## Papers updated in last 183 days (1687 results)

Verifiable Secret Sharing Simplified

Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS) is a fundamental building block in cryptography. Despite its importance and extensive studies, existing VSS protocols are often complex and inefficient. Many of them do not support dual thresholds, are not publicly verifiable, or do not properly terminate in asynchronous networks. This paper presents a new and simple approach for designing VSS protocols in synchronous and asynchronous networks. Our VSS protocols are optimally fault-tolerant, i.e., they tolerate a $1/2$ and a $1/3$ fraction of malicious nodes in synchronous and asynchronous networks, respectively. They only require a public key infrastructure and the hardness of discrete logarithms. Our protocols support dual thresholds, and their transcripts are publicly verifiable. We implement our VSS protocols and evaluate them in a geo-distributed setting with up to 256 nodes. The evaluation demonstrates that our protocols offer asynchronous termination and public verifiability with performance that is comparable to that of existing schemes that lack these features. Compared to the existing schemes with similar guarantees, our approach lowers the bandwidth usage and latency by up to 90%.

Algorithm xxx: Evaluating a Boolean Polynomial on All Possible Inputs

Evaluating a Boolean polynomial on all possible inputs (i.e. building the truth table of the corresponding Boolean function) is a simple computational problem that sometimes appears inside broader applications, for instance in cryptanalysis or in the implementation of more sophisticated algorithms to solve Boolean polynomial systems.
Two techniques share the crown to perform this task: the “Fast Exhaustive Search” (FES) algorithm from 2010 (which is based on Gray Codes) and the space-efficient Moebius transform from 2021 (which is reminiscent of the FFT). Both require $O(d 2^n)$ operations for a degree-$d$ Boolean polynomial on $n$ variables and operate mostly in-place, but have other slightly different characteristics. They both provide an efficient iterator over the full truth table.
This article describes BeanPolE (BoolEAN POLynomial Evaluation), a concise and flexible C library that implements both algorithms, as well as many other functions to deal with Boolean multivariate polynomials in dense representation.

HyperPianist: Pianist with Linear-Time Prover and Sub-Linear Communication Cost Under Transparent Setup

Zero-knowledge proofs allow one party to prove the truth of a statement without disclosing any extra information. Recent years have seen great improvements in zero-knowledge proofs. Among them, zero-knowledge SNARKs are notable for their compact and efficiently-verifiable proofs, but have relatively high prover costs. To accelerate proving, distributed zero-knowledge proof systems (Wu et al., Usenix Security 2018) are proposed: by distributing the proving process across multiple machines, such systems can achieve notable speedups in overall proving time. However, existing distributed zero-knowledge proof systems still have quasi-linear proving complexity, and they either incur a linear communication cost in circuit size among the distributed machines or achieve sub-linear communication cost with a trusted setup.
In this paper, we introduce HyperPianist, a distributed zero-knowledge proof system with a linear-time prover and sub-linear communication cost under a transparent setup. It applies to arbitrary circuits given the assumption that the witnesses are initially distributed. We first build a distributed multivariate polynomial interactive oracle proof system based on the distributed multivariate SumCheck protocol in deVirgo (Xie et al., CCS 2022) and the multivariate proof system HyperPlonk (Chen et al., Eurocrypt 2023), with a linear-time prover and incurring no extra overhead in communication or the number of constraints during distribution. To instantiate the interactive oracle proof system, we adapt a multivariate polynomial commitment scheme, Dory (Lee et al., TCC 2021), to the distributed setting, and achieve logarithmic communication cost among the distributed machines with a transparent setup. In addition, we propose HyperPianist+ as an extension of HyperPianist, by designing an optimized lookup argument based on Lasso (Setty et al., Eurocrypt 2024) and adapting it to the distributed setting.

Rhombus: Fast Homomorphic Matrix-Vector Multiplication for Secure Two-Party Inference

We present $\textit{Rhombus}$, a new secure matrix-vector multiplication (MVM) protocol in the semi-honest two-party setting, which is able to be seamlessly integrated into existing privacy-preserving machine learning (PPML) frameworks and serve as the basis of secure computation in linear layers.
$\textit{Rhombus}$ adopts RLWE-based homomorphic encryption (HE) with coefficient encoding, which allows messages to be chosen from not only a field $\mathbb{F}_p$ but also a ring $\mathbb{Z}_{2^\ell}$, where the latter supports faster computation in non-linear layers. To achieve better efficiency, we develop an input-output packing technique that reduces the communication cost incurred by HE with coefficient encoding by about $21\times$, and propose a split-point picking technique that reduces the number of rotations to that sublinear in the matrix dimension. Compared to the recent protocol $\textit{HELiKs}$ by Balla and Koushanfar (CCS'23), our implementation demonstrates that $\textit{Rhombus}$ improves the whole performance of an MVM protocol by a factor of $7.4\times \sim 8\times$, and improves the end-to-end performance of secure two-party inference of ResNet50 by a factor of $4.6\times \sim 18\times$.

Breaking, Repairing and Enhancing XCBv2 into the Tweakable Enciphering Mode GEM

Tweakable enciphering modes (TEMs) provide security in a variety of storage and space-critical applications like disk and file-based encryption, and packet-based communication protocols, among others. XCB-AES (known as XCBv2) is specified in the IEEE 1619.2 standard for encryption of sector-oriented storage media and it comes with a proof of security for block-aligned input messages.
In this work, we demonstrate the $\textit{first}$ and most efficient plaintext recovery attack on XCBv2. We show that XCBv2 is $\textit{insecure}$ also for full block messages by recovering the plaintext (all except the final block) using minimal number of queries namely $\textit{only}$ two. We demonstrate that our attack further applies to the HCI and MXCB TEMs, which follow a similar design approach to XCBv2.
Following the responsible disclosure process, we communicated the attack details to IEEE and the authors of XCB-AES. The authors have confirmed the validity of our attack on 02/09/2024.
Our next contribution is to strengthen the provable security of XCB-AES (claimed $n/3$ bits in queried blocks). We propose a new modular TEM called GEM which can be seen as a generalization of the Hash-CTR-Hash approach as used in XCB-style and HCTR-style TEMs. We are able to prove that GEM achieves full $n$-bit security using $\textit{only}$ $n$-bit PRP/PRF.
We also give two concrete GEM instantiations: $\mathsf{KohiNoor}$ and $\mathsf{DaryaiNoor}$, both of which are based on AES-128 and GHASH-256, and internally use variants of the CTR-based weak pseudorandom functions GCTR-3 and SoCTR, respectively. SoCTR uses AES-128 and GCTR-3 is based on $\mathsf{ButterKnife}$-256. Our security proofs show that both $\mathsf{KohiNoor}$ and $\mathsf{DaryaiNoor}$ provide full $n$-bit security. From applications perspective, $\mathsf{DaryaiNoor}$ addresses the need for reusing classical components, while $\mathsf{KohiNoor}$ enhances performance by leveraging a more modern primitive based on the AES/Deoxys round function.
Our implementation demonstrate competitive performance: For typical 4KiB sector size, $\mathsf{KohiNoor}$'s performance is on par with AES$_6$-CTET+, yet achieving higher standard security guarantees. $\mathsf{DaryaiNoor}$ is on par with AES-CTET+ performance-wise while also maintaining higher security with standard components. Our GEM instances triple the security margin of XCB-AES and double that of HCTR2 at the cost of performance loss of only $12\%$ ($\mathsf{KohiNoor}$) and $68\%$ ($\mathsf{DaryaiNoor}$) for 4KiB messages.

Under What Conditions Is Encrypted Key Exchange Actually Secure?

A Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocol allows two parties to agree upon a cryptographic key, in the setting where the only secret shared in advance is a low-entropy password. The standard security notion for PAKE is in the Universal Composability (UC) framework. In recent years there have been a large number of works analyzing the UC-security of Encrypted Key Exchange (EKE), the very first PAKE protocol, and its One-encryption variant (OEKE), both of which compile an unauthenticated Key Agreement (KA) protocol into a PAKE.
In this work, we present a comprehensive and thorough study of the UC-security of both EKE and OEKE in the most general setting and using the most efficient building blocks:
1. We show that among the five existing results on the UC-security of (O)EKE using a general KA protocol, all are incorrect;
2. We show that for (O)EKE to be UC-secure, the underlying KA protocol needs to satisfy several additional security properties: though some of these are closely related to existing security properties, some are new, and all are missing from existing works on (O)EKE;
3. We give UC-security proofs for EKE and OEKE using Programmable-Once Public Function (POPF), which is the most efficient instantiation to date and is around 4 times faster
than the standard instantiation using Ideal Cipher (IC).
Our results in particular allow for PAKE constructions from post-quantum KA protocols such as Kyber. We also present a security analysis of POPF using a new, weakened notion of almost UC realizing a functionality, that is still sufficient for proving composed protocols to be fully
UC-secure.

Halving differential additions on Kummer lines

We study differential additions formulas on Kummer lines that factorize through a degree $2$ isogeny $\phi$. We call the resulting formulas half differential additions: from the knowledge of $\phi(P), \phi(Q)$ and $P-Q$, the half differential addition allows to recover $P+Q$. We explain how Mumford's theta group theory allows, in any model of Kummer lines, to find a basis of the half differential relations. This involves studying the dimension $2$ isogeny $(P, Q) \mapsto (P+Q, P-Q)$.
We then use the half differential addition formulas to build a new type of Montgomery ladder, called the half-ladder, using a time-memory trade-off. On a Montgomery curve with full rational $2$-torsion, our half ladder first build a succession of isogeny images $P_i=\phi_i(P_{i-1})$, which only depends on the base point $P$ and not the scalar $n$, for a pre-computation cost of $2S+1m_0$ by bit. Then we use half doublings and half differential additions to compute any scalar multiplication $n \cdot P$, for a cost of $4M+2S+1m_0$ by bit. The total cost is then $4M+4S+2m_0$, even when the base point $P$ is not normalized. By contrast, the usual Montgomery ladder costs $4M+4S+1m+1m_0$ by bit, for a normalized point.
In the appendix, we extend our approach to higher dimensional ladders in theta coordinates or twisted theta coordinates. In dimension~$2$, after a precomputation step which depends on the base point~$P$, our half ladder only costs $7M + 4S+3m_0$, compared to $10M+9S+6m_0$ for the standard ladder.

Robust Multiparty Computation from Threshold Encryption Based on RLWE

We consider protocols for secure multi-party computation (MPC) built from FHE under honest majority, i.e., for $n=2t+1$ players of which $t$ are corrupt, that are robust. Surprisingly there exists no robust threshold FHE scheme based on BFV to design such MPC protocols. Precisely, all existing methods for generating a common relinearization key can abort as soon as one player deviates. We address this issue, with a new relinearization key (adapted from [CDKS19, CCS'19]) which we show how to securely generate in parallel of the threshold encryption key, in the same broadcast. We thus obtain the first robust threshold BFV scheme, moreover using only one broadcast for the generation of keys instead of two previously.
Of independent interest, as an optional alternative, we propose the first threshold FHE decryption enabling simultaneously:
(i) robustness over asynchronous channels with honest majority; (ii) tolerating a power-of-small-prime ciphertext modulus, e.g., $2^e$; and (iii) secret shares of sizes quasi-independent of $n$.

Masked Vector Sampling for HQC

Anticipating the advent of large quantum computers, NIST started a worldwide competition in 2016 aiming to define the next cryptographic standards. HQC is one of these post-quantum schemes still in contention, with three others already standardized. In 2022, Guo et al. introduced a timing attack that exploited an inconsistency in HQC rejection sampling function to recover its secret key in 866,000 calls to an oracle. The authors of HQC updated its specification by applying an algorithm to sample vectors in constant time. A masked implementation of this function was then proposed for BIKE but it is not directly applicable to HQC. In this paper we propose a masked specification-compliant version of HQC vector sampling function which relies, to our knowledge, on the first masked implementation of the Barrett reduction.

Consensus in the Presence of Overlapping Faults and Total Omission

Understanding the fault tolerance of Byzantine Agreement protocols is an important question in distributed computing. While the setting of Byzantine faults has been thoroughly explored in the literature, the (arguably more realistic) omission fault setting is far less studied. In this paper, we revisit the recent work of Loss and Stern who gave the first protocol in the mixed fault model tolerating $t$ Byzantine faults, $s$ send faults, and $r$ receive faults, when $2t+r+s<n$ and omission faults do not overlap. We observe that their protocol makes no guarantees when omission faults can overlap, i.e., when parties can simultaneously have send and receive faults. We give the first protocol that overcomes this limitation and tolerates the same number of potentially overlapping faults. We then study, for the first time, the total omission setting where all parties can become omission faulty. This setting is motivated by real-world scenarios where every party may experience connectivity issues from time to time, yet agreement should still hold for the parties who manage to output values. We show the first agreement protocol in this setting with parameters $s<n$ and $s+r=n$. On the other hand, we prove that there is no consensus protocol for the total omission setting which tolerates even a single overlapping omission fault, i.e., where $s+r=n+1$ and $s>2$, or a broadcast protocol for $s+r=n$ and $s>1$ even without overlapping faults.

Faster Proofs and VRFs from Isogenies

We improve recent generic proof systems for isogeny knowledge by Cong, Lai, Levin [26] based on circuit satisfiability, by using radical isogeny descriptions [19, 20] to prove a path in the underlying isogeny graph. We then present a new generic construction for a verifiable random function (VRF) based on a one-more type hardness assumption and zero-knowledge proofs. We argue that isogenies fit the constraints of our construction and instantiate the VRF with a CGL walk [22] and our new proofs. As a different contribution, we also propose a new VRF in the effective group action description of isogenies from [1]. Our protocol takes a novel approach based on the polynomial-in-the-exponent technique first described in [36], but without the need of a trusted setup or heavy preprocessing. We compare our protocols to the current state-of-the-art isogeny VRFs by Leroux [53] and Lai [52], with a particular emphasis on computational efficiency.

End-to-End Encrypted Cloud Storage in the Wild: A Broken Ecosystem

End-to-end encrypted cloud storage offers a way for individuals and organisations to delegate their storage needs to a third-party, while keeping control of their data using cryptographic techniques.
We conduct a cryptographic analysis of various products in the ecosystem, showing that many providers fail to provide an adequate level of security. In particular, we provide an in-depth analysis of five end-to-end encrypted cloud storage systems, namely Sync, pCloud, Icedrive, Seafile, and Tresorit, in the setting of a malicious server. These companies cumulatively have over 22 million users and are major providers in the field. We unveil severe cryptographic vulnerabilities in four of them. Our attacks invalidate the marketing claims made by the providers of these systems, showing that a malicious server can, in some cases, inject files in the encrypted storage of users, tamper with file data, and even gain direct access to the content of the files. Many of our attacks affect multiple providers in the same way, revealing common failure patterns in independent cryptographic designs.
We conclude by discussing the significance of these patterns beyond the security of the specific providers.

Improved Meet-LWE Attack via Ternary Trees

The Learning with Errors (LWE) problem with its variants over structured lattices has been widely exploited in efficient post-quantum cryptosystems. Recently, May suggests the Meet-LWE attack, which poses a significant advancement in the line of work on the Meet-in-the-Middle approach to analyze LWE with ternary secrets.
In this work, we generalize and extend the idea of Meet-LWE by introducing ternary trees, which result in diverse representations of the secrets. More precisely, we split the secrets into three pieces with the same dimension and expand them into a ternary tree to leverage the increased representations to improve the overall attack complexity. We also suggest the matching criteria for the approximate matching of three lists via locality sensitive hash function accordingly. We carefully analyze and optimize the time and memory costs of our attack algorithm exploiting ternary trees, and compare them to those of the Meet-LWE attack. With asymptotic and non-asymptotic comparisons, we observe that our attack provides improved estimations for all parameter settings, including those of the practical post-quantum schemes, compared to the Meet-LWE attack. We also evaluate the security of the Round 2 candidates of the KpqC competition which aims to standardize post-quantum public key cryptosystems in the Republic of Korea and report that the estimated complexities for our attack applied to SMAUG-T are lower than the claimed for some of the recommended parameters.

Traitor Tracing without Trusted Authority from Registered Functional Encryption

Traitor-tracing systems allow identifying the users who contributed to building a rogue decoder in a broadcast environment. In a traditional traitor-tracing system, a key authority is responsible for generating the global public parameters and issuing secret keys to users. All security is lost if the \emph{key authority itself} is corrupt. This raises the question: Can we construct a traitor-tracing scheme, without a trusted authority?
In this work, we propose a new model for traitor-tracing systems where, instead of having a key authority, users could generate and register their own public keys. The public parameters are computed by aggregating all user public keys. Crucially, the aggregation process is \emph{public}, thus eliminating the need of any trusted authority. We present two new traitor-tracing systems in this model based on bilinear pairings. Our first scheme is proven adaptively secure in the generic group model. This scheme features a transparent setup, ciphertexts consisting of $6\sqrt{L}+4$ group elements, and a public tracing algorithm. Our second scheme supports a bounded collusion of traitors and is proven selectively secure in the standard model. Our main technical ingredients are new registered functional encryption (RFE) schemes for quadratic and linear functions which, prior to this work, were known only from indistinguishability obfuscation.
To substantiate the practicality of our approach, we evaluate the performance a proof of concept implementation. For a group of $L = 1024$ users, encryption and decryption take roughly 50ms and 4ms, respectively, whereas a ciphertext is of size 6.7KB.

On the Tight Security of the Double Ratchet

The Signal Protocol is a two-party secure messaging protocol used in applications such as Signal, WhatsApp, Google Messages and Facebook Messenger and is used by billions daily. It consists of two core components, one of which is the Double Ratchet protocol that has been the subject of a line of work that aims to understand and formalise exactly what security it provides. Existing models capture strong guarantees including resilience to state exposure in both forward security (protecting past secrets) and post-compromise security (restoring security), adaptive state corruptions, message injections and out-of-order message delivery. Due to this complexity, prior work has failed to provide security guarantees that do not degrade in the number of interactions, even in the single-session setting.
Given the ubiquity of the Double Ratchet in practice, we explore tight security bounds for the Double Ratchet in the multi-session setting. To this end, we revisit the modelling of Alwen, Coretti and Dodis (EUROCRYPT 2019) who decompose the protocol into modular, abstract components, notably continuous key agreement (CKA) and forward-secure AEAD (FS-AEAD). To enable a tight security proof, we propose a CKA security model that provides one-way security under key checking attacks. We show that multi-session security of the Double Ratchet can be tightly reduced to the multi-session security of CKA and FS-AEAD, capturing the same strong security guarantees as Alwen et al.
Our result improves upon the bounds of Alwen et al. in the random oracle model. Even so, we are unable to provide a completely tight proof for the Double Ratchet based on standard Diffie-Hellman assumptions, and we conjecture it is not possible. We thus go a step further and analyse CKA based on key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs). In contrast to previous works, our new analysis allows for tight constructions based on the DDH and post-quantum assumptions.

Lollipops of pairing-friendly elliptic curves for composition of proof systems

We construct lollipops of pairing-friendly elliptic curves, which combine pairing-friendly chains with pairing-friendly cycles. The cycles inside these lollipops allow for unbounded levels of recursive pairing-based proof system composition, while the chains leading into these cycles alleviate a significant drawback of using cycles on their own: the only known cycles of pairing-friendly elliptic curves force the initial part of the circuit to be arithmetised on suboptimal (much larger) finite fields. Lollipops allow this arithmetisation to instead be performed over finite fields of an optimal size, while preserving the unbounded recursion afforded by the cycle.
The notion of pairing-friendly lollipops itself is not novel. In 2019 the Coda + Dekrypt ``SNARK challenge'' offered a $20k USD prize for the best lollipop construction, but to our knowledge no lollipops were submitted to the challenge or have since emerged in the literature. This paper therefore gives the first construction of such lollipops.
The main technical ingredient we use is a new way of instantiating pairing-friendly cycles over supersingular curves whose characteristics correspond to those in MNT cycles. The vast majority of MNT cycles that exist are unable to be instantiated in practice, because the corresponding CM discriminant is too large to construct the MNT curves explicitly. Our method can be viewed as a workaround that allows cycles to be instantiated regardless of the CM discriminant of the MNT curves.

The Impact of Reversibility on Parallel Pebbling

The (parallel) classical black pebbling game is a helpful abstraction which allows us to analyze the resources (time, space, space-time, cumulative space) necessary to evaluate a function $f$ with a static data-dependency graph $G$ on a (parallel) computer. In particular, the parallel black pebbling game has been used as a tool to quantify the (in)security of Data-Independent Memory-Hard Functions (iMHFs). However, the classical black pebbling game is not suitable to analyze the cost of quantum preimage attack. Thus, Blocki et al. (TCC 2022) introduced the parallel reversible pebbling game as a tool to analyze resource requirements for a quantum computer. While there is an extensive line of work analyzing pebbling complexity in the (parallel) black pebbling game, comparatively little is known about the parallel reversible pebbling game. Our first result is a lower bound of $\Omega\left(N^{1+\sqrt{\frac{ 2-o(1)}{\log N}}} \right)$ on the reversible cumulative pebbling cost for a line graph on $N$ nodes. This yields a separation between classical and reversible pebbling costs demonstrating that the reversibility constraint can increase cumulative pebbling costs (and space-time costs) by a multiplicative factor of $N^{(\sqrt 2 + o(1))/\sqrt{\log N}}$ --- the classical pebbling cost (space-time or cumulative) for a line graph is just $\mathcal{O}(N)$. On the positive side, we prove that any classical parallel pebbling can be transformed into a reversible pebbling strategy whilst increasing space-time (resp. cumulative memory) costs by a multiplicative factor of at most $\mathcal{O}\left(N^{\sqrt{\frac{8}{\log N}}}\right)$ (resp. $\mathcal{O}\left(N^{\mathcal{O}(1)/\sqrt[4]{\log N}}\right)$). We also analyze the impact of the reversibility constraint on the cumulative pebbling cost of depth-robust and depth-reducible DAGs exploiting reversibility to improve constant factors in a prior lower bound of Alwen et al. (EUROCRYPT 2017). For depth-reducible DAGs we show that the state-of-the-art recursive pebbling techniques of Alwen et al. (EUROCRYPT 2017) can be converted into a recursive reversible pebbling attack without any asymptotic increases in pebbling costs. Finally, we extend a result of Blocki et al. (ITCS 2020) to show that it is Unique Games hard to approximate the reversible cumulative pebbling cost of a DAG $G$ to within any constant factor.

Double-Matrix: Complete Diffusion in a Single Round with (small) MDS Matrices

This paper describes a simple idea to improve (text) diffusion in block ciphers that use MDS codes but that take more than
a single round to achieve full (text) diffusion. The Rijndael cipher family is used as an example since it comprises ciphers
with different state sizes.
A drawback of the new approach is the additional computational cost, but it is competitive compared to large MDS matrices
used in the Khazad and Kuznyechik ciphers.

Fiat-Shamir Bulletproofs are Non-Malleable (in the Random Oracle Model)

Bulletproofs (Bünz et al. IEEE S&P 2018) are a celebrated ZK proof system that allows for short and efficient proofs, and have been implemented and deployed in several real-world systems. In practice, they are most often implemented in their non-interactive version obtained using the Fiat-Shamir transform. A security proof for this setting is necessary for ruling out malleability attacks. These attacks can lead to very severe vulnerabilities, as they allow an adversary to forge proofs re-using or modifying parts of the proofs provided by the honest parties. An earlier version of this work (Ganesh et al. EUROCRYPT 2022) provided evidence for non-malleability of Fiat-Shamir Bulletproofs. This was done by proving simulation-extractability, which implies non-malleability, in the algebraic group model.
In this work, we generalize the former result and prove simulation extractability in the programmable random oracle model, removing the need for the algebraic group model. Along the way, we establish a generic chain of reductions for Fiat-Shamir-transformed multi-round public-coin proofs to be simulation-extractable in the (programmable) random oracle model, which may be of independent interest.

General Functional Bootstrapping using CKKS

The Ducas-Micciancio (DM/FHEW) and Chilotti-Gama-Georgieva-Izabachène (CGGI/TFHE) cryptosystems provide a general privacy-preserving computation capability. These fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) cryptosystems can evaluate an arbitrary function expressed as a general look-up table (LUT) via the method of functional bootstrapping (also known as programmable bootstrapping). The main limitation of DM/CGGI functional bootstrapping is its efficiency because this procedure has to bootstrap every encrypted number separately. A different bootstrapping approach, based on the Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (CKKS) FHE scheme, can achieve much smaller amortized time due to its ability to bootstrap many thousands of numbers at once. However, CKKS does not currently provide a functional bootstrapping capability that can evaluate a general LUT. An open research question is whether such capability can be efficiently constructed. We give a positive answer to this question by proposing and implementing a general functional bootstrapping method based on CKKS-style bootstrapping. We devise a theoretical toolkit for evaluating an arbitrary function using the theory of trigonometric Hermite interpolations, which provides control over noise reduction during functional bootstrapping. Our experimental results for 8-bit LUT evaluation show that the proposed method achieves the amortized time of 0.75 milliseconds, which is three orders of magnitude faster than the DM/CGGI approach and 6.6x faster than (a more restrictive) amortized functional bootstrapping method based on the Brakerski/Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) FHE scheme.

A New Approach Towards Encrypted Data Sharing and Computation: Enhancing Efficiency Beyond MPC and Multi-Key FHE

In this paper, we introduce a novel approach to Multi-Key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (MK-FHE) that enhances both efficiency and security beyond the capabilities of traditional MK-FHE and MultiParty Computation (MPC) systems. Our method generates a unified key structure, enabling constant ciphertext size and constant execution time for encrypted computations, regardless of the number of participants involved. This approach addresses critical limitations such as ciphertext size expansion, noise accumulation, and the complexity of relinearization, which typically hinder scalability in multi-user environments. We also propose a new decryption method that simplifies decryption to a single information exchange, in contrast to traditional multi-key FHE systems that require information to be passed between all parties sequentially.
Additionally, it significantly enhances the scalability of MK-FHE systems, allowing seamless integration of additional participants without introducing performance overhead. Through theoretical analysis and practical implementation, we demonstrate the superiority of our approach in large-scale, collaborative encrypted computation scenarios, paving the way for more robust and efficient secure data processing frameworks. Further more, unlike the threshold based FHE schemes, the proposed system doesn’t require a centralised trusted third party to split and distribute the individual secret keys, instead each participant independently generates their own secret key, ensuring both security and decentralization.

Founding Quantum Cryptography on Quantum Advantage, or, Towards Cryptography from $\#\mathsf{P}$-Hardness

Recent oracle separations [Kretschmer, TQC'21, Kretschmer et. al., STOC'23] have raised the tantalizing possibility of building quantum cryptography from sources of hardness that persist even if the polynomial hierarchy collapses. We realize this possibility by building quantum bit commitments and secure computation from unrelativized, well-studied mathematical problems that are conjectured to be hard for $\mathsf{P}^{\#\mathsf{P}}$ -- such as approximating the permanents of complex Gaussian matrices, or approximating the output probabilities of random quantum circuits. Indeed, we show that as long as \any one of the conjectures underlying sampling-based quantum advantage (e.g., BosonSampling, Random Circuit Sampling, IQP, etc.) is true, quantum cryptography can be based on the extremely mild assumption that $\mathsf{P}^{\#\mathsf{P}} \not\subseteq \mathsf{(io)BQP}/\mathsf{qpoly}$.
Our techniques uncover strong connections between the hardness of approximating the probabilities of outcomes of quantum processes, the existence of ``one-way'' state synthesis problems, and the existence of useful cryptographic primitives such as one-way puzzles and quantum bit commitments. Specifically, we prove that the following hardness assumptions are equivalent under $\mathsf{BQP}$ reductions.
1. The hardness of approximating the probabilities of outcomes of certain efficiently sampleable distributions. That is, there exist quantumly efficiently sampleable distributions for which it is hard to approximate the probability assigned to a randomly chosen string in the support of the distribution (upto inverse polynomial multiplicative error).
2. The existence of one-way puzzles, where a quantum sampler outputs a pair of classical strings -- a puzzle and its key -- and where the hardness lies in finding the key corresponding to a random puzzle. These are known to imply quantum bit commitments [Khurana and Tomer, STOC'24].
3. The existence of state puzzles, or one-way state synthesis, where it is hard to synthesize a secret quantum state given a public classical identifier. These capture the hardness of search problems with quantum inputs (secrets) and classical outputs (challenges).
These are the first constructions of quantum cryptographic primitives (one-way puzzles, quantum bit commitments, state puzzles) from concrete, well-founded mathematical assumptions that do not imply the existence of classical cryptography.
Along the way, we also show that distributions that admit efficient quantum samplers but cannot be pseudo-deterministically efficiently sampled imply quantum commitments.

PAKE Combiners and Efficient Post-Quantum Instantiations

Much work has been done recently on developing password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) mechanisms with post-quantum security. However, modern guidance recommends the use of hybrid schemes—schemes which rely on the combined hardness of a post-quantum assumption, e.g., learning with Errors (LWE), and a more traditional assumption, e.g., decisional Diffie-Hellman. To date, there is no known hybrid PAKE construction, let alone a general method for achieving such.
In this paper, we present two efficient PAKE combiners—algorithms that take two PAKEs satisfying mild assumptions, and output a third PAKE with combined security properties—and prove these combiners secure in the Universal Composability (UC) model. Our sequential combiner, instantiated with efficient existing PAKEs such as CPace (built on Diffie-Hellman-type assumptions) and CHIC[ML-KEM] (built on the Module LWE assumption), yields the first known hybrid PAKE.

Benchmarking Attacks on Learning with Errors

Lattice cryptography schemes based on the learning with errors (LWE) hardness assumption have been standardized by NIST for use as post-quantum cryptosystems, and by HomomorphicEncryption.org for encrypted compute on sensitive data. Thus, understanding their concrete security is critical. Most work on LWE security focuses on theoretical estimates of attack performance, which is important but may overlook attack nuances arising in real-world implementations. The sole existing concrete benchmarking effort, the Darmstadt Lattice Challenge, does not include benchmarks relevant to the standardized LWE parameter choices - such as small secret and small error distributions, and Ring-LWE (RLWE) and Module-LWE (MLWE) variants. To improve our understanding of concrete LWE security, we provide the first benchmarks for LWE secret recovery on standardized parameters, for small and low-weight (sparse) secrets. We evaluate four LWE attacks in these settings to serve as a baseline: the Search-LWE attacks uSVP, SALSA, and Cool & Cruel, and the Decision-LWE attack: Dual Hybrid Meet-in-the-Middle (MitM). We extend the SALSA and Cool & Cruel attacks in significant ways, and implement and scale up MitM attacks for the first time. For example, we recover hamming weight $9-11$ binomial secrets for KYBER ($\kappa=2$) parameters in $28-36$ hours with SALSA and Cool & Cruel, while we find that MitM can solve Decision-LWE instances for hamming weights up to $4$ in under an hour for Kyber parameters, while uSVP attacks do not recover any secrets after running for more than $1100$ hours. We also compare concrete performance against theoretical estimates. Finally, we open source the code to enable future research.

Discrete Logarithm Factory

The Number Field Sieve and its variants are the best algorithms to solve the discrete logarithm problem in finite fields (except for the weak small characteristic case). The Factory variant accelerates the computation when several prime fields are targeted. This article adapts the Factory variant to non-prime finite fields of medium and large characteristic. A precomputation, solely dependent on an approximate finite field size and an extension degree, allows to efficiently compute discrete logarithms in a constant proportion of the finite fields of the given approximate size and extension degree. We combine this idea with two other variants of NFS, namely the tower and special variant. This combination improves the asymptotic complexity. We also notice that combining our approach with the MNFS variant would be an unnecessary complication as all the potential gain of MNFS is subsumed by our Factory variant anyway. Furthermore, we demonstrate how Chebotarev's density theorem allows to compute the density of finite fields that can be solved with a given precomputation. Finally, we provide experimental data in order to assess the practical reach of our approach.

A Not So Discrete Sampler: Power Analysis Attacks on HAWK signature scheme

HAWK is a lattice-based signature scheme candidate to the fourth call of the NIST's Post-Quantum standardization campaign. Considered as a cousin of Falcon (one of the future NIST post-quantum standards) one can wonder whether HAWK shares the same drawbacks as Falcon in terms of side-channel attacks. Indeed, Falcon signature algorithm and particularly its Gaussian sampler, has shown to be highly vulnerable to power-analysis attacks. Besides, efficiently protecting Falcon's signature algorithm against these attacks seems a very challenging task.
This work presents the first power analysis leakage review on HAWK signature scheme: it extensively assesses the vulnerabilities of a central and sensitive brick of the scheme, the discrete Gaussian sampler. Knowing the output x of the sampler for a given signature leads to linear information about the private key of the scheme.
This paper includes several demonstrations of simple power analysis attacks targeting this sample x with various attacker strengths, all of them performed on the reference implementation on a ChipWhisperer Lite with STM32F3 target (ARM Cortex M4). We report being able to perform key recoveries with very low (to no) offline resources. As this reference implementation of HAWK is not claimed to be protected against side-channel attacks, the existence of such attacks is not surprising, but they still concretely warn about the use of this unprotected signature on physical devices.
To go further, our study proposes a generic way of assessing the performance of a side-channel attack on x even when less information is recovered, in a setting where some protections are implemented or when the attacker has less measurement possibilities. While it is easy to see that x is a sensitive value, quantifying the residual complexity of the key recovery with some knowledge about x (like the parity or the sign of some coefficients) is not straightforward as the underlying hardness assumption is the newly introduced Module-LIP problem. We propose to adapt the existing methodology of leaky LWE estimation tools (Dachman-Soled et al. at Crypto 2020) to exploit the retrieved information and lower down the residual key recovery complexity.
To finish, we propose an ad-hoc technique to lower down the leakage on the identified vulnerability points. These modifications prevent our attacks on our platform and come with essentially no cost in terms of performance. It could be seen as a temporary solution and encourages more analysis on proven side-channel protection of HAWK like masking.

Reframing and Extending the Random Probing Expandibility to Make Probing-Secure Compilers Tolerate a Constant Noise

In the context of circuits leaking the internal state due to hardware side-channels, the $p$-random probing model has an adversary who can see the value of each wire with probability $p$. In this model, for a fixed $p$, it is possible to reach an arbitrary security by 'expanding' a stateless circuit via iterated compilation, reaching a security of $2^{-\kappa}$ with a polynomial size in $\kappa$.
An artifact of the existing proofs of the expansion is that the worst security is assumed for the input circuit. This means that a pre-compiled input circuit loses all the security guarantees of the first compilation. We reframe the expansion, and we prove it as a security reduction from the compiled circuit to the original one. Additionally, we extend it to support a broader range of encodings, and arbitrary probabilistic gates with an arbitrary number of inputs and outputs.
This allows us to prove the following statement: Given a stateless circuit on a field with characteristic $\rho$, and given a $d$-probing secure compiler for some integer $d$, we can produce a circuit with security $2^{-d}$ against any adversary that sees all wires with a constant SD-noise of $2^{-7.41}/\rho$, at the cost of an additional size factor $O(\log(d)^3)$.

Really Complex Codes with Application to STARKs

Reed-Solomon (RS) codes [RS60], representing evaluations of univariate polynomials over distinct domains, are foundational in error correction and cryptographic protocols. Traditional RS codes leverage the Fourier domain for efficient encoding and decoding via Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). However, in fields such as the Reals and some finite prime fields, limited root-of-unity orders restrict these methods. Recent research, particularly in the context of modern STARKs [BSBHR18b], has explored the Complex Fourier domain for constructing Real-valued RS codes, introducing novel transforms such as the Discrete Circle-Curve Transform (DCCT) for Real-to-Real transformations [HLP24]. Despite their efficiency, these transforms face limitations with high radix techniques and potentially other legacy know-hows. In this paper, we propose a construction of Real-valued RS codes utilizing the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) over the Complex domain. This approach leverages well-established algebraic and Fourier properties to achieve efficiency comparable to DCCT, while retaining compatibility with legacy techniques and optimizations.

Generic Security of the Ascon Mode: On the Power of Key Blinding

The Ascon authenticated encryption scheme has recently been selected as winner of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography competition. Despite its fame, however, there is no known overall generic security treatment of its mode: most importantly, all earlier related generic security results only use the key to initialize the state and do not take into account key blinding internally and at the end. In this work we present a thorough security analysis of the Ascon mode: we consider multi-user and possibly nonce-misuse security by default, but more importantly, we particularly investigate the role of the key blinding. More technically, our analysis includes an authenticity study in various attack settings. This analysis includes a description of a security model of authenticity under state recovery, that captures the idea that the mode aims to still guarantee authenticity and security against key recovery even if an inner state is revealed to the adversary in some way, for instance through leakage. We prove that Ascon satisfies this security property, thanks to its unique key blinding technique.

Structure-Preserving Compressing Primitives: Vector Commitments, Accumulators and Applications

Compressing primitives such as accumulators and vector commitments, allow to rep- resent large data sets with some compact, ideally constant-sized value. Moreover, they support operations like proving membership or non-membership with minimal, ideally also constant- sized, storage and communication overhead. In recent years, these primitives have found nu- merous practical applications, with many constructions based on various hardness assumptions. So far, however, it has been elusive to construct these primitives in a strictly structure-preserving setting, i.e., in a bilinear group in a way that messages, commitments and openings are all ele- ments of the two source groups. Interestingly, backed by existing impossibility results, not even conventional commitments with such constraints are known in this setting.
In this paper we investigate whether strictly structure-preserving compressing primitives can be realized. We close this gap by presenting the first strictly structure-preserving commitment that is shrinking (and in particular constant-size). We circumvent existing impossibility results by employing a more structured message space, i.e., a variant of the Diffie-Hellman message space. Our main results are constructions of structure-preserving vector commitments (SPVC) as well as accumulators. We first discuss generic constructions and then present concrete con- structions under the Diffie-Hellman Exponent assumption. To demonstrate the usefulness of our constructions, we present various applications. Most notable, we present the first entirely prac- tical constant-size ring signature scheme in bilinear groups (i.e., the discrete logarithm setting). Concretely, using the popular BLS12-381 pairing-friendly curve, our ring signatures achieve a size of roughly 6500 bits.

Shaking up authenticated encryption

Authenticated encryption (AE) is a cryptographic mechanism that allows communicating parties to protect the confidentiality and integrity of messages exchanged over a public channel, provided they share a secret key. In this work, we present new AE schemes leveraging the SHA-3 standard functions SHAKE128 and SHAKE256, offering 128 and 256 bits of security strength, respectively, and their “Turbo” counterparts. They support session-based communication, where a ciphertext authenticates the sequence of messages since the start of the session. The chaining in the session allows decryption in segments, avoiding the need to buffer the entire deciphered cryptogram between decryption and validation. And, thanks to the collision resistance of (Turbo)SHAKE, they provide so-called CMT-4 committing security, meaning that they provide strong guarantees that a ciphertext uniquely binds to the key, plaintext and associated data. The AE schemes we propose have the unique combination of advantages that 1) their security is based on the security claim of SHAKE, that has received a large amount of public scrutiny, that 2) they make use of the standard KECCAK-p permutation that not only receives more and more dedicated hardware support, but also allows
competitive software-only implementations thanks to the TurboSHAKE instances, and that 3) they do not suffer from a 64-bit birthday bound like most AES-based schemes.

On Knowledge-Soundness of Plonk in ROM from Falsifiable Assumptions

Lipmaa, Parisella, and Siim [Eurocrypt, 2024] proved the extractability of the KZG polynomial commitment scheme under the falsifiable assumption ARSDH. They also showed that variants of real-world zk-SNARKs like Plonk can be made knowledge-sound in the random oracle model (ROM) under the ARSDH assumption. However, their approach did not consider various batching optimizations, resulting in their variant of Plonk having approximately $3.5$ times longer argument. Our contributions are: (1) We prove that several batch-opening protocols for KZG, used in modern zk-SNARKs, have computational special-soundness under the ARSDH assumption. (2) We prove that interactive Plonk has computational special-soundness under the ARSDH assumption and a new falsifiable assumption SplitRSDH. We also prove that two minor modifications of the interactive Plonk have computational special-soundness under only the ARSDH and a simpler variant of SplitRSDH. We define a new type-safe oracle framework of the AGMOS (AGM with oblivious sampling) and prove SplitRSDH is secure in it. The Fiat-Shamir transform can be applied to obtain non-interactive versions, which are secure in the ROM under the same assumptions.

Algebraic Equipage for Learning with Errors in Cyclic Division Algebras

In Noncommutative Ring Learning With Errors From Cyclic Algebras, a variant of Learning with Errors from cyclic division algebras, dubbed ‘Cyclic LWE', was developed, and security reductions similar to those known for the ring and module case were given, as well as a Regev-style encryption scheme. In this work, we make a number of improvements to that work: namely, we describe methods to increase the number of cryptographically useful division algebras, demonstrate the hardness of CLWE from ideal lattices obtained from non-maximal orders, and study Learning with Rounding in cyclic division algebras.

FINALLY: A Multi-Key FHE Scheme Based on NTRU and LWE

Multi-key fully homomorphic encryption (MKFHE), a generalization of
fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), enables a computation over encrypted data
under multiple keys. The first MKFHE schemes were based on the NTRU primitive,
however these early NTRU based FHE schemes were found to be insecure due to the
problem of over-stretched parameters. Recently, in the case of standard (non-multi
key) FHE a secure version, called FINAL, of NTRU has been found. In this work
we extend FINAL to an MKFHE scheme, this allows us to benefit from some of
the performance advantages provided by NTRU based primitives. Thus, our scheme
provides competitive performance against current state-of-the-art multi-key TFHE,
in particular reducing the computational complexity from quadratic to linear in the
number of keys.

Security Guidelines for Implementing Homomorphic Encryption

Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a cryptographic primitive that allows performing arbitrary operations on encrypted data. Since the conception of the idea in [RAD78], it was considered a holy grail of cryptography. After the first construction in 2009 [Gen09], it has evolved to become a practical primitive with strong security guarantees. Most modern constructions are based on well-known lattice problems such as Learning with Errors (LWE). Besides its academic appeal, in recent years FHE has also attracted significant attention from industry, thanks to its applicability to a considerable number of real-world use-cases. An upcoming standardization effort by ISO/IEC aims to support the wider adoption of these techniques. However, one of the main challenges that standards bodies, developers, and end users usually encounter is establishing parameters. This is particularly hard in the case of FHE because the parameters are not only related to the security level of the system, but also to the type of operations that the system is able to handle. In this paper, we provide examples of parameter sets for LWE targeting particular security levels that can be used in the context of FHE constructions. We also give examples of complete FHE parameter sets, including the parameters relevant for correctness and performance, alongside those relevant for security. As an additional contribution, we survey the parameter selection support offered in open-source FHE libraries.

A Note on Related-Tweakey Impossible Differential Attacks

In this short note we review the technique proposed at ToSC 2018 by Sadeghi et al. for attacks built upon several related-tweakey impossible differential trails. We show that the initial encryption queries are improper and lead the authors to misevaluating a filtering value in the key recovery phase. We identified 4 papers (from Eurocrypt, DCC, ToSC and ePrint) that follow on the results of Sadeghi et al., and in three of them the issue was propagated.
We thus present a careful analysis of these types of attacks and give generic complexity formulas similar to the ones proposed by Boura et al. at Asiacrypt 2014. We apply these to the aforementioned papers and provide patched versions of their attacks. The main consequence is an increase in the memory complexity. We show that in many cases (a notable exception being quantum impossible differentials) it is possible to recover the numeric estimates of the flawed analysis, and in all cases we were able to build a correct attack reaching the same number of rounds.

Threshold Computation in the Head: Improved Framework for Post-Quantum Signatures and Zero-Knowledge Arguments

The MPC-in-the-Head paradigm is instrumental in building zero-knowledge proof systems and post-quantum signatures using techniques from secure multi-party computation. In this work, we extend and improve the recently proposed framework of MPC-in-the-Head based on threshold secret sharing, here called Threshold Computation in the Head. We first address some limitations of this framework, namely its overhead in the communication cost, its constraint on the number of parties and its degradation of the soundness. Our tweak of this framework makes it applicable to the previous MPCitH schemes (and in particular post-quantum signature candidates recently submitted to NIST) for which we obtain up to 50% timing improvements without degrading the signature size. Then we extend the TCitH framework to support quadratic (or higher degree) MPC round functions as well as packed secret sharing. We show the benefits of our extended framework for several applications. First we provide post-quantum zero-knowledge arguments for arithmetic circuits which improve the state of the art in the "small to medium size" regime. Then we apply our extended framework to derive improved variants of the MPCitH candidates submitted to NIST. For most of them, we save between 5% and 37% of the signature size. We further propose a generic way to build efficient post-quantum ring signatures from any one-way function. When applying our TCitH framework to this design to concrete one-way functions, the obtained scheme outperforms all the previous proposals in the state of the art. For instance, our scheme instantiated with MQ achieves sizes below 6 KB and timings around 10 ms for a ring of 4000 users. Finally, we provide exact arguments for lattice problems. Our scheme is competitive with state-of-the-art zero-knowledge lattice techniques and achieves proofs around 15 KB for LWE instances with similar security as Kyber512. We conclude our work by exhibiting strong connections between the TCitH framework and other proof systems (namely VOLE-in-the-Head and Ligero) which thus unifies different MPCitH-like proof systems under the same umbrella.

LeOPaRd: Towards Practical Post-Quantum Oblivious PRFs via Interactive Lattice Problems

In this work, we introduce a more efficient post-quantum oblivious PRF (OPRF) design, called LeOPaRd. Our proposal is round-optimal and supports verifiability and partial obliviousness, all of which are important for practical applications. The main technical novelty of our work is a new method for computing samples of MLWE (module learning with errors) in a two-party setting. To do this, we introduce a new family of interactive lattice problems, called interactive MLWE and rounding with re-use (iMLWER-RU). We rigorously study the hardness of iMLWER-RU and reduce it (under some natural idealized setting) to a more standard MLWE-like problem where the adversary is additionally given access to a randomized MLWE PRF oracle. We believe iMLWER-RU can be of independent interest for other interactive protocols.
LeOPaRd exploits this new iMLWER-RU assumption to realize a lattice-based OPRF design without relying on heavy machinery such as noise flooding and fully homomorphic encryption used in earlier works. LeOPaRd can feature around 136 KB total communication, compared to 300+ KB in earlier works. We also identify gaps in some existing constructions and models, and propose appropriate fixes.

An analysis of the Crossbred Algorithm for the MQ Problem

The Crossbred algorithm is currently the state-of-the-art method for solving overdetermined multivariate polynomial systems over $\mathbb{F}_2$. Since its publication in 2015, several record breaking implementations have been proposed and demonstrate the power of this hybrid approach. Despite these practical results, the complexity of this algorithm and the choice of optimal parameters for it are difficult open questions. In this paper, we prove a bivariate generating series for potentially admissible parameters of the Crossbred algorithm.

Related-Key Cryptanalysis of FUTURE

In Africacrypt 2022, Gupta \etal introduced a 64-bit lightweight \mds matrix-based \spn-like block cipher designed to encrypt data in a single clock cycle with minimal implementation cost, particularly when unrolled. While various attack models were discussed, the security of the cipher in the related-key setting was not addressed. In this work, we bridge this gap by conducting a security analysis of the cipher under related-key attacks using \milp(Mixed Integer Linear Programming)-based techniques. Our model enables a related-key distinguishing attack on 8 rounds of FUTURE, requiring $2^{64}$ plaintexts, $2^{63}$ \xor operations, and negligible memory. Additionally, we present a 10-round boomerang distinguisher with a probability of $2^{-45}$, leading to a distinguishing attack with $2^{46}$ plaintexts, $2^{46}$ \xor operations, and negligible memory. This result demonstrates a full break of the cipher’s 64-bit security in the related-key setting.

Efficient Maliciously Secure Oblivious Exponentiations

Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (OPRFs) allow a client to evaluate a pseudorandom function (PRF) on her secret input based on a key that is held by a server. In the process, the client only learns the PRF output but not the key, while the server neither learns the input nor the output of the client. The arguably most popular OPRF is due to Naor, Pinkas and Reingold (Eurocrypt 2009). It is based on an Oblivious Exponentiation by the server, with passive security under the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. In this work, we strengthen the security guarantees of the NPR OPRF by protecting it against active attacks of the server. We have implemented our solution and report on the performance.
Our main result is a new batch OPRF protocol which is secure against maliciously corrupted servers, but is essentially as efficient as the semi-honest solution. More precisely, the computation (and communication) overhead is a multiplicative factor $o(1)$ as the batch size increases. The obvious solution using zero-knowledge proofs would have a constant factor overhead at best, which can be too expensive for certain deployments.
Our protocol relies on a novel version of the DDH problem, which we call the Oblivious Exponentiation Problem (OEP), and we give evidence for its hardness in the Generic Group model. We also present a variant of our maliciously secure protocol that does not rely on the OEP but nevertheless only has overhead $o(1)$ over the known semi-honest protocol. Moreover, we show that our techniques can also be used to efficiently protect threshold blind BLS signing and threshold ElGamal decryption against malicious attackers.

Circuit Bootstrapping: Faster and Smaller

We present a novel circuit bootstrapping algorithm that outperforms the state-of-the-art TFHE method with 9.9× speedup and 15.6× key size reduction. These improvements can be attributed to two technical contributions. Firstly, we redesigned the circuit bootstrapping workflow to operate exclusively under the ring ciphertext type, which eliminates the need of conversion between LWE and RLWE ciphertexts. Secondly, we improve the LMKC+ blind rotation algorithm by reducing the number of automorphisms, then propose the first automorphism type multi-value functional bootstrapping. These automorphism-based techniques lead to further key size optimization, and are of independent interest besides circuit bootstrapping. Based our new circuit bootstrapping we can evaluate AES-128 in 26.2s (single thread), achieving 10.3× speedup compared with the state-of-the-art TFHE-based approach.

FHEW-like Leveled Homomorphic Evaluation: Refined Workflow and Polished Building Blocks

In FHEW-like cryptosystems, the leveled homomorphic evaluation (LHE) mode performs bootstrapping after circuit evaluation rather than after each gate.
The core procedure and the performance bottleneck are known as circuit bootstrapping (CBS).
This paper revisits the LHE mode by refining the workflow and proposing polished building blocks:
1. Algorithmic Enhancements
- We introduce an NTT-based CBS algorithm, patched from WWL+ [Eurocrypt24], achieving up to a 2.9$\times$ efficiency improvement.
- We present an FFT-based CBS that is 3.5$\times$ faster than the most efficient FFT-CBS implementation, with a key size reduction of 37.5$\times$.
2. Refined Leveled Homomorphic Evaluation and Applications
- We propose the $\mathsf{HalfCBS}$ algorithm, which is 2.4$\times$ faster than the traditional CBS algorithm, enabling a flexible leveled evaluation.
- By applying these improvements to evaluate general look-up tables (LUTs), we can evaluate a 16-8 LUT in 311 ms, which is $2^{13.61} \times$ faster than the trivial FHE mode implementation.
- When applied to AES transciphering, our enhancements yield a 2.9$\times$ improvement in efficiency and a 31.6$\times$ reduction in key size compared to the state of the art, Thunderbird [TCHES24].
3. High-Precision LHE
- To handle multi-bit inputs, we propose a high-precision LHE framework. Compared to the WoP-PBS [JoC23], the compute efficiency (resp. key size) is improved by factors from 9.7 to 16.2 (resp. 3.4 to 4.4) according to the parameters.

On Wagner's k-Tree Algorithm Over Integers

The $k$-Tree algorithm [Wagner 02] is a non-trivial algorithm for the average-case $k$-SUM problem that has found widespread use in cryptanalysis. Its input consists of $k$ lists, each containing $n$ integers from a range of size $m$. Wagner's original heuristic analysis suggested that this algorithm succeeds with constant probability if $n \approx m^{1/(\log{k}+1)}$, and that in this case it runs in time $O(kn)$. Subsequent rigorous analysis of the algorithm [Lyubashevsky 05, Shallue 08, Joux-Kippen-Loss 24] has shown that it succeeds with high probability if the input list sizes are significantly larger than this.
We present a broader rigorous analysis of the $k$-Tree algorithm, showing upper and lower bounds on its success probability and complexity for any size of the input lists. Our results confirm Wagner's heuristic conclusions, and also give meaningful bounds for a wide range of list sizes that are not covered by existing analyses. We present analytical bounds that are asymptotically tight, as well as an efficient algorithm that computes (provably correct) bounds for a wide range of concrete parameter settings. We also do the same for the $k$-Tree algorithm over $\mathbb{Z}_m$. Finally, we present experimental evaluation of the tightness of our results.

An undetectable watermark for generative image models

We present the first undetectable watermarking scheme for generative image models. Undetectability ensures that no efficient adversary can distinguish between watermarked and un-watermarked images, even after making many adaptive queries. In particular, an undetectable watermark does not degrade image quality under any efficiently computable metric. Our scheme works by selecting the initial latents of a diffusion model using a pseudorandom error-correcting code (Christ and Gunn, 2024), a strategy which guarantees undetectability and robustness.
We experimentally demonstrate that our watermarks are quality-preserving and robust using Stable Diffusion 2.1. Our experiments verify that, in contrast to every prior scheme we tested, our watermark does not degrade image quality. Our experiments also demonstrate robustness: existing watermark removal attacks fail to remove our watermark from images without significantly degrading the quality of the images. Finally, we find that we can robustly encode 512 bits in our watermark, and up to 2500 bits when the images are not subjected to watermark removal attacks. Our code is available at https://github.com/XuandongZhao/PRC-Watermark.

Reckle Trees: Updatable Merkle Batch Proofs with Applications

We propose Reckle trees, a new vector commitment based on succinct RECursive arguments and MerKLE trees. Reckle trees' distinguishing feature is their support for succinct batch proofs that are updatable - enabling new applications in the blockchain setting where a proof needs to be computed and efficiently maintained over a moving stream of blocks. Our technical approach is based on embedding the computation of the batch hash inside the recursive Merkle verification via a hash-based accumulator called canonical hashing. Due to this embedding, our batch proofs can be updated in logarithmic time, whenever a Merkle leaf (belonging to the batch or not) changes, by maintaining a data structure that stores previously-computed recursive proofs. Assuming enough parallelism, our batch proofs are also computable in $O(\log n)$ parallel time - independent of the size of the batch. As a natural extension of Reckle trees, we also introduce Reckle+ trees. Reckle+ trees provide updatable and succinct proofs for certain types of Map/Reduce computations. In this setting, a prover can commit to a memory $\mathsf{M}$ and produce a succinct proof for a Map/Reduce computation over a subset $I$ of $\mathsf{M}$. The proof can be efficiently updated whenever $I$ or $\mathsf{M}$ changes.
We present and experimentally evaluate two applications of Reckle+ trees, dynamic digest translation and updatable BLS aggregation. In dynamic digest translation we are maintaining a proof of equivalence between Merkle digests computed with different hash functions, e.g., one with a SNARK-friendly Poseidon and the other with a SNARK-unfriendly Keccak. In updatable BLS aggregation we maintain a proof for the correct aggregation of a $t$-aggregate BLS key, derived from a $t$-subset of a Merkle-committed set of individual BLS keys. Our evaluation using Plonky2 shows that Reckle trees and Reckle+ trees have small memory footprint, significantly outperform previous approaches in terms of updates ($10\times$ to $15\times$) and verification ($4.78\times$ to $1485\times$) time, enable applications that were not possible before due to huge costs involved (Reckle trees are up to 200 times faster), and have similar aggregation performance with previous implementations of batch proofs.

Optimal Traitor Tracing from Pairings

We use pairings over elliptic curves to give a collusion-resistant traitor tracing scheme where the sizes of public keys, secret keys, and ciphertexts are independent of the number of users. Prior constructions from pairings had size $\Omega(N^{1/3})$. An additional consequence of our techniques is general result showing that attribute-based encryption for circuits generically implies optimal traitor tracing.

Secret Sharing with Snitching

We address the problem of detecting and punishing shareholder collusion in secret-sharing schemes. We do it in the recently proposed cryptographic model called individual cryptography (Dziembowski, Faust, and Lizurej, Crypto 2023), which assumes that there exist tasks that can be efficiently computed by a single machine but distributing this computation across multiple (mutually distrustful devices) is infeasible.
Within this model, we introduce a novel primitive called secret sharing with snitching (SSS), in which each attempt to illegally reconstruct the shared secret $S$ results in a proof that can be used to prove such misbehavior (and, e.g., financially penalize the cheater on a blockchain). This holds in a very strong sense, even if the shareholders attempt not to reconstruct the entire secret~$S$ but only learn some partial information about it. Our notion also captures the attacks performed using multiparty computation protocols (MPCs), i.e., those where the malicious shareholders use MPCs to compute partial information on $S$. The main idea of SSS is that any illegal reconstruction can be proven and punished, which suffices to discourage illegal secret reconstruction. Hence, our SSS scheme effectively prevents shareholders' collusion. We provide a basic definition of threshold ($t$-out-of-$n$) SSS. We then show how to construct it for $t = n$, and later, we use this construction to build an SSS scheme for an arbitrary $t$.
In order to prove the security of our construction, we introduce a generalization of the random oracle model (Bellare, Rogaway, CCS 1993), which allows modelling hash evaluations made inside MPC.

Blaze: Fast SNARKs from Interleaved RAA Codes

In this work we construct a new and highly efficient multilinear polynomial commitment scheme (MLPCS) over binary fields, which we call \emph{Blaze}. Polynomial commitment schemes allow a server to commit to a large polynomial and later decommit to its evaluations. Such schemes have emerged as a key component in recent efficient SNARK constructions.
Blaze has an extremely efficient prover, both asymptotically and concretely. The commitment is dominated by $8n$ field additions (i.e., XORs) and one Merkle tree computation. The evaluation proof generation is dominated by $6n$ additions and $5n$ multiplications over the field. The verifier runs in time $O_\lambda(\log^2(n))$. Concretely, for sufficiently large message sizes, the prover is faster than all prior schemes except for Brakedown (Golovnev et al., Crypto 2023), but offers significantly smaller proofs than the latter.
The scheme is obtained by combining two ingredients:
1. Building on the code-switching technique (Ron-Zewi and Rothblum, JACM 2024), we show how to compose any error-correcting code together with an interactive oracle proof of proximity (IOPP) underlying existing MLPCS constructions, into a new MLPCS. The new MLPCS inherits its proving time from the code's encoding time, and its verification complexity from the underlying MLPCS. The composition is distinctive in that it is done purely on the information-theoretic side.
2. We apply the above methodology using an extremely efficient error-correcting code known as the Repeat-Accumulate-Accumulate (RAA) code. We give new asymptotic and concrete bounds, which demonstrate that (for sufficiently large message sizes) this code has a better encoding time vs. distance tradeoff than previous linear-time encodable codes that were considered in the literature.

Juggernaut: Efficient Crypto-Agnostic Byzantine Agreement

It is well known that a trusted setup allows one to solve the Byzantine agreement problem in the presence of $t<n/2$ corruptions, bypassing the setup-free $t<n/3$ barrier. Alas, the overwhelming majority of protocols in the literature have the caveat that their security crucially hinges on the security of the cryptography and setup, to the point where if the cryptography is broken, even a single corrupted party can violate the security of the protocol. Thus these protocols provide higher corruption resilience ($n/2$ instead of $n/3$) for the price of increased assumptions. Is this trade-off necessary?
We further the study of crypto-agnostic Byzantine agreement among $n$ parties that answers this question in the negative. Specifically, let $t_s$ and $t_i$ denote two parameters such that (1) $2t_i + t_s < n$, and (2) $t_i \leq t_s < n/2$. Crypto-agnostic Byzantine agreement ensures agreement among honest parties if (1) the adversary is computationally bounded and corrupts up to $t_s$ parties, or (2) the adversary is computationally unbounded and corrupts up to $t_i$ parties, and is moreover given all secrets of all parties established during the setup. We propose a compiler that transforms any pair of resilience-optimal Byzantine agreement protocols in the authenticated and information-theoretic setting into one that is crypto-agnostic. Our compiler has several attractive qualities, including using only $O(\lambda n^2)$ bits over the two underlying Byzantine agreement protocols, and preserving round and communication complexity in the authenticated setting. In particular, our results improve the state-of-the-art in bit complexity by at least two factors of $n$ and provide either early stopping (deterministic) or expected constant round complexity (randomized). We therefore provide fallback security for authenticated Byzantine agreement for free for $t_i \leq n/4$.

Mild Asymmetric Message Franking: Illegal-Messages-Only and Retrospective Content Moderation

Many messaging platforms have integrated end-to-end (E2E) encryption into their services. This widespread adoption of E2E encryption has triggered a technical tension between user privacy and illegal content moderation. The existing solutions either support only unframeability or deniability, or they are prone to abuse (the moderator can perform content moderation for all messages, whether illegal or not), or they lack mechanisms for retrospective content moderation.
To address the above issues, we introduce a new primitive called \emph{mild asymmetric message franking} (MAMF) to establish illegal-messages-only and retrospective content moderation for messaging systems, supporting unframeability and deniability simultaneously. We provide a framework to construct MAMF, leveraging two new building blocks, which might be of independent interest.

A reduction from Hawk to the principal ideal problem in a quaternion algebra

In this article we present a non-uniform reduction from rank-2 module-LIP over Complex Multiplication fields, to a variant of the Principal Ideal Problem, in some fitting quaternion algebra. This reduction is classical deterministic polynomial-time in the size of the inputs. The quaternion algebra in which we need to solve the variant of the principal ideal problem depends on the parameters of the module-LIP problem, but not on the problem's instance. Our reduction requires the knowledge of some special elements of this quaternion algebras, which is why it is non-uniform.
In some particular cases, these elements can be computed in polynomial time, making the reduction uniform. This is the case for the Hawk signature scheme: we show that breaking Hawk is no harder than solving a variant of the principal ideal problem in a fixed quaternion algebra (and this reduction is uniform).

How to Recover the Full Plaintext of XCB

XCB, a tweakable enciphering mode, is part of IEEE Std. 1619.2 for shared storage media. We show that all versions of XCB are not secure through three plaintext recovery attacks. A key observation is that XCB behaves like an LRW1-type tweakable block cipher for single-block messages, which lacks CCA security. The first attack targets one-block XCB, using three queries to recover the plaintext. The second one requires four queries to recover the plaintext that excludes one block. The last one requires seven queries to recover the full plaintext. The first attack applies to any scheme that follows the XCB structure, whereas the latter two attacks work on all versions of XCB, exploiting the separable property of the underlying universal hash function. We also discuss the impact of these vulnerabilities on XCB-based applications, such as disk encryption, nonce-based encryption, deterministic authenticated encryption and robust authenticated encryption, highlighting the risks due to XCB's failure to achieve STPRP security. To address these flaws, we propose the XCB* structure, an improved version of XCB that adds only two XOR operations. We prove that XCB* is STPRP-secure when using AXU hash functions, SPRPs, and a secure IV-based stream cipher.

Incompressible Functional Encryption

Incompressible encryption (Dziembowski, Crypto'06; Guan, Wichs, Zhandry, Eurocrypt'22) protects from attackers that learn the entire decryption key, but cannot store the full ciphertext. In incompressible encryption, the attacker must try to compress a ciphertext within pre-specified memory bound $S$ before receiving the secret key.
In this work, we generalize the notion of incompressibility to functional encryption. In incompressible functional encryption, the adversary can corrupt non-distinguishing keys at any point, but receives the distinguishing keys only after compressing the ciphertext to within $S$ bits. An important efficiency measure for incompressible encryption is the ciphertext-rate ( i.e., $\mathsf{rate} = \frac{|m|}{|\mathsf{ct}|}$). We give many new results for incompressible functional encryption for circuits, from minimal assumption of (non-incompressible) functional encryption, with
1. $\mathsf{ct}$-rate-$\frac{1}{2}$ and short secret keys,
2. $\mathsf{ct}$-rate-$1$ and large secret keys.
Along the way, we also give a new incompressible attribute-based encryption for circuits from standard assumptions, with $\mathsf{ct}$-rate-$\frac{1}{2}$ and short secret keys. Our results achieve optimal efficiency, as incompressible attribute-based/functional encryption with $\mathsf{ct}$-rate-$1$ as well as short secret keys has strong barriers for provable security from standard assumptions. Moreover, our assumptions are minimal as incompressible attribute-based/functional encryption are strictly stronger than their non-incompressible counterparts.

Last updated: 2024-10-09

Fully Parallel, One-Cycle Random Shuffling for Efficient Countermeasure against Side Channel Attack and its Complexity Verification.

Hiding countermeasures are the most widely utilized techniques for thwarting side-channel attacks, and their significance has been further emphasized with the advent of Post Quantum Cryptography (PQC) algorithms, owing to the extensive use of vector operations. Commonly, the Fisher-Yates algorithm is adopted in hiding countermeasures with permuted operation for its security and efficiency in implementation, yet the inherently sequential nature of the algorithm imposes limitations on hardware acceleration. In this work, we propose a novel method named Addition Round Rotation ARR, which can introduce a time-area trade-off with block-based permutation. Our findings indicate that this approach can achieve a permutation complexity level commensurate with or exceeding $2^{128}$ in a single clock cycle while maintaining substantial resistance against second-order analysis. To substantiate the security of our proposed method, we introduce a new validation technique --Identity Verification. This technique allows theoretical validation of the proposed algorithm's security and is consistent with the experimental results. Finally, we introduce an actual hardware design and provide the implementation results on Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). The measured performance demonstrates that our proposal fully supports the practical applicability.

A Succinct Range Proof for Polynomial-based Vector Commitment

Range proofs serve as a protocol for the prover to prove to the verifier that a committed number resides within a specified range, such as $[0,2^n)$, without disclosing the actual value. These proofs find extensive application in various domains, including anonymous cryptocurrencies, electronic voting, and auctions. However, the efficiency of many existing schemes diminishes significantly when confronted with batch proofs encompassing multiple elements.
The pivotal challenge arises from their focus on the commitment to a singular element rather than a vector. Addressing this gap, our paper introduces MissileProof, a zero-knowledge, succinct, non-interactive argument of knowledge tailored for the range proof of a vector commitment. Our core contribution lies in reducing this argument to a bi-to-uni variate SumCheck problem and the bivariate polynomial ZeroTest problem, and design two polynomial interactive oracle proofs (PIOPs) for each problem.
Our principal innovation involves the transformation of this argument into a bi-to-uni variate SumCheck problem and the bivariate polynomial ZeroTest problem. To tackle these challenges, we devise two Polynomial Interactive Oracle Proofs (PIOPs) for each problem.
As far as we know, our scheme has the optimal proof size ($O(1)$), the optimal statement length ($O(1)$), and the optimal verification time ($O(1)$), at the expense of slightly sacrificing proof time ($O(l\log l\cdot n\log n)$ operations on the prime field for FFT and $O(ln)$ group exponentiations in $\mathbb{G}$). We prove the security of this scheme. Experimental data shows for a committed vector of length $l = 16384$ and $n=64$, our work has the best performance in terms of the statement length (0.03125KB), proof size (1.375KB) and verification time (0.01s) with a slightly increased proof time (614s).

Tighter Proofs for PKE-to-KEM Transformation in the Quantum Random Oracle Model

In this work, we provide new, tighter proofs for the $T_{RH}$-transformation by Jiang et al. (ASIACRYPT 2023), which converts OW-CPA secure PKEs into KEMs with IND-1CCA security, a variant of typical IND-CCA security where only a single decapsulation query is allowed. Such KEMs are efficient and have been shown sufficient for real-world applications by Huguenin-Dumittan and Vaudenay at EUROCRYPT 2022. We reprove Jiang et al.'s $T_{RH}$-transformation in both the random oracle model (ROM) and the quantum random oracle model (QROM), for the case where the underlying PKE is rigid deterministic. In both ROM and QROM models, our reductions achieve security loss factors of $\mathcal{O}(1)$, significantly improving Jiang et al.'s results which have security loss factors of $\mathcal{O}(q)$ in the ROM and $\mathcal{O}(q^2)$ in the QROM respectively. Notably, central to our tight QROM reduction is a new tool called ''reprogram-after-measure'', which overcomes the reduction loss posed by oracle reprogramming in QROM proofs. This technique may be of independent interest and useful for achieving tight QROM proofs for other post-quantum cryptographic schemes. We remark that our results also improve the reduction tightness of the $T_{H}$-transformation (which also converts PKEs to KEMs) by Huguenin-Dumittan and Vaudenay (EUROCRYPT 2022), as Jiang et al. provided a tight reduction from $T_H$-transformation to $T_{RH}$-transformation (ASIACRYPT 2023).

NeutronNova: Folding everything that reduces to zero-check

We introduce NeutronNova, a new folding scheme for the zero-check relation: an instance-witness pair is in the zero-check relation if a corresponding multivariate polynomial evaluates to zero for all inputs over a suitable Boolean hypercube. The folding scheme is a two-round protocol, and it internally invokes a \emph{single} round of the sum-check protocol. The folding scheme is more efficient than prior state-of-the-art schemes and directly benefits from recent improvements to the sum-check prover. The prover’s work is the cost to commit to a witness and field operations in a single round of the sum-check protocol. So, if the witness contains "small" field elements, the prover only commits to "small" field elements. The verifier’s work is a constant number of group scalar multiplications, field operations, and hash computations. Moreover, the folding scheme generalizes to fold multiple instances at once and requires only $\log{n}$ rounds of the sum-check protocol, where $n$ is the number of instances folded.
As a corollary, we provide a folding scheme for any relation R for which there is a reduction of knowledge (RoK) from $\mathcal{R}$ to one or more instance-witness pairs in the zero-check relation. Such RoKs appear implicitly in prior lookup arguments (e.g., Lasso) and high-performance zkVMs for RISC-V (e.g., Jolt). We formalize these RoKs for several relations including indexed lookups, grand products, and CCS (which generalizes Plonkish, AIR, and R1CS). These are simple and constant round RoKs that leverage interaction to perform randomized checks on committed witness elements. Instead of proving these resulting zero-check instances as is done in prior proof systems such as Jolt, NeutronNova provides the more efficient option of continual folding of zero-check instances into a single running instance.

Nebula: Efficient read-write memory and switchboard circuits for folding schemes

Folding schemes enable prover-efficient incrementally verifiable computation (IVC), where a proof is generated step-by-step, resulting in a space-efficient prover that naturally supports continuations. These attributes make them a promising choice for proving long-running machine executions (popularly, "zkVMs"). A major problem is designing an efficient read-write memory. Another challenge is overheads incurred by unused machine instructions when incrementally proving a program execution step.
Nebula addresses these with new techniques that can paired with modern folding schemes. First, we introduce commitment-carrying IVC, where a proof carries an incremental commitment to the prover’s non-deterministic advice provided at different steps. Second, we show how this unlocks efficient read-write memory (which implies indexed lookups) with a cost-profile identical to that of non-recursive arguments. Third, we provide a new universal "switchboard" circuit construction that combines circuits of different instructions such that one can "turn off" uninvoked circuit elements and constraints, offering a new way to achieve pay-per-use prover costs.
We implement a prototype of a Nebula-based zkVM for the Ethereum virtual machine (EVM). We find that Nebula’s techniques qualitatively provide a $30\times$ smaller constraint system to represent the EVM over standard memory-checking techniques, and lead to over $260\times$ faster proof generation for the standard ERC20 token transfer transaction.

Predicting truncated multiple matrix congruential generators with unknown parameters

Multiple Matrix congruential generators is an important class of pseudorandom number generators. This paper studies the predictability of a class of truncated multiple matrix congruential generators with unknown parameters. Given a few truncated digits of high-order bits or low-order bits output by a multiple matrix congruential generator, we give a method based on lattice reduction to recover the parameters and the initial state of the generator.

Boosting SNARKs and Rate-1 Barrier in Arguments of Knowledge

We design a generic compiler to boost any non-trivial succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) to full succinctness. Our results come in two flavors:
For any constant $\epsilon > 0$, any SNARK with proof size $|\pi| < \frac{|\omega|}{\lambda^\epsilon} + \mathsf{poly}(\lambda, |x|)$ can be upgraded to a fully succinct SNARK, where all system parameters (such as proof/CRS sizes and setup/verifier run-times) grow as fixed polynomials in $\lambda$, independent of witness size.
Under an additional assumption that the underlying SNARK has as an \emph{efficient} knowledge extractor, we further improve our result to upgrade any non-trivial SNARK. For example, we show how to design fully succinct SNARKs from SNARKs with proofs of length $|\omega| - \Omega(\lambda)$, or $\frac{|\omega|}{1 + \epsilon} + \mathsf{poly}(\lambda, |x|)$, any constant $\epsilon > 0$.
Our result reduces the long-standing challenge of designing fully succinct SNARKs to designing \emph{arguments of knowledge that beat the trivial construction}. It also establishes optimality of rate-1 arguments of knowledge (such as NIZKs [Gentry-Groth-Ishai-Peikert-Sahai-Smith; JoC'15] and BARGs [Devadas-Goyal-Kalai-Vaikuntanathan, Paneth-Pass; FOCS'22]), and suggests any further improvement is tantamount to designing fully succinct SNARKs, thus requires bypassing established black-box barriers [Gentry-Wichs; STOC'11].

Cryptography and Collective Power

This paper extends the dialogue of "The Moral Character of Cryptographic Work" (Rogaway, 2015) and "Crypto for the People" (Kamara, 2020) by examining the relationship between cryptography and collective power. In particular, it considers cryptography in the context of grassroots organizing—a process by which marginalized people build collective power toward effecting systemic change—and illustrates the ways in which cryptography has both helped and hindered organizing efforts. Based on the synthesis of dozens of qualitative studies, scholarly critiques, and historical artifacts, this work introduces a paradigm shift for cryptographic protocol design—general principles and recommendations for building cryptography to address the lived needs and experiences of marginalized people. Finally, it calls for abolition cryptography: cryptographic theories and practices which dismantle harmful systems and replace them with systems that sustain human lives and livelihoods.

Constrained Pseudorandom Functions for Inner-Product Predicates from Weaker Assumptions

In this paper, we provide a novel framework for constructing Constrained Pseudorandom Functions (CPRFs) with inner-product constraint predicates, using ideas from subtractive secret sharing and related-key-attack security.
Our framework can be instantiated using a random oracle or any suitable Related-Key-Attack (RKA) secure pseudorandom function. This results in three new CPRF constructions:
1. an adaptively-secure construction in the random oracle model;
2. a selectively-secure construction under the DDH assumption; and
3. a selectively-secure construction with a polynomial domain under the assumption that one-way functions exist.
All three instantiations are constraint-hiding and support inner-product predicates, leading to the first constructions of such expressive CPRFs under each corresponding assumption. Moreover, while the OWF-based construction is primarily of theoretical interest, the random oracle and DDH-based constructions are concretely efficient, which we show via an implementation.

QuietOT: Lightweight Oblivious Transfer with a Public-Key Setup

Oblivious Transfer (OT) is at the heart of secure computation and is a foundation for many applications in cryptography. Over two decades of work have led to extremely efficient protocols for evaluating OT instances in the preprocessing model, through a paradigm called OT extension.
A few OT instances generated in an offline phase can be used to perform many OTs in an online phase efficiently, i.e., with very low communication and computational overheads.
Specifically, traditional OT extension protocols use a small number of “base” OTs, generated using any black-box OT protocol, and convert them into many OT instances using only lightweight symmetric-key primitives.
Recently, a new paradigm of OT with a *public-key setup* has emerged, which replaces the base OTs with a non-interactive setup: Using only the public key of the other party, two parties can efficiently compute a virtually unbounded number of OT instances on-the-fly.
In this paper, we put forth a novel framework for OT extension with a public-key setup and concretely efficient instantiations. An implementation of our framework is 30-100 times faster when compared to the previous state-of-the-art public-key OT protocols, and remains competitive even when compared to OT protocols that *do not* offer a public-key setup. Additionally, our instantiations result in the first public-key schemes with plausible post-quantum security.
In summary, this paper contributes:
- QuietOT: A framework for OT extension with a public-key setup that uses fast, symmetric-key primitives to generate OT instances following a one-time public-key setup, and offering additional features such as precomputability.
- A public-key setup for QuietOT from the RingLWE assumption, resulting in the first post-quantum construction of OT extension with a public-key setup.
- An optimized, open-source implementation of our construction that can generate up to 1M OT extensions per second on commodity hardware. In contrast, the state-of-the-art public-key OT protocol is limited to approximately 20K OTs per second.
- The first formal treatment of the security of OT with a public-key setup in a multi-party setting, which addresses several subtleties that were overlooked in prior work.

PAC-Private Algorithms

Provable privacy typically requires involved analysis and is often associated with unacceptable accuracy loss. While many empirical verification or approximation methods, such as Membership Inference Attacks (MIA) and Differential Privacy Auditing (DPA), have been proposed, these do not offer rigorous privacy guarantees. In this paper, we apply recently-proposed Probably Approximately Correct (PAC) Privacy to give formal, mechanized, simulation-based proofs for a range of practical, black-box algorithms: K-Means, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Random Forests. To provide these proofs, we present a new simulation algorithm that efficiently determines anisotropic noise perturbation required for any given level of privacy. We provide a proof of correctness for this algorithm and demonstrate that anisotropic noise has substantive benefits over isotropic noise.
Stable algorithms are easier to privatize, and we demonstrate privacy amplification resulting from introducing regularization in these algorithms; meaningful privacy guarantees are obtained with small losses in accuracy. We propose new techniques in order to reduce instability in algorithmic output and convert intractable geometric stability verification into efficient deterministic stability verification. Thorough experiments are included, and we validate our provable adversarial inference hardness against state-of-the-art empirical attacks.

Pacmann: Efficient Private Approximate Nearest Neighbor Search

We propose a new private Approximate Nearest Neighbor (ANN) search scheme named Pacmann that allows a client to perform ANN search in a vector database without revealing the query vector to the server. Unlike prior constructions that run encrypted search on the server side, Pacmann carefully offloads limited computation and storage to the client, no longer requiring computationally-intensive cryptographic techniques. Specifically, clients run a graph-based ANN search, where in each hop on the graph, the client privately retrieves local graph information from the server. To make this efficient, we combine two ideas: (1) we adapt a leading graph-based ANN search algorithm to be compatible with private information retrieval (PIR) for subgraph retrieval; (2) we use a recent class of PIR schemes that trade offline preprocessing for online computational efficiency. Pacmann achieves significantly better search quality than the state-of-the-art private ANN search schemes, showing up to 2.5$\times$ better search accuracy on real-world datasets than prior work and reaching 90\% quality of a state-of-the-art non-private ANN algorithm. Moreover on large datasets with up to 100 million vectors, Pacmann shows better scalability than prior private ANN schemes
with up to 2.6$\times$ reduction in computation time and 1.3$\times$ reduction in overall latency.

Mutable Batch Arguments and Applications

We put forth a new concept of mutability for batch arguments (BARGs), called mutable batch arguments. Our goal is to re-envision how we think about and use BARGs. Traditionally, a BARG proof $\pi$ is an immutable encoding of $k$ $\mathbf{NP}$ witness $\omega_1, \ldots, \omega_{k}$. A mutable BARG system captures the notion of computations over BARGs, where each proof string $\pi$ is treated as a mutable encoding of original witnesses. We also study strong privacy notions for mutable BARGs, with the goal of hiding all non-trivial information about witnesses from a mutated proof. Such mutable BARGs are a naturally good fit for many privacy sensitive applications.
Our main contributions include introducing the concept of mutable BARGs, identifying non-trivial classes of feasible mutations, designing new constructions for mutable BARGs with varying capabilities satisfying mutation privacy from standard cryptographic assumptions, and enabling new applications to many advanced signatures (homomorphic/ redactable/ aggregate signatures). Our results improve state-of-the-art known for many signature systems. E.g., we provide the first multi-key homomorphic signature with succinct signatures from standard assumptions, and we provide the first truly compact redactable signature where pre/post-redaction signatures are of fixed size, and we provide the first locally verifiable multi-signer aggregate signature satisfying message privacy from standard assumptions.

ProxCode: Efficient Biometric Proximity Searchable Encryption from Error Correcting Codes

This work builds approximate proximity searchable encryption. Secure biometric databases are the primary application. Prior work (Kuzu, Islam, and Kantarcioglu, ICDE 2012) combines locality-sensitive hashes, or LSHs, (Indyk, STOC ’98), and oblivious multimaps. The multimap associates LSH outputs as keywords to biometrics as values.
When the desired result set is of size at most one, we show a new preprocessing technique and system called ProxCode that inserts shares of a linear secret sharing into the map instead of the full biometric. Instead of choosing shares independently, shares are correlated so exactly one share is associated with each keyword/LSH output. As a result, one can rely on a map instead of a multimap. Secure maps are easier to construct with low leakage than multimaps.
For many parameters, this approach reduces the required number of LSHs for a fixed accuracy. Our scheme yields the most improvement when combining a high accuracy requirement with a biometric with large underlying noise. Our approach builds on any secure map. We evaluate the scheme accuracy for both iris data and random data.

Simplified PIR and CDS Protocols and Improved Linear Secret-Sharing Schemes

We consider 3 related cryptographic primitives, private information retrieval (PIR) protocols, conditional disclosure of secrets (CDS) protocols, and secret-sharing schemes; these primitives have many applications in cryptography. We study these primitives requiring information-theoretic security. The complexity of these primitives has been dramatically improved in the last few years are they are closely related, i.e., the the 2-server PIR protocol of Dvir and Gopi (J. ACM 2016) was transformed to construct the CDS protocols of Liu, Vaikuntanathan, and Wee (CRYPTO 2017, Eurocrypt 2018) and these CDS protocols are the main ingredient in the construction of the best known secret-sharing schemes.
To date, the messages size required in PIR and CDS protocols and the share size required in secret-sharing schemes is not understood and there are big gaps between their upper bounds and lower bounds. The goal of this paper is to try to better understand the upper bounds by simplifying current constructions and improving their complexity.
We obtain the following two independent results:
- We simplify, abstract, and generalize the 2-server PIR protocol of
Dvir and Gopi (J. ACM 2016) and the 2-server and multi-server
CDS protocols of Liu et al. (CRYPTO 2017, Eurocrypt 2018) and
Beimel, Farr`as, and Lasri (TCC 2023). This is done by considering
a new variant of matching vectors and by using a general share
conversion. In addition to simplifying previous protocols, our
protocols can use matching vectors over any $m$ that is product
of two distinct primes.
Our construction does not improve the communication
complexity of PIR and CDS protocols; however, construction of
better matching vectors over any $m$ that is product of
two distinct primes will improve their communication complexity.
- In many applications of secret-sharing schemes it is important that
the scheme is linear, e.g., by using the fact that parties can locally
add shares of two secrets and obtain shares of the sum of the
secrets. We provide a construction of linear secret-sharing
schemes for $n$-party access structures with improved share size
of $2^{0.7563n}$. Previously, the best share size for linear secret-
sharing schemes was $2^{0.7576n}$ and it is known that for most
$n$-party access structures the shares size is at least $2^{0.5n}$.
This results is achieved by a reduction to unbalanced CDS
protocols (compared to balanced CDS protocols in previous
constructions).

On the security of the initial tropical Stickel protocol and its modification based on Linde-de la Puente matrices

Recently, a more efficient attack on the initial tropical Stickel protocol has been proposed, different from the previously known Kotov-Ushakov attack, yet equally guaranteed to succeed. Given that the Stickel protocol can be implemented in various ways, such as utilizing platforms beyond the tropical semiring or employing alternative commutative matrix ``classes'' instead of polynomials, we firstly explore the generalizability of this new attack across different implementations of the Stickel protocol. We then conduct a comprehensive security analysis of a tropical variant that successfully resists this new attack, namely the Stickel protocol based on Linde-de la Puente (LdlP) matrices. Additionally, we extend the concept of LdlP matrices beyond the tropical semiring, generalizing it to a broader class of semirings.

Secret Sharing with Publicly Verifiable Deletion

Certified deletion, an inherently quantum capability, allows a party holding a quantum state to prove that they have deleted the information contained in that state. Bartusek and Raizes recently studied certified deletion in the context of secret sharing schemes, and showed constructions with privately verifiable proofs of deletion that can be verified only by the dealer who generated the shares. We give two constructions of secret sharing schemes with publicly verifiable certified deletion. Our first construction is based on the post-quantum security of the LWE problem, and each share requires a number of qubits that is linear in the size of an underlying classical secret sharing scheme for the same set of authorized parties. Our second construction is based on a more general assumption—the existence of post quantum one-way functions— but requires an asymptotically larger number of qubits relative to the share size of the underlying classical scheme.

DeepFold: Efficient Multilinear Polynomial Commitment from Reed-Solomon Code and Its Application to Zero-knowledge Proofs

This work presents Deepfold, a novel multilinear polynomial commitment scheme (PCS) based on Reed-Solomon code that offers optimal prover time and a more concise proof size. For the first time, Deepfold adapts the FRI-based multilinear PCS to the list decoding radius setting, requiring significantly fewer query repetitions and thereby achieving a 3× reduction in proof size compared to Basefold (Crypto'24), while preserving its advantages in prover time. Compared with PolyFRIM (USENIX Security'24), Deepfold achieves a 2× improvement in prover time, verifier time, and proof size. Another contribution of this work is a batch evaluation scheme, which enables the FRI-based multilinear PCS to handle polynomials encoded from inputs of arbitrary length without additional padding overhead.
Our scheme has broad applications in zk-SNARKs, since PCS is a key component in modern zk-SNARK constructions. For example, when replacing the PCS component of Virgo (S&P'20) with Deepfold, our scheme achieves a 2.5× faster prover time when proving the knowledge of a Merkle tree with 256 leaves, while maintaining the similar proof size. When replacing the PCS component of HyperPlonk (Eurocrypt'23) with Deepfold, our scheme has about 3.6× faster prover time. Additionally, when applying our arbitrary length input commitment to verifiable matrix multiplications for matrices of size 1200×768 and 768×2304, which are actual use cases in GPT-2 model, the performance showcases a
2.4× reduction in prover time compared to previous approaches.

Bit-fixing Correlation Attacks on Goldreich's Pseudorandom Generators

We introduce a powerful attack, termed the bit-fixing correlation attack, on Goldreich's pseudorandom generators (PRGs), specifically focusing on those based on the $\mathsf{XOR}\text{-}\mathsf{THR}$ predicate. By exploiting the bit-fixing correlation property, we derive correlation equations with high bias by fixing certain bits. Utilizing two solvers to handle these high-bias correlation equations, we present inverse attacks on $\mathsf{XOR}\text{-}\mathsf{THR}$ based PRGs within the complexity class $\mathsf{NC}^{0}$.
We efficiently attack the $\mathsf{XOR}\text{-}\mathsf{MAJ}$ challenges (STOC 2016), demonstrating that the $\mathsf{XOR}\text{-}\mathsf{MAJ}$ predicate fails to be $s$-pseudorandom with $n$-bit security even for a stretch factor $s = 1$, where $n$ is the size of the secret seed. For instance, a challenge of $n=42$ and $s = 1$ can be broken using approximately $2^{28}$ calls to Gaussian elimination. We extend our attack to an instance used in constructing silent Oblivious Transfer (OT) protocols (Eurocrypt 2024), with $n=256$. This attack can be realized with approximately $2^{29}$ calls to Gaussian elimination, and we have implemented this attack on a cluster of 32 CPU cores, successfully recovering the secret seed in 5.5 hours. Furthermore, we extend our results to general Piecewise Symmetric Predicates of the form $\mathsf{XOR}\text{-}\mathsf{X}$, showing that $\mathsf{XOR}\text{-}\mathsf{MAJ}$ is far from well designed predicate against bit-fixing correlation attack.
With marginal modification, our attack can also be adapted to the FiLIP cipher instantiated with $\mathsf{THR}$-related predicates, making it effective against most FiLIP instances. For example, the FiLIP cipher instantiated on $\mathsf{XOR} \text{-}\mathsf{THR}$ with key size $982$ can be broken using approximately $2^{51}$ calls to Gaussian elimination.
Based on these findings, we show that the traditional security assumptions for Goldreich's PRGs---namely, (a) $\Omega(s)$-resilience and (b) algebraic immunity---are insufficient to guarantee pseudorandomness or one-wayness.

Amortizing Circuit-PSI in the Multiple Sender/Receiver Setting

Private set intersection (PSI) is a cryptographic functionality for two parties to learn the intersection of their input sets, without leaking any other information. Circuit-PSI is a stronger PSI functionality where the parties learn only a secret-shared form of the desired intersection, thus without revealing the intersection directly. These secret shares can subsequently serve as input to a secure multiparty computation of any function on this intersection.
In this paper we consider several settings in which parties take part in multiple Circuit-PSI executions with the same input set, and aim to amortize communications and computations. To that end, we build up a new framework for Circuit-PSI around generalizations of oblivious (programmable) PRFs that are extended with offline setup phases. We present several efficient instantiations of this framework with new security proofs for this setting. As a side result, we obtain a slight improvement in communication and computation complexity over the state-of-the-art semi-honest Circuit-PSI protocol by Bienstock et al. (USENIX '23). Additionally, we present a novel Circuit-PSI protocol from a PRF with secret-shared outputs, which has linear communication and computation complexity in the parties' input set sizes,
and is able to realize a stronger security notion. Lastly, we derive the potential amortizations over multiple protocol executions, and observe that each of the presented instantiations is favorable in at least one of the multiple-execution settings.

Stateful Communication with Malicious Parties

Cryptography's most common use is secure communication---e.g. Alice can use encryption to hide the contents of the messages she sends to Bob (confidentiality) and can use signatures to assure Bob she sent these messages (authenticity). While one typically considers stateless security guarantees---for example a channel that Alice can use to send messages securely to Bob---one can also consider stateful ones---e.g. an interactive conversation between Alice, Bob and their friends where participation is dynamic: new parties can join the conversation and existing ones can leave. A natural application of such stateful guarantees are messengers.
We introduce a modular abstraction for stateful group communication, called Chat Sessions, which captures security guarantees that are achievable in fully asynchronous settings when one makes no party-honesty assumptions: anyone (including group members themselves) can be fully dishonest. Our abstraction is parameterized by (and enforces) a permissions policy that defines what operations parties have the right to perform in a given chat state. We show how to construct, use and extend Chat Sessions.
Our construction is fully decentralized (in particular, it need not a delivery service), does not incur additional interaction between chat participants (other than what is inherent from chat operations like sending a message) and liveness depends solely on messages being delivered.
A key feature of Chat Sessions is modularity: we extend Chat Sessions to capture authenticity, confidentiality, anonymity and off-the-record, and show our construction provides these guarantees if the underlying communication channels do too. We complement this by proving Maurer et al.'s Multi-Designated Receiver Public Key Encryption scheme (Eurocrypt '22) constructs matching communication channels (i.e. with all these guarantees).
We use Chat Sessions to construct UatChat: a simple and equally modular messaging application. Since UatChat preserves each of the guarantees mentioned above, this means we give the first fully Off-The-Record messaging application: parties can plausibly deny not only having sent any messages but even of being aware of a chat's existence.

Reinventing BrED: A Practical Construction Formal Treatment of Broadcast Encryption with Dealership

Broadcast Encryption (BE) allows a sender to send an encrypted message to multiple receivers. In a typical broadcast encryption scenario, the broadcaster decides the set of users who can decrypt a particular ciphertext (denoted as the privileged set). Gritti et al. (IJIS'16) introduced a new primitive called Broadcast Encryption with Dealership (BrED), where the dealer decides the privileged set. A BrED scheme allows a dealer to buy content from the broadcaster and sell it to users. It provides better flexibility in managing a large user base. To date, quite a few different constructions of BrED schemes have been proposed by the research community.
We find that all existing BrED schemes are insecure under the existing security definitions. We demonstrate a concrete attack on all the existing schemes in the purview of the existing security definition. We also find that the security definitions proposed in the state-of-the-art BrED schemes do not capture the real world. We argue about the inadequacy of existing definitions and propose a new security definition that models the real world more closely. Finally, we propose a new BrED construction and prove it to be secure in our newly proposed security model.

DART: Distributed argument of knowledge for rough terrains

We describe a fully distributed KZG-based Snark instantiable with any pairing-friendly curve with a sufficiently large scalar field. In particular, the proof system is compatible with Cocks-Pinch
or Brezing-Weng outer curves to the the widely used curves such as secp256k1, ED25519, BLS12-381 and BN254.
This allows us to retain the fully parallelizable nature and the O(1) communication complexity of Pianist ([LXZ+23]) in conjunction with circumventing the huge overhead of non-native arithmetic for
prominent use cases such as scalar multiplications and/or pairings for Bitcoin (secp256k1), Cosmos (Ed25519) and Ethereum PoS (BLS12-381) signatures.
As in [LXZ+23], we use a bivariate KZG polynomial commitment scheme, which entails a universal updatable CRS linear in the circuit size. The proof size is constant, as are the verification time -
dominated by three pairings - and the communication complexity between the Prover machines. With a 9-limb pairing-friendly outer curve to Ed25519, the proof size is 5 KB. With the same curve, the communication complexity for each worker node is 5 KB and that of the master node is 5 KB per machine.
The effective Prover time for a circuit of size T ·M on M machines is O(T · log(T)+M · log(M)). The work of each Prover machine is dominated by the MSMs of length T in the group G1 and a single sum of univariate polynomial products computed via multimodular FFTs1 of size 2T. Likewise, the work of the master node is dominated by the MSMs of length M in the group G1 and a single sum of univariate polynomial products via multimodular FFTs of size 2M.

MPC-in-the-Head Framework without Repetition and its Applications to the Lattice-based Cryptography

The MPC-in-the-Head framework has been pro-
posed as a solution for Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Arguments of Knowledge (NIZKAoK) due to its efficient proof generation. However, most existing NIZKAoK constructions using this approach require multiple MPC evaluations to achieve negligible soundness error, resulting in proof size and time that are asymptotically at least λ times the size of the circuit of the NP relation. In this paper, we propose a novel method to eliminate the need for repeated MPC evaluations, resulting in a NIZKAoK protocol for any NP relation that we call Diet. The proof size and time of Diet are asymptotically only polylogarithmic with respect to the size of the circuit C of the NP relation but are independent of the security parameter λ. Hence, both the proof size and time can be significantly reduced.
Moreover, Diet offers promising concrete efficiency for proving Learning With Errors (LWE) problems and its variants. Our solution provides significant advantages over other schemes in terms of both proof size and proof time, when considering both factors together. Specifically, Diet is a promising method for proving knowledge of secret keys for lattice-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) such as Frodo and Kyber, offering a practical solution to future post-quantum certificate management. For Kyber 512, our implementation achieves an online proof size of 83.65 kilobytes (KB) with a preprocessing overhead of 152.02KB. The implementation is highly efficient, with an online proof time of only 0.68 seconds and a preprocessing time of 0.81 seconds. Notably, our approach provides the first reported implementation of proving knowledge of secret keys for Kyber 512 using post-quantum primitives-based zero-knowledge proofs.

Matching radar signals and fingerprints with MPC

Vessels can be recognised by their navigation radar due to the characteristics of the emitted radar signal. This is particularly useful if one wants to build situational awareness without revealing one's own presence. Most countries maintain databases of radar fingerprints but will not readily share these due to national security regulations. Sharing of such information will generally require some form of information exchange agreement.
However, all parties in a coalition benefit from correct identification. We use secure multiparty computation to match a radar signal measurement against secret databases and output plausible matches with their likelihoods. We also provide a demonstrator using MP-SPDZ.

Efficient Secure Multiparty Computation for Multidimensional Arithmetics and Its Application in Privacy-Preserving Biometric Identification

Over years of the development of secure multi-party computation (MPC), many sophisticated functionalities have been made pratical and multi-dimensional operations occur more and more frequently in MPC protocols, especially in protocols involving datasets of vector elements, such as privacy-preserving biometric identification and privacy-preserving machine learning. In this paper, we introduce a new kind of correlation, called tensor triples, which is designed to make multi-dimensional MPC protocols more efficient. We will discuss the generation process, the usage, as well as the applications of tensor triples and show that it can accelerate privacy-preserving biometric identification protocols, such as FingerCode, Eigenfaces and FaceNet, by more than 1000 times, with reasonable offline costs.

A Systematic Study of Sparse LWE

In this work, we introduce the sparse LWE assumption, an assumption that draws inspiration from both Learning with Errors (Regev JACM 10) and Sparse Learning Parity with Noise (Alekhnovich FOCS 02). Exactly like LWE, this assumption posits indistinguishability of $(\mathbf{A}, \mathbf{s}\mathbf{A}+\mathbf{e} \mod p)$ from $(\mathbf{A}, \mathbf{u})$ for a random $\mathbf{u}$ where the secret $\mathbf{s}$, and the error vector $\mathbf{e}$ is generated exactly as in LWE. However, the coefficient matrix $\mathbf{A}$ in sparse LPN is chosen randomly from $\mathbb{Z}^{n\times m}_{p}$ so that each column has Hamming weight exactly $k$ for some small $k$. We study the problem in the regime where $k$ is a constant or polylogarithmic. The primary motivation for proposing this assumption is efficiency. Compared to LWE, the samples can be computed and stored with roughly $O(n/k)$ factor improvement in efficiency. Our results can be summarized as:
Foundations:
We show several properties of sparse LWE samples, including: 1) The hardness of LWE/LPN with dimension $k$ implies the hardness of sparse LWE/LPN with sparsity $k$ and arbitrary dimension $n \ge k$. 2) When the number of samples $m=\Omega(n \log p)$, length of the shortest vector of a lattice spanned by rows of a random sparse matrix is large, close to that of a random dense matrix of the same dimension (up to a small constant factor). 3) Trapdoors with small polynomial norm exist for random sparse matrices with dimension $n \times m = O(n \log p)$. 4) Efficient algorithms for sampling such matrices together with trapdoors exist when the dimension is $n \times m = \widetilde{\mathcal{O}}(n^2)$.
Cryptanalysis:
We examine the suite of algorithms that have been used to break LWE and sparse LPN. While naively many of the attacks that apply to LWE do not exploit sparsity, we consider natural extensions that make use of sparsity. We propose a model to capture all these attacks. Using this model we suggest heuristics on how to identify concrete parameters. Our initial cryptanalysis suggests that concretely sparse LWE with a modest $k$ and slightly bigger dimension than LWE will satisfy similar level of security as LWE with similar parameters.
Applications:
We show that the hardness of sparse LWE implies very efficient homomorphic encryption schemes for low degree computations. We obtain the first secret key Linearly Homomorphic Encryption (LHE) schemes with slightly super-constant, or even constant, overhead, which further has applications to private information retrieval, private set intersection, etc. We also obtain secret key homomorphic encryption for arbitrary constant-degree polynomials with slightly super-constant, or constant, overhead.
We stress that our results are preliminary. However, our results make a strong case for further investigation of sparse LWE.

A Note on ``Privacy-Preserving and Secure Cloud Computing: A Case of Large-Scale Nonlinear Programming''

We show that the outsourcing algorithm for the case of linear constraints [IEEE Trans. Cloud Comput., 2023, 11(1), 484-498] cannot keep output privacy, due to the simple translation transformation. We also suggest a remedy method by adopting a hybrid transformation which combines the usual translation transformation and resizing transformation so as to protect the output privacy.

Adversary Resilient Learned Bloom Filters

Creating an adversary resilient construction of the Learned Bloom Filter with provable guarantees is an open problem. We define a strong adversarial model for the Learned Bloom Filter. Our adversarial model extends an existing adversarial model designed for the Classical (i.e not ``Learned'') Bloom Filter by prior work and considers computationally bounded adversaries that run in probabilistic polynomial time (PPT). Using our model, we construct an adversary resilient variant of the Learned Bloom Filter called the Downtown Bodega Filter. We show that: if pseudo-random permutations exist, then an Adversary Resilient Learned Bloom Filter may be constructed with $2\lambda$ extra bits of memory and at most one extra pseudo-random permutation in the critical path. We construct a hybrid adversarial model for the case where a fraction of the query workload is chosen by an adversary. We show realistic scenarios where using the Downtown Bodega Filter gives better performance guarantees compared to alternative approaches in this hybrid model.

Fully Homomorphic Encryption for Cyclotomic Prime Moduli

This paper presents a Generalized BFV (GBFV) fully homomorphic encryption scheme that encrypts plaintext spaces of the form $\mathbb{Z}[x]/(\Phi_m(x), t(x))$ with $\Phi_m(x)$ the $m$-th cyclotomic polynomial and $t(x)$ an arbitrary polynomial. GBFV encompasses both BFV where $t(x) = p$ is a constant, and the CLPX scheme (CT-RSA 2018) where $m = 2^k$ and $t(x) = x-b$ is a linear polynomial. The latter can encrypt a single huge integer modulo $\Phi_m(b)$, has much lower noise growth than BFV (linear in $m$ instead of exponential), but cannot be bootstrapped.
We show that by a clever choice of $m$ and higher degree polynomial $t(x)$, our scheme combines the SIMD capabilities of BFV with the low noise growth of CLPX, whilst still being efficiently bootstrappable. Moreover, we present parameter families that natively accommodate packed plaintext spaces defined by a large cyclotomic prime, such as the Fermat prime $\Phi_2(2^{16}) = 2^{16} + 1$ and the Goldilocks prime $\Phi_6(2^{32}) = 2^{64} - 2^{32} + 1$. These primes are often used in homomorphic encryption applications and zero-knowledge proof systems.
Due to the lower noise growth, e.g. for the Goldilocks prime, GBFV can evaluate circuits whose multiplicative depth is more than $5$ times larger than native BFV. As a result, we can evaluate either larger circuits or work with much smaller ring dimensions. In particular, we can natively bootstrap GBFV at 128-bit security for a large prime, already at ring dimension $2^{14}$, which was impossible before. We implemented the GBFV scheme on top of the SEAL library and achieve a latency of only $5$ seconds to bootstrap a ciphertext encrypting $4096$ elements modulo $2^{16}+1$.

WHIR: Reed–Solomon Proximity Testing with Super-Fast Verification

We introduce WHIR, a new IOP of proximity that offers small query complexity and exceptionally fast verification time. The WHIR verifier typically runs in a few hundred microseconds, whereas other verifiers in the literature require several milliseconds (if not much more). This significantly improves the state of the art in verifier time for hash-based SNARGs (and beyond).
Crucially, WHIR is an IOP of proximity for constrained Reed–Solomon codes, which can express a rich class of queries to multilinear polynomials and to univariate polynomials. In particular, WHIR serves as a direct replacement for protocols like FRI, STIR, BaseFold, and others. Leveraging the rich queries supported by WHIR and a new compiler for multilinear polynomial IOPs, we obtain a highly efficient SNARG for generalized R1CS.
As a comparison point, our techniques also yield state-of-the-art constructions of hash-based (non-interactive) polynomial commitment schemes for both univariate and multivariate polynomials (since sumcheck queries naturally express polynomial evaluations). For example, if we use WHIR to construct a polynomial commitment scheme for degree 222, with 100 bits of security, then the time to commit and open is 1.2 seconds, the sender communicates 63 KiB to the receiver, and the opening verification time is 360 microseconds.

Quasi-linear masking to protect against both SCA and FIA

The implementation of cryptographic algorithms must be protected against physical attacks. Side-channel and fault injection analyses are two prominent such implem\-entation-level attacks. Protections against either do exist; they are characterized by security orders: the higher the order, the more difficult the attack.
In this paper, we leverage fast discrete Fourier transform to reduce the complexity of high-order masking, and extend it to allow for fault detection and/or correction. The security paradigm is that of code-based masking. Coding theory is amenable both to mix the information and masking material at a prescribed order, and to detect and/or correct errors purposely injected by an attacker.
For the first time, we show that quasi-linear masking (pioneered by Goudarzi, Joux and Rivain at ASIACRYPT 2018) can be achieved alongside with cost amortisation. This technique consists in masking several symbols/bytes with the same masking material, therefore improving the efficiency of the masking. Similarly, it allows to optimize the detection capability of codes as linear codes are all the more efficient as the information to protect is longer. Namely, we prove mathematically that our scheme features side-channel security order of $d+1-t$, detects $d$ faults and corrects $\lfloor(d-1)/2\rfloor$ faults, where $2d+1$ is the encoding length and $t$ is the information size ($t\geq1$). Applied to AES, one can get side-channel protection of order $d=7$ when masking one column/line ($t=4$ bytes) at once.
In addition to the theory, that makes use of the Frobenius Additive Fast Fourier Transform, we show performance results, both in software and hardware.

Small Public Exponent Brings More: Improved Partial Key Exposure Attacks against RSA

Let $(N,e)$ be a public key of the RSA cryptosystem, and $d$ be the corresponding private key. In practice, we usually choose a small $e$ for quick encryption. In this paper, we improve partial private key exposure attacks against RSA with MSBs of $d$ and small $e$. The key idea is that under such a setting we can usually obtain more information about the prime factors of $N$ and then, by solving a univariate modular polynomial equation using Coppersmith's method, $N$ can be factored in polynomial time. Compared to previous results, we reduce the number of the leaked bits in $d$ that are needed to mount the attack by $\log_2 (e)$ bits. For $e=65537$, previous work required an additional enumeration of 17 bits to achieve our new bound, resulting in a $2^{10}$ (or 1,024) x increase in time consumption. Furthermore, our experiments show that for a $1024$-bit modulus $N$, our attack can achieve the theoretical bound on a simple personal computer, which verifies the new method.

Quantum Money from Class Group Actions on Elliptic Curves

We construct a quantum money/quantum lightning scheme from class group actions on elliptic curves over $F_{p}$. Our scheme, which is based on the invariant money construction of Liu-Montgomery-Zhandry (Eurocrypt '23), is simple to describe. We believe it to be the most instantiable and well-defined quantum money construction known so far. The security of our quantum lightning construction is exactly equivalent to the (conjectured) hardness of constructing two uniform superpositions over elliptic curves in an isogeny class which is acted on simply transitively by an exponentially large ideal class group.
However, we needed to advance the state of the art of isogenies in order to achieve our scheme. In partcular, we show:
1. An efficient (quantum) algorithm for sampling a uniform superposition over a cryptographically large isogeny class.
2. A method for specifying polynomially many generators for the class group so that polynomial-sized products yield an exponential-sized subset of class group, modulo a seemingly very modest assumption.
Achieving these results also requires us to advance the state of the art of the (pure) mathematics of elliptic curves, and we are optimistic that the mathematical tools we developed in this paper can be used to advance isogeny-based cryptography in other ways.

Block Ciphers in Idealized Models: Automated Proofs and New Security Results

We develop and implement AlgoROM, a tool to systematically analyze the security of a wide class of symmetric primitives in idealized models of computation. The schemes that we consider are those that can be expressed over an alphabet consisting of XOR and function symbols for hash functions, permutations, or block ciphers.
We implement our framework in OCaml and apply it to a number of prominent constructions, which include the Luby–Rackoff (LR), key-alternating Feistel (KAF), and iterated Even–Mansour (EM) ciphers, as well as substitution-permutation networks (SPN). The security models we consider are (S)PRP, and strengthenings thereof under related-key (RK), key-dependent message (KD), and more generally key-correlated (KC) attacks.
Using AlgoROM, we are able to reconfirm a number of classical and previously established security theorems, and in one case we identify a gap in a proof from the literature (Connolly et al., ToSC'19). However, most results that we prove with AlgoROM are new. In particular, we obtain new positive results for LR, KAF, EM, and SPN in the above models. Our results better reflect the configurations actually implemented in practice, as they use a single idealized primitive. In contrast to many existing tools, our automated proofs do not operate in symbolic models, but rather in the standard probabilistic model for cryptography.

BBB PRP Security of the Lai-Massey Mode

In spite of being a popular technique for designing block ciphers, Lai-Massey networks have received considerably less attention from a security analysis point-of-view than Feistel networks and Substitution-Permutation networks. In this paper we study the beyond-birthday-bound (BBB) security of Lai-Massey networks with independent random round functions against chosen-plaintext adversaries. Concretely, we show that five rounds are necessary and sufficient to achieve BBB security.

Efficient Pairing-Free Adaptable k-out-of-N Oblivious Transfer Protocols

Oblivious Transfer (OT) is one of the fundamental building blocks in cryptography that enables various privacy-preserving applications. Constructing efficient OT schemes has been an active research area. This paper presents three efficient two-round pairing-free k-out-of-N oblivious transfer protocols with standard security. Our constructions follow the minimal communication pattern: the receiver sends k messages to the sender, who responds with n+k messages, achieving the lowest data transmission among pairing-free k-out-of-n OT schemes. Furthermore, our protocols support adaptivity and also, enable the sender to encrypt the n messages offline, independent of the receiver's variables, offering significant performance advantages in one-sender-multiple-receiver scenarios. We provide security proofs under the Computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) and RSA assumptions, without relying on the Random Oracle Model. Our protocols combine minimal communication rounds, adaptivity, offline encryption capability, and provable security, making them well-suited for privacy-preserving applications requiring efficient oblivious transfer. Furthermore, the first two proposed schemes require only one operation, making them ideal for resource-constrained devices.

Depth Optimized Circuits for Lattice Based Voting with Large Candidate Sets

Homomorphic encryption has long been used to build voting
schemes. Additively homomorphic encryption only allows simple count-
ing functions. Lattice-based fully (or somewhat) homomorphic encryp-
tion allows more general counting functions, but the required parameters
quickly become impractical if used naively. It is safe to leak information
during the counting function evaluation, as long as the information could
be derived from the public result. To exploit this observation, we de-
sign a flexible framework for using somewhat homomorphic encryption
for voting that incorporates random input and allows controlled leakage
of information. We instantiate the framework using novel circuits with
low but significant multiplicative depth exploiting the fact that, in the
context of voting, leakage of certain information during homomorphic
evaluation can be permitted. We also instantiate the framework with a
circuit that uses random input to shuffle without the use of mixnets.

$\mathsf{Protoss}$ Protocol for Tight Optimal Symmetric Security

We present $\mathsf{Protoss}$, a new balanced PAKE protocol with optimal communication efficiency. Messages are only 160 bits long and the computational complexity is lower than all previous approaches. Our protocol is proven secure in the random oracle model and features a security proof in a strong security model with multiple parties and multiple sessions, while allowing for generous attack queries including multiple $\mathsf{Test}$-queries. Moreover, the proof is in the practically relevant single-bit model (that is harder to achieve than the multiple-bit model) and tightly reduces to the Strong Square Diffie-Hellman assumption (SSQRDH). This allows for very efficient, theoretically-sound instantiations and tight compositions with symmetric primitives.

Lower Bounds for Levin–Kolmogorov Complexity

The hardness of Kolmogorov complexity is intricately connected to the existence of one-way functions and derandomization.
An important and elegant notion is Levin's version of Kolmogorov complexity, \(\mathsf{Kt}\), and its decisional variant, \(\mathsf{MKtP}\).
The question whether \(\mathsf{MKtP}\) can be computed in polynomial time is particularly interesting because it is not subject to known technical barriers such as algebrization or natural proofs that would explain the lack of a proof for \(\mathsf{MKtP} \not\in \mathsf{P}\).
We take a major step towards proving \(\mathsf{MKtP} \not\in \mathsf{P}\) by developing a novel yet simple diagonalization technique to show unconditionally that \(\mathsf{MKtP} \not \in \mathsf{DTIME}[O(n)]\), i.e., no deterministic linear-time algorithm can solve \(\mathsf{MKtP}\) on every instance.
This allows us to affirm a conjecture by Ren and Santhanam [STACS:RS22] about a non-halting variant of \(\mathsf{Kt}\) complexity.
Additionally, we give conditional lower bounds for \(\mathsf{MKtP}\) that tolerate either more runtime or one-sided error.
If the underlying computational model has a linear-time universal simulation, e.g.\ random-access machines, then we obtain a quadratic lower bound, i.e., \(\mathsf{MKtP} \not\in \mathsf{DTIME}[O(n^2)]\).

Polynomial Time Cryptanalytic Extraction of Deep Neural Networks in the Hard-Label Setting

Deep neural networks (DNNs) are valuable assets, yet their public accessibility raises security concerns about parameter extraction by malicious actors. Recent work by Carlini et al. (Crypto’20) and Canales- Martínez et al. (Eurocrypt’24) has drawn parallels between this issue and block cipher key extraction via chosen plaintext attacks. Leveraging differential cryptanalysis, they demonstrated that all the weights and biases of black-box ReLU-based DNNs could be inferred using a polynomial number of queries and computational time. However, their attacks relied on the availability of the exact numeric value of output logits, which allowed the calculation of their derivatives. To overcome this limitation, Chen et al. (Asiacrypt’24) tackled the more realistic hard-label scenario, where only the final classification label (e.g., "dog" or "car") is accessible to the attacker. They proposed an extraction method requiring a polynomial number of queries but an exponential execution time. In addition, their approach was applicable only to a restricted set of architectures, could deal only with binary classifiers, and was demonstrated only on tiny neural networks with up to four neurons split among up to two hidden layers.
This paper introduces new techniques that, for the first time, achieve cryptanalytic extraction of DNN parameters in the most challenging hard-label setting, using both a polynomial number of queries and polynomial time. We validate our approach by extracting nearly one million parameters from a DNN trained on the CIFAR-10 dataset, comprising 832 neurons in four hidden layers. Our results reveal the surprising fact that all the weights of a ReLU-based DNN can be efficiently determined by analyzing only the geometric shape of its decision boundaries.

FLUENT: A Tool for Efficient Mixed-Protocol Semi-Private Function Evaluation

In modern business to customer interactions, handling private or confidential data is essential. Private Function Evaluation (PFE) protocols ensure the privacy of both the customers' input data and the business' function evaluated on it which is often sensitive intellectual property (IP). However, fully hiding the function in PFE results in high performance overhead. Semi-Private Function Evaluation (SPFE) is a generalization of PFE to only partially hide the function, whereas specific non-critical components remain public. Our paper introduces a novel framework designed to make SPFE accessible to non-experts and practical for real-world deployments.
To achieve this, we improve on previous SPFE solutions in two aspects.
First, we enhance the developer experience by leveraging High-Level Synthesis (HLS), making our tool more user-friendly than previous SPFE frameworks.
Second, we achieve a \(2 \times\) speedup compared to the previous state-of-the-art through more efficient underlying constructions and the usage of Lookup Tables (LUTs).
We evaluate the performance of our framework in terms of communication and runtime efficiency. Our final implementation is available as an open-source project, aiming to bridge the gap between advanced cryptographic protocols and their practical application in industry scenarios.

Re-visiting Authorized Private Set Intersection: A New Privacy-Preserving Variant and Two Protocols

We revisit the problem of Authorized Private Set Intersection (APSI), which allows mutually untrusting parties to authorize their items using a trusted third-party judge before privately computing the intersection. We also initiate the study of Partial-APSI, a novel privacy-preserving generalization of APSI in which the client only reveals a subset of their items to a third-party semi-honest judge for authorization. Partial-APSI allows for partial verification of the set, preserving the privacy of the party whose items are being verified. Both APSI and Partial-APSI have a number of applications, including genome matching, ad conversion, and compliance with privacy policies such as the GDPR.
We present two protocols based on bilinear pairings with linear communication. The first realizes the APSI functionality, is secure against a malicious client, and requires only one round of communication during the online phase. Our second protocol realizes the Partial-APSI functionality and is secure against a client that may maliciously inject elements into its input set, but who follows the protocol semi-honestly otherwise. We formally prove correctness and security of these protocols and provide an experimental evaluation to demonstrate their practicality. Our protocols can be efficiently run on commodity hardware. We also show that our protocols are massively parallelizable by running our experiments on a compute grid across 50 cores.

Breaking SIDH in polynomial time

We show that we can break SIDH in classical polynomial time, even with a random starting curve $E_0$.

On the efficient representation of isogenies (a survey)

We survey different (efficient or not) representations of isogenies, with a particular focus on the recent "higher dimensional" isogeny representation, and algorithms to manipulate them.

Quantum Group Actions

In quantum cryptography, there could be a new world, Microcrypt, where
cryptography is possible but one-way functions (OWFs) do not exist. Although many fundamental primitives and useful applications have been found in Microcrypt, they lack ``OWFs-free'' concrete hardness assumptions on which they are based. In classical cryptography, many hardness assumptions on concrete mathematical problems have been introduced, such as the discrete logarithm (DL) problems or the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problems on concrete group structures related to finite fields or elliptic curves. They are then abstracted to generic hardness assumptions such as the DL and DDH assumptions over group actions. Finally, based on these generic assumptions, primitives and applications are constructed. The goal of the present paper is to introduce several abstracted generic hardness assumptions in Microcrypt, which could connect the concrete mathematical hardness assumptions with applications. Our assumptions are based on a quantum analogue of group actions. A group action is a tuple $(G,S,\star)$ of a group $G$, a set $S$, and an operation $\star:G\times S\to S$. We introduce a quantum analogue of group actions, which we call quantum group actions (QGAs), where $G$ is a set of unitary operators, $S$ is a set of states, and $\star$ is the application of a unitary on a state. By endowing QGAs with some reasonable hardness assumptions, we introduce a natural quantum analogue of the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption and pseudorandom group actions. Based on these assumptions, we construct classical-query pseudorandom function-like state generators (PRFSGs).
PRFSGs are a quantum analogue of pseudorandom functions (PRFs), and have many applications such as IND-CPA SKE, EUF-CMA MAC, and private-key quantum money schemes. Because classical group actions are instantiated with many concrete mathematical hardness assumptions, our QGAs could also have some concrete (even OWFs-free) instantiations.