an open problem to further adapt the proof such that it also holds against quantum attackers. The security proof is given in the universal composability (UC) framework, which is commonly used to model and prove security of PAKE. So far, however, it is not known how to model or prove computational UC security against quantum adversaries. Even more so, if the proof makes use of idealized primitives like random oracles or ideal ciphers. To pave the way towards reasoning post-quantum security, we therefore resort to a (still classical) game-based security proof in the BPR model (EUROCRYPT 2000). We consider this a crucial stepping stone towards a full proof of post-quantum security. We prove security of (a minor variation of) OCAKE generically, assuming the underlying KEM satisfies common notions of ciphertext indistinguishability, anonymity, and (computational) public key uniformity. To achieve tight security bounds, we relate security of OCAKE to multi-user variants of the aforementioned properties. We provide a full detailed proof, something often omitted in publications concerned with game-based security of PAKE. As a side-contribution, we demonstrate how to handle password guesses in a game-based proof in detail. Something we were unable to find in the existing literature.
Last updated:  2023-09-14
Practical Constructions for Single Input Functionality against a Dishonest Majority
Zhelei Zhou, Bingsheng Zhang, Hong-Sheng Zhou, and Kui Ren
Single Input Functionality (SIF) is a special case of MPC, where only one distinguished party called dealer holds the secret input. SIF allows the dealer to complete a computation task and send to other parties their respective outputs without revealing any additional information about its secret input. SIF has many applications, including multiple-verifier zero-knowledge and verifiable relation sharing, etc. Recently, several works devote to round-efficient realization of SIF, and achieve 2-round communication in the honest majority setting (Applebaum et al., Crypto 2022; Baum et al., CCS 2022; Yang and Wang, Asiacrypt 2022). In this work, we propose the first practical 2-round protocol for SIF against \emph{a dishonest majority} in the preprocessing model; moreover, the online phase is highly efficient as it requires no cryptographic operations and achieves information theoretical security. For SIF among 5 parties, our construction takes 152.34ms (total) to evaluate an AES-128 circuit with 7.36ms online time. Compared to the state-of-the-art (honest majority) solution (Baum et al., CCS 2022), our construction is roughly 2$\times$ faster in the online phase, although more preprocessing time is needed. Compared to the state-of-the-art generic MPC against a dishonest majority (Wang et al., CCS 2017; Cramer et al., Crypto 2018), our construction outperforms them w.r.t. both total running time and online running time.
Last updated:  2023-09-25
Compact Frequency Estimators in Adversarial Environments
Sam A. Markelon, Mia Filić, and Thomas Shrimpton
Count-Min Sketch (CMS) and HeavyKeeper (HK) are two realizations of a compact frequency estimator (CFE). These are a class of probabilistic data structures that maintain a compact summary of (typically) high-volume streaming data, and provides approximately correct estimates of the number of times any particular element has appeared. CFEs are often the base structure in systems looking for the highest-frequency elements (i.e., top-$K$ elements, heavy hitters, elephant flows). Traditionally, probabilistic guarantees on the accuracy of frequency estimates are proved under the implicit assumption that stream elements do not depend upon the internal randomness of the structure. Said another way, they are proved in the presence of data streams that are created by non-adaptive adversaries. Yet in many practical use-cases, this assumption is not well-matched with reality; especially, in applications where malicious actors are incentivized to manipulate the data stream. We show that the CMS and HK structures can be forced to make significant estimation errors, by concrete attacks that exploit adaptivity. We analyze these attacks analytically and experimentally, with tight agreement between the two. Sadly, these negative results seem unavoidable for (at least) sketch-based CFEs with parameters that are reasonable in practice. On the positive side, we give a new CFE (Count-Keeper) that can be seen as a composition of the CMS and HK structures. Count-Keeper estimates are typically more accurate (by at least a factor of two) than CMS for ``honest" streams; our attacks against CMS and HK are less effective (and more resource intensive) when used against Count-Keeper; and Count-Keeper has a native ability to flag estimates that are suspicious, which neither CMS or HK (or any other CFE, to our knowledge) admits.
Last updated:  2023-09-12
On The Black-Box Complexity of Correlation Intractability
Nico Döttling and Tamer Mour
Correlation intractability is an emerging cryptographic paradigm that enabled several recent breakthroughs in establishing soundness of the Fiat-Shamir transform and, consequently, basing non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and succinct arguments on standard cryptographic assumptions. In a nutshell, a hash family is said to be \emph{correlation intractable} for a class of relations $\mathcal{R}$ if, for any relation $R\in\mathcal{R}$, it is hard given a random hash function $h\gets H$ to find an input $z$ s.t. $(z,h(z))\in R$, namely a correlation. Despite substantial progress in constructing correlation intractable hash functions, all constructions known to date are based on highly-structured hardness assumptions and, further, are of complexity scaling with the circuit complexity of the target relation class. In this work, we initiate the study of the barriers for building correlation intractability. Our main result is a lower bound on the complexity of any black-box construction of CIH from collision resistant hash (CRH), or one-way permutations (OWP), for any sufficiently expressive relation class. In particular, any such construction for a class of relations with circuit complexity $t$ must make at least $\Omega(t)$ invocations of the underlying building block. We see this as a first step in developing a methodology towards broader lower bounds.
Last updated:  2023-09-12
Meeting in a Convex World: Convex Consensus with Asynchronous Fallback
Andrei Constantinescu, Diana Ghinea, Roger Wattenhofer, and Floris Westermann
Convex Consensus (CC) allows a set of parties to agree on a value $v$ inside the convex hull of their inputs with respect to a predefined convexity notion, even in the presence of byzantine parties. In this work, we focus on achieving CC in the best-of-both-worlds paradigm, i.e., simultaneously tolerating at most $t_s$ corruptions if communication is synchronous, and at most $t_a \leq t_s$ corruptions if it is asynchronous. Our protocol is randomized, which is a requirement under asynchrony, and we prove that it achieves optimal resilience. In the process, we introduce communication primitives tailored to the best-of-both-worlds model, which we believe to be of independent interest. These are a deterministic primitive, which allows honest parties to obtain intersecting views, and a randomized primitive, leading to identical views (which is impossible to achieve deterministically). Afterwards, we consider achieving consensus using deterministic protocols, for which the agreement condition must be appropriately relaxed depending on the convexity space. For the relevant case of graph convexity spaces, we find that a previous asynchronous approximate agreement protocol for chordal graphs is incorrect, and hereby give a new protocol for the problem designed for the best-of-both-worlds model and achieving tight point-wise resilience bounds. Finally, we show that asynchronous graph approximate agreement remains unsolvable by deterministic protocols even when corruptions are restricted to at most two crashing nodes and the distance agreement threshold is linear in the size of the graph.
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