## Papers updated in last 31 days (256 results)

Analyzing and Benchmarking ZK-Rollups

As blockchain technology continues to transform the realm of digital transactions, scalability has emerged as a critical issue. This challenge has spurred the creation of innovative solutions, particularly Layer 2 scalability techniques like rollups. Among these, ZK-Rollups are notable for employing Zero-Knowledge Proofs to facilitate prompt on-chain transaction verification, thereby improving scalability and efficiency without sacrificing security. Nevertheless, the intrinsic complexity of ZK-Rollups has hindered an exhaustive evaluation of their efficiency, economic impact, and performance.
This paper offers a theoretical and empirical examination aimed at comprehending and evaluating ZK-Rollups, with particular attention to ZK-EVMs. We conduct a qualitative analysis to break down the costs linked to ZK-Rollups and scrutinize the design choices of well-known implementations. Confronting the inherent difficulties in benchmarking such intricate systems, we introduce a systematic methodology for their assessment, applying our method to two prominent ZK-Rollups: Polygon zkEVM and zkSync Era. Our research provides initial findings that illuminate trade-offs and areas for enhancement in ZK-Rollup implementations, delivering valuable insights for future research, development, and deployment of these systems.

An Improved Algorithm for Code Equivalence

We study the linear code equivalence problem (LEP) for linear $[n,k]$-codes over finite fields $\mathbb{F}_q$. Recently, Chou, Persichetti and Santini gave an elegant heuristic algorithm that solves LEP over large finite fields (with $q = \Omega(n)$) in time $2^{\frac{1}{2}\operatorname{H}\left(\frac{k}{n}\right)n}$, where $\operatorname{H}(\cdot)$ denotes the binary entropy function. However, for small finite fields, their algorithm can be significantly slower. In particular, for fields of constant size $q = \mathcal{O}(1)$, its runtime increases by an exponential factor $2^{\Theta(n)}$.
We present an improved and provably correct version of their algorithm, which achieves the desired runtime of $2^{\frac{1}{2}\operatorname{H}\left(\frac{k}{n}\right)n}$ for all finite fields of size $q \geq 7$. For a wide range of parameters, this improves over the runtime of all previously known algorithms by an exponential factor.

Obfuscated Key Exchange

Censorship circumvention tools enable clients to access endpoints in a network despite the presence of a censor. Censors use a variety of techniques to identify content they wish to block, including filtering traffic patterns that are characteristic of proxy or circumvention protocols and actively probing potential proxy servers. Circumvention practitioners have developed fully encrypted protocols (FEPs), intended to have traffic that appears indistinguishable from random. A FEP is typically composed of a key exchange protocol to establish shared secret keys, and then a secure channel protocol to encrypt application data; both must avoid revealing to observers that an obfuscated protocol is in use.
We formalize the notion of obfuscated key exchange, capturing the requirement that a key exchange protocol's traffic "looks random" and that it resists active probing attacks, in addition to ensuring secure session keys and authentication. We show that the Tor network's obfs4 protocol satisfies this definition. We then show how to extend the obfs4 design to defend against stronger censorship attacks and present a quantum-safe obfuscated key exchange protocol. To instantiate our quantum-safe protocol using the ML-KEM (Kyber) standard, we present Kemeleon, a new mapping between ML-KEM public keys/ciphertexts and uniform byte strings.

New Approaches for Estimating the Bias of Differential-Linear Distinguishers (Full Version)

Differential-linear cryptanalysis was introduced by Langford and Hellman in 1994 and has been extensively studied since then. In 2019, Bar-On et al. presented the Differential-Linear Connectivity Table (DLCT), which connects the differential part and the linear part, thus an attacked cipher is divided to 3 subciphers: the differential part, the DLCT part, and the linear part.
In this paper, we firstly present an accurate mathematical formula which establishes a relation between differential-linear and truncated differential cryptanalysis. Using the formula, the bias estimate of a differential-linear distinguisher can be converted to the probability calculations of a series of truncated differentials. Then, we propose a novel and natural concept, the TDT, which can be used to accelerate the calculation of the probabilities of truncated differentials. Based on the formula and the TDT, we propose two novel approaches for estimating the bias of a differential-linear distinguisher. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our new approaches by applying them to 5 symmetric-key primitives: Ascon, Serpent, KNOT, AES, and CLEFIA. For Ascon and Serpent, we update the best known differential-linear distinguishers. For KNOT AES, and CLEFIA, for the first time we give the theoretical differential-linear biases for different rounds.

zk-Promises: Making Zero-Knowledge Objects Accept the Call for Banning and Reputation

Privacy preserving systems often need to allow anonymity while requiring accountability. For anonymous clients, depending on application, this may mean banning/revoking their accounts, docking their reputation, or updating their state in some complex access control scheme. Frequently, these operations happen asynchronously when some violation, e.g., a forum post, is found well after the offending action occurred. Malicious clients, naturally, wish to evade this asynchronous negative feedback. Considering privacy-preserving analogues of modern access control and reputation schemes raises a more fundamental technical challenge with far broader applications: how do we allow multiple parties to interact with private state stored by an anonymous client while ensuring state integrity and supporting oblivious updates?
We propose zk-promises, a framework which supports Turing-complete state machines with arbitrary asynchronous callbacks. In zk-promises, client state is stored in a zk-object. Updates to the zk-object, represented as a cryptographic commitment to the new, modified object, require a zkSNARK that ensures integrity and atomicity while providing confidentiality. Clients can modify and prove their state by calling valid methods (e.g, to show they are authorized to post) and can give callbacks to third parties (e.g., to later hold them accountable). Through careful protocol design, we ensure clients who advance their state-machine are forced to ingest callbacks that are called by a third party.
zk-promises allows us to build a privacy-preserving account model. State that would normally be stored on a trusted server can be privately outsourced to the client while preserving the server's ability to update the account. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we build an anonymous reputation system with better than state-of-the-art performance and features, supporting asynchronous reputation updates, banning, and reputation-dependent rate limiting to better protect against Sybil attacks.

AES-based CCR Hash with High Security and Its Application to Zero-Knowledge Proofs

The recent VOLE-based interactive zero-knowledge (VOLE-ZK) protocols along with non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proofs based on MPC-in-the-Head (MPCitH) and VOLE-in-the-Head (VOLEitH) extensively utilize the commitment schemes, which adopt a circular correlation robust (CCR) hash function as the core primitive. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art CCR hash construction by Guo et al. (S&P'20), building from random permutations, can only provide 128-bit security, when it is instantiated from AES. This brings about a gap between AES-based CCR hash function and high security (beyond 128-bit security).
In this paper, we fill this gap by constructing a new CCR hash function from AES, supporting three security levels (i.e., 128, 192 and 256). Using the AES-based CCR hash function, we present an all-but-one vector commitment (AVC) scheme, which constitutes a computationally intensive part of the NIZK proofs from MPCitH and VOLEitH, where these NIZK proofs can in turn be transformed into the promising post-quantum signature candidates. Furthermore, we obtain an efficient VOLE-ZK protocol with security levels higher than 128 from the CCR hash function. Our benchmark results show that the AES-based CCR hash function has a comparable performance with CCR hash functions based on Rijndael with larger block sizes, which is not standardized and has a limited application range. In the AVC context, the expensive commitment component instantiated with our AES-based CCR hash function improves the running time by a factor of $7 \sim 30 \times$, compared to the SHA3-based instantiation used in the recent post-quantum signature algorithm FAEST.

Meet-in-the-Middle Attack on 4+4 Rounds of SCARF under Single-Tweak Setting

\scarf, an ultra low-latency tweakable block cipher, is the first cipher designed for cache randomization.
The block cipher design is significantly different from the other common tweakable block ciphers; with a block size of only 10 bits, and yet the input key size is a whopping $240$ bits. Notably, the majority of the round key in its round function is absorbed into the data path through AND operations, rather than the typical XOR operations.
In this paper, we present a key-recovery attack on a round-reduced version of SCARF with 4 + 4 rounds under the single-tweak setting. Our attack is essentially a Meet-in-the-Middle (MitM) attack, where the matching phase is represented by a system of linear equations. Unlike the cryptanalysis conducted by the designers, our attack is effective under both security requirements they have outlined. The data complexity of our attack is $2^{10}$ plaintexts, with a time complexity of approximately $2^{60.63}$ 4-round of SCARF encryptions. It is important to note that our attack does not threaten the overall security of SCARF.

FlexHi: A Flexible Hierarchical Threshold Signature Scheme

Threshold signature schemes have gained prominence in enhancing the security and flexibility of digital signatures, allowing a group of participants to collaboratively create signatures while maintaining a predefined threshold of participants for validity. However, conventional threshold signatures treat all participants equally, lacking the capability to accommodate hierarchical structures often seen in real-world applications. Hierarchical Threshold Signature Schemes (HTSS) naturally extend the concept of simple threshold signatures, offering a solution that aligns with hierarchical organizational structures. Our paper introduces a novel, efficient, and flexible HTSS that employs independent polynomials at each hierarchical level, removing limitations on threshold values. This adaptability enables us to tailor the scheme to diverse requirements, whether signing requires only top-level nodes or lower-level participants' involvement. Based on our analysis, our FlexHi integrated into the FROST scheme outperforms Tassa's hierarchical scheme on FROST and operates approximately 30% to 40% faster, depending on the number of participants and the chosen threshold values. This demonstrates that, in addition to flexibility, our scheme has practical benefits through improved performance.

Garuda and Pari: Faster and Smaller SNARKs via Equifficient Polynomial Commitments

SNARKs are powerful cryptographic primitives that allow a prover to produce a succinct proof of a computation. Two key goals of SNARK research are to minimize the size of the proof and to minimize the time required to generate the proof. In this work, we present new SNARK constructions that push the frontier on both of these goals.
Our first construction, Pari, is a SNARK that achieves the smallest proof size amongst *all* known SNARKs. Specifically, Pari achieves a proof size of just two group elements and two field elements, which, when instantiated with the BLS12-381 curve, totals just 160 bytes, smaller than that of Groth16 [Groth, EUROCRYPT '16] and Polymath [Lipmaa, CRYPTO '24].
Our second construction, Garuda, is a SNARK that reduces proof generation time by supporting, for the first time, arbitrary "custom" gates and *free* linear gates. To demonstrate Garuda's performance, we implement and evaluate it, and show that it provides significant prover-time savings compared to both the state-of-the-art SNARKs (Groth16 and HyperPlonk [EUROCRYPT '22])
Both constructions rely on a new cryptographic primitive: "equifficient" polynomial commitment schemes that enforce that committed polynomials have the same representation in particular bases. We provide both rigorous security definitions for this primitive as well as efficient constructions for univariate and multilinear polynomials.

Cryptographic Security through Kleene’s Theorem and Automata Theory

This study addresses the challenge of strengthening cryptographic security measures in the face of evolving cyber threats. The aim is to apply Kleene's Theorem and automata theory to improve the modeling and analysis of cybersecurity scenarios, focusing on the CyberMoraba game. Representing the game's strategic moves as regular expressions and mapping them onto finite automata provides a solid framework for understanding the interactions between attackers and defenders. This approach helps in identifying optimal strategies and predicting potential outcomes, which contributes to the development of stronger cryptographic security protocols. The research advances the theoretical use of automata theory in cybersecurity while offering practical insights into enhancing defense mechanisms against complex cyber attacks. This work connects theoretical computer science with practical cybersecurity, demonstrating the importance of automata theory in cryptology.

A Constructive View of Homomorphic Encryption and Authenticator

Homomorphic Encryption (HE) is a cutting-edge cryptographic technique that enables computations on encrypted data to be mirrored on the original data. This has quickly attracted substantial interest from the research community due to its extensive practical applications, such as in cloud computing and privacy-preserving machine learning.
In addition to confidentiality, the importance of authenticity has emerged to ensure data integrity during transmission and evaluation. To address authenticity, various primitives have been developed including Homomorphic Authenticator (HA). Corresponding security notions have also been introduced by extending the existing notions to their homomorphic versions.
Despite these advancements, formalizing the security of HE and HA remains challenging due to the novelty of these primitives and complexity of application scenarios involving message evaluation. It is inclusive which definitions in this zoo of notions are insufficient or overly complex. Moreover, HE and HA are designed to be combined to construct a secure communication channel that ensures both confidentiality and authenticity. However, the security of such compositions is not always clear when game-based notions are used to formalize security.
To bridge this gap, we conduct a constructive analysis through the lens of com- posable security. This method enables us to examine the security properties of each primitive in isolation and to more effectively evaluate their security when integrated into a larger system. We introduce the concepts of a confidential channel and an au- thenticated channel to specify the security requirements for HE and HA, respectively. We make a comparison with existing game-based notions to determine whether they adequately capture the intended security objectives.
We then analyze whether the composition of HE and HA constructs a Homomorphic Authenticated Encryption (HAE) that provides both confidentiality and authenticity in presence of message evaluation. Specifically, we examine a serial composition of HE and HA, corresponding to Encrypt-then-MAC (EtM) composition for constructing classical AE.

Hekaton: Horizontally-Scalable zkSNARKs via Proof Aggregation

Zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge (zkSNARKs) allow a prover to convince a verifier of the correct execution of a large computation in private and easily-verifiable manner. These properties make zkSNARKs a powerful tool for adding accountability, scalability, and privacy to numerous systems such as blockchains and verifiable key directories. Unfortunately, existing zkSNARKs are unable to scale to large computations due to time and space complexity requirements for the prover algorithm. As a result, they cannot handle real-world instances of the aforementioned applications.
In this work, we introduce Hekaton, a zkSNARK that overcomes these barriers and can efficiently handle arbitrarily large computations. We construct Hekaton via a new "distribute-and-aggregate" framework that breaks up large computations into small chunks, proves these chunks in parallel in a distributed system, and then aggregates the resulting chunk proofs into a single succinct proof. Underlying this framework is a new technique for efficiently handling data that is shared between chunks that we believe could be of independent interest.
We implement a distributed prover for Hekaton, and evaluate its performance on a compute cluster. Our experiments show that Hekaton achieves strong horizontal scalability (proving time decreases linearly as we increase the number of nodes in the cluster), and is able to prove large computations quickly: it can prove computations of size $2^{35}$ gates in under an hour, which is much faster than prior work.
Finally, we also apply Hekaton to two applications of real-world interest: proofs of batched insertion for a verifiable key directory and proving correctness of RAM computations. In both cases, Hekaton is able to scale to handle realistic workloads with better efficiency than prior work.

Improved YOSO Randomness Generation with Worst-Case Corruptions

We study the problem of generating public unbiased randomness in a distributed manner within the recent You Only Speak Once (YOSO) framework for stateless multiparty computation, introduced by Gentry et al. in CRYPTO 2021.
Such protocols are resilient to adaptive denial-of-service attacks and are, by their stateless nature, especially attractive in permissionless environments.
While most works in the YOSO setting focus on independent random corruptions, we consider YOSO protocols with worst-case corruptions, a model introduced by Nielsen et al. in CRYPTO 2022.
Prior work on YOSO public randomness generation with worst-case corruptions designed information-theoretic protocols for $t$ corruptions with either $n=6t+1$ or $n=5t$ roles, depending on the adversarial network model.
However, a major drawback of these protocols is that their communication and computational complexities scale exponentially with $t$.
In this work, we complement prior inefficient results by presenting and analyzing simple and efficient protocols for YOSO public randomness generation secure against worst-case corruptions in the computational setting.
Our first protocol is based on publicly verifiable secret sharing and uses $n=3t+2$ roles.
Since this first protocol requires setup and somewhat heavy cryptographic machinery, we also provide a second lighter protocol based on ElGamal commitments and verifiable secret sharing which uses $n=5t+4$ or $n=4t+4$ roles depending on the underlying network model.
We demonstrate the practicality of our second protocol by showing experimental evaluations, significantly improving over prior proposed solutions for worst-case corruptions, especially in terms of transmitted data size.

Chrysalis Cipher Suite

The formal verification of architectural strength in terms of computational complexity is achieved through reduction of the Non-Commutative Grothendieck problem in the form of a quadratic lattice. This multivariate form relies on equivalences derived from a k-clique problem within a multigraph. The proposed scheme reduces the k-clique problem as an input function, resulting in the generation of a quadratic used as parameters for the lattice. By Grothendieck’s inequality, the satisfiability of lattice constraints in terms of NP-Hard and NP-Complete bounds is provably congruent to a closest vector problem in the lattice. The base vectors of the resulting lattice are treated as a holomorphic vector bundle. From the resulting bilinear matrices, the tight hardness reduction of the closest vector problem as the shortest vector problem is introduced within the system. The derivation of the closest vector problem requires that the lattice is necessarily generated by a <0|1>-Matrix expressed as a quadratic. This vector bundle is denoted as
the unit ball with congruent topology to the Riemann sphere, symbolized as 𝒪. For the Grothendieck constraints, the relative vector norms necessarily result in satisfaction of NP-Hard requirements for shortest vector problems in the lattice.

Information-Theoretic 2-Party Computation from Additive Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption

Two-party computation has been an active area of research since Yao's breakthrough results on garbled circuits. We present secret key additive somewhat homomorphic schemes where the client has perfect privacy (server can be computationally unbounded). Our basic scheme is additive somewhat homomorphic and we give protocols to handle addition and multiplication. In one scheme, the server handles circuit multiplication gates by returning the multiplicands to the client which does the multiplication and sends back the encrypted product. We give a 2-party protocol that
also incorporates server inputs where the client has perfect privacy. Server privacy is not information-theoretic, but rather depends on hardness of the subset sum problem.
Correctness for the server in the malicious model can be verified by a 3rd party with high probability where the client and server privacy are information-theoretically protected from the verifier. Scaling the 2PC protocol via separate encryption parameters for smaller subcircuits allows the ciphertext size to remain constant as circuit size grows.

Aggregating Falcon Signatures with LaBRADOR

Several prior works have suggested to use non-interactive arguments of knowledge with short proofs to aggregate signatures of Falcon, which is part of the first post-quantum signatures selected for standardization by NIST. Especially LaBRADOR, based on standard structured lattice assumptions and published at CRYPTO’23, seems promising to realize this task. However, no prior work has tackled this idea in a rigorous way. In this paper, we thoroughly prove how to aggregate Falcon signatures using LaBRADOR. We start by providing the first complete knowledge soundness analysis for the non-interactive version of LaBRADOR. Here, the multi-round and recursive nature of LaBRADOR requires a complex and thorough analysis. For this purpose, we introduce the notion of predicate special soundness (PSS). This is a general framework for evaluating the knowledge error of complex Fiat-Shamir arguments of knowledge protocols in a modular fashion, which we believe to be of independent interest. We then explain the exact steps to take in order to adapt the non-interactive LaBRADOR proof system for aggregating Falcon signatures and provide concrete proof size estimates. Additionally, we formalize the folklore approach of obtaining aggregate signatures from the class of hash-then-sign signatures through arguments of knowledge.

Information-Theoretic Topology-Hiding Broadcast: Wheels, Stars, Friendship, and Beyond

Topology-hiding broadcast (THB) enables parties communicating over an incomplete network to broadcast messages while hiding the network topology from within a given class of graphs. Although broadcast is a privacy-free task, it is known that THB for certain graph classes necessitates computational assumptions, even against "honest but curious" adversaries, and even given a single corrupted party. Recent works have tried to understand when THB can be obtained with information-theoretic (IT) security (without cryptography or setup assumptions) as a function of properties of the corresponding graph class.
We revisit this question through a case study of the class of wheel graphs and their subgraphs. The $n$'th wheel graph is established by connecting $n$ nodes who form a cycle with another "center" node, thus providing a natural extension that captures and enriches previously studied graph classes in the setting of IT-THB.
We present a series of new findings in this line.
We fully characterize feasibility of IT-THB for any class of subgraphs of the wheel, each possessing an embedded star (i.e., a well-defined center connected to all other nodes). Our characterization provides evidence that IT-THB feasibility may correlate with a more fine-grained degree structure---as opposed to pure connectivity---of the corresponding graphs.
We provide positive results achieving perfect IT-THB for new graph classes, including ones where the number of nodes is unknown. Further, we provide the first feasibility of IT-THB on non-degenerate graph-classes with $t>1$ corruptions, for the class of friendship graphs (Erdos, Renyi, Sos '66).

Safe curves for elliptic-curve cryptography

This paper surveys interactions between choices of elliptic curves and the security of elliptic-curve cryptography. Attacks considered include not just discrete-logarithm computations but also attacks exploiting common implementation pitfalls.

Succinct Non-Subsequence Arguments

Lookup arguments have recently attracted a lot of developments due to their applications in the constructions of succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs). A closely related topic is subsequence arguments in which one can prove that string $\mathbf{s}$ is a subsequence of another string $\mathbf{t}$, i.e., deleting some characters in $\mathbf{t}$ can achieve $\mathbf{s}$. A dual notion, namely, non-subsequence arguments, is to prove that $\mathbf{s}$ is not a subsequence of $\mathbf{t}$.
These problems have a lot of important applications in DNA sequence analysis, internet of things, blockchains, natural language processing, speech recognition, etc. However, despite their applications, they are not well-studied in cryptography, especially succinct arguments for non-subsequences with efficient proving time and sublinear verification time.
In this work, we propose the first succinct non-subsequence argument. Our solution applies the sumcheck protocol and is instantiable by any multivariate polynomial commitment schemes (PCSs). We achieve an efficient prover whose running time is linear in the size of sequences $\mathbf{s}$, $\mathbf{t}$ and their respective alphabet $\Sigma$. Our proof is succinct and the verifier time is sublinear assuming the employed PCS has succinct commitments and sublinear verification time. When instantiating with Sona PCS (EUROCRYPT'24), we achieve proof size $\mathcal{O}(\log_2|\mathbf{s}| + \log_2|\mathbf{t}|+\log_2|\Sigma|)$, prover time $\mathcal{O}(|\mathbf{s}|+|\mathbf{t}|+|\Sigma|)$ and verifier time $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{|\mathbf{s}|}+\sqrt{|\mathbf{t}|}+\sqrt{|\Sigma|})$.
Extending our technique, we can achieve a batch subsequence argument for proving in batch $k$ interleaving subsequence and non-subsequence arguments without proof size suffering a linear blow-up in $k$.

A Security Analysis of Two Classes of RSA-like Cryptosystems

Let $N=pq$ be the product of two balanced prime numbers $p$ and $q$. In 2002, Elkamchouchi, Elshenawy and Shaban introduced an RSA-like cryptosystem that uses the key equation $ed - k (p^2-1)(q^2-1) = 1$, instead of the classical RSA key equation $ed - k (p-1)(q-1) = 1$. Another variant of RSA, presented in 2017 by Murru and Saettone, uses the key equation $ed - k (p^2+p+1)(q^2+q+1) = 1$.
Despite the authors' claims of enhanced security, both schemes remain vulnerable to adaptations of common RSA attacks. Let $n$ be an integer. This paper proposes two families of RSA-like encryption schemes: one employs the key equation $ed - k (p^n-1)(q^n-1) = 1$ for $n > 0$, while the other uses $ed - k [(p^n-1)(q^n-1)]/[(p-1)(q-1)] = 1$ for $n > 1$. Note that we remove the conventional assumption of primes having equal bit sizes. In this scenario, we show that regardless of the choice of $n$, continued fraction-based attacks can still recover the secret exponent. Additionally, this work fills a gap in the literature by establishing an equivalent of Wiener's attack when the primes do not have the same bit size.

Dilithium-Based Verifiable Timed Signature Scheme

Verifiable Timed Signatures (VTS) are cryptographic constructs that enable obtaining a signature at a specific time in the future and provide evidence that the signature is legitimate. This framework particularly finds utility in applications such as payment channel networks, multiparty signing operations, or multiparty computation, especially within blockchain architectures. Currently, VTS schemes are based on signature algorithms such as BLS signature, Schnorr signature, and ECDSA. These signature algorithms are considered insecure against quantum attacks due to the effect of Shor's Algorithm on the discrete logarithm problem. We present a new VTS scheme called VT-Dilithium based on CRYSTALS-Dilithium Digital Signature Algorithm that has been selected as NIST's quantum-resistant digital signature standard and is considered secure against both classical and quantum attacks. Integrating Dilithium into the VTS scheme is more challenging problem due to its complex mathematical operations (i.e. polynomial multiplications, rounding operations) and large module parameters such as polynomials, polynomial vectors, and matrices. This work aims to provide a comprehensive exposition of the VT-Dilithium scheme.

A Key-Recovery Attack on a Leaky Seasign Variant

We present a key-recovery attack on a variant of the Seasign signature scheme presented by [Kim24], which attempts to avoid rejection sampling by presampling vectors $\mathbf{f}$ such that the $\mathbf{f}-\mathbf{e}$ is contained in an acceptable bound, where $\mathbf{e}$ is the secret key. We show that this choice leads to a bias of these vectors such that, in a small number of signatures, the secret key can either be completely recovered or its keyspace substantially reduced. In particular, on average, given $20$ signatures, with parameter set II of their paper, the attack reduces the private key to 128 possibilities

VOLE-PSI: Fast OPRF and Circuit-PSI from Vector-OLE

In this work we present a new construction for a batched Oblivious Pseudorandom Function (OPRF) based on Vector-OLE and the PaXoS data structure. We then use it in the standard transformation for achieving Private Set Intersection (PSI) from an OPRF. Our overall construction is highly efficient with $O(n)$ communication and computation. We demonstrate that our protocol can achieve malicious security at only a very small overhead compared to the semi-honest variant. For input sizes $n = 2^{20}$, our malicious protocol needs 6.2 seconds and less than 59 MB communication. This corresponds to under 450 bits per element, which is the lowest number for any published PSI protocol (semi-honest or malicious) to date. Moreover, in theory our semi-honest (resp. malicious) protocol can achieve as low as 219 (resp. 260) bits per element for $n=2^{20}$ at the added cost of interpolating a polynomial over $n$ elements.
As a second contribution, we present an extension where the output of the PSI is secret-shared between the two parties. This functionality is generally referred to as Circuit-PSI. It allows the parties to perform a subsequent MPC protocol on the secret-shared outputs, e.g., train a machine learning model. Our circuit PSI protocol builds on our OPRF construction along with another application of the PaXoS data structure. It achieves semi-honest security and allows for a highly efficient implementation, up to 3x faster than previous work.

Efficient (Non-)Membership Tree from Multicollision-Resistance with Applications to Zero-Knowledge Proofs

Many applications rely on accumulators and authenticated dictionaries, from timestamping certificate transparency and memory checking to blockchains and privacy-preserving decentralized electronic money, while Merkle tree and its variants are efficient for arbitrary element membership proofs, non-membership proofs, i.e., universal accumulators, and key-based membership proofs may require trees up to 256 levels for 128 bits of security, assuming binary tree, which makes it inefficient in practice, particularly in the context of zero-knowledge proofs.
Building on the hardness of multi-collision we introduce a novel (non-)membership, optionally key-value, accumulator with up to 2x smaller tree depth while preserving the same security level, as well as multiple application-specific versions with even shallower trees, up to 6x smaller depth, that rely on the low-entropy source.
Moreover, solving for special case of adversarial attacks we introduce key index variants which might be a stepping stone for an entropy-free accumulator.
Notably, unlike other constructions, this work, although may, doesn't depend on the dynamic depth of the tree which is simpler and more suitable for constant-size ZKP circuits, while ensuring a substantially smaller upper bound on depth.
Efficient in practice construction in the adversarial context, e.g. blockchain, where the tree manager doesn't need to be trusted, i.e., operations can be carried out by an untrusted party and verified by anyone, is the primary goal.
Example instantiations are considered, where special treatment is given to the application of representing serial numbers, aka nullifiers.
Nevertheless, the constructions are self-sufficient and can be used in other contexts, without blockchain and/or zero-knowledge proofs, including non-adversarial contexts.
Furthermore, our findings might be of independent interest for other use cases, such as hash tables, databases and other data structures.

Count Corruptions, Not Users: Improved Tightness for Signatures, Encryption and Authenticated Key Exchange

In the multi-user with corruptions (muc) setting there are $n\geq 1$ users, and the goal is to prove that, even in the face of an adversary that adaptively corrupts users to expose their keys, un-corrupted users retain security. This can be considered for many primitives including signatures and encryption. Proofs of muc security, while possible, generally suffer a factor n loss in tightness, which can be large. This paper gives new proofs where this factor is reduced to the number c of corruptions, which in practice is much smaller than n. We refer to this as corruption-parametrized muc (cp-muc) security. We give a general result showing it for a class of games that we call local. We apply this to get cp-muc security for signature schemes (including ones in standards and in TLS 1.3) and some forms of public-key and symmetric encryption. Then we give dedicated cp-muc security proofs for some important schemes whose underlying games are not local, including the Hashed ElGamal and Fujisaki-Okamoto KEMs and authenticated key exchange. Finally, we give negative results to show optimality of our bounds.

Mova: Nova folding without committing to error terms

We present Mova, a folding scheme for R1CS instances that does not require committing to error or cross terms, nor makes use of the sumcheck protocol. We compute concrete costs and provide benchmarks showing that, for reasonable parameter choices, Mova's Prover is about $5$ to $10$ times faster than Nova's Prover, and about $1.2$ to $1.4$ times faster than Hypernova's Prover (applied to R1CS instances) -- assuming the R1CS witness vector contains only small elements. Mova's Verifier has a similar cost as Hypernova's Verifier, but Mova has the advantage of having only $3$ rounds of communication, while Hypernova has a logarithmic number of rounds.
Mova, which is based on the Nova folding scheme, manages to avoid committing to Nova's so-called error term $E$ and cross term $T$ by replacing said commitments with evaluations of the Multilinear Extension (MLE) of $E$ and $T$ at a random point sampled by the Verifier. A key observation used in Mova's soundness proofs is that $E$ is implicitly committed by a commitment to the input-witness vector $Z$, since $E=(A\cdot Z)\circ (B\cdot Z) -u (C\cdot Z)$.
We also note that ProtoGalaxy [EG23] can be specialized to a R1CS folding scheme with similar properties. Some of our further contributions are that 1) Mova is described with a language that sheds new insights into the topic of "Nova-style folding"; 2) we provide concrete costs, benchmarks, and optimizations for the Prover; 3) we describe how to fold two accumulated instances (which is important for applications in Proof Carrying Data); and 4) provide non-trivial knowledge soundness proofs in the context of multilinear polynomials.

FuLeakage: Breaking FuLeeca by Learning Attacks

FuLeeca is a signature scheme submitted to the recent NIST call for additional signatures. It is an efficient hash-and-sign scheme based on quasi-cyclic codes in the Lee metric and resembles the lattice-based signature Falcon. FuLeeca proposes a so-called concentration step within the signing procedure to avoid leakage of secret-key information from the signatures. However, FuLeeca is still vulnerable to learning attacks, which were first observed for lattice-based schemes. We present three full key-recovery attacks by exploiting the proximity of the code-based FuLeeca scheme to lattice-based primitives.
More precisely, we use a few signatures to extract an $n/2$-dimensional circulant sublattice from the given length-$n$ code, that still contains the exceptionally short secret-key vector. This significantly reduces the classical attack cost and, in addition, leads to a full key recovery in quantum-polynomial time. Furthermore, we exploit a bias in the concentration procedure to classically recover the full key for any security level with at most 175,000 signatures in less than an hour.

Elementary Formulas for Greatest Common Divisors and Semiprime Factors

We present new formulas for computing greatest common divisors (GCDs) and extracting the prime factors of semiprimes using only elementary arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, floored division, and exponentiation. Our GCD formula simplifies a formula of Mazzanti and is derived using Kronecker substitution techniques from our earlier research. By combining this GCD formula with our recent result on an arithmetic term for $\sqrt{n}$, we derive explicit expressions for the prime factors of a semiprime $n=p q$.

Committing Wide Encryption Mode with Minimum Ciphertext Expansion

We propose a new wide encryption (WE) mode of operation that satisfies robust authenticated encryption (RAE) and committing security with minimum ciphertext expansion. WE is attracting much attention in the last few years, and its advantage includes RAE security that provides robustness against wide range of misuses, combined with the encode-then-encipher (EtE) construction. Unfortunately, WE-based EtE does not provide good committing security, and there is a recent constant-time CMT-4 attack (Chen et al., ToSC 2023(4)). Improving CMT-4 security requires considerable ciphertext expansion, and the state-of-the-art scheme expands the ciphertext by s_rae + 2 s_cmt bits from an original message to achieve s_rae-bit RAE and s_cmt-bit CMT-4 security. Our new WE mode FFF addresses the issue by achieving s_rae-bit RAE and s_cmt-bit CMT-4 security only with max{s_cmt, s_rae} bits of ciphertext expansion. Our design is based on the committing concealer proposed by Bellare et al., and its extension to WE (cf. tag-based AE) while satisfying RAE security is the main technical innovation.

Is ML-Based Cryptanalysis Inherently Limited? Simulating Cryptographic Adversaries via Gradient-Based Methods

Given the recent progress in machine learning (ML), the cryptography community has started exploring the applicability of ML methods to the design of new cryptanalytic approaches. While current empirical results show promise, the extent to which such methods may outperform classical cryptanalytic approaches is still somewhat unclear.
In this work, we initiate exploration of the theory of ML-based cryptanalytic techniques, in particular providing new results towards understanding whether they are fundamentally limited compared to traditional approaches. Whereas most classic cryptanalysis crucially relies on directly processing individual samples (e.g., plaintext-ciphertext pairs), modern ML methods thus far only interact with samples via gradient-based computations that average a loss function over all samples. It is, therefore, conceivable that such gradient-based methods are inherently weaker than classical approaches.
We introduce a unifying framework for capturing both ``sample-based'' adversaries that are provided with direct access to individual samples and ``gradient-based'' ones that are restricted to issuing gradient-based queries that are averaged over all given samples via a loss function. Within our framework, we establish a general feasibility result showing that any sample-based adversary can be simulated by a seemingly-weaker gradient-based one. Moreover, the simulation exhibits a nearly optimal overhead in terms of the gradient-based simulator's running time. Finally, we extend and refine our simulation technique to construct a gradient-based simulator that is fully parallelizable (crucial for avoiding an undesirable overhead for parallelizable cryptanalytic tasks), which is then used to construct a gradient-based simulator that executes the particular and highly useful gradient-descent method.
Taken together, although the extent to which ML methods may outperform classical cryptanalytic approaches is still somewhat unclear, our results indicate that such gradient-based methods are not inherently limited by their seemingly restricted access to the provided samples.

Non-interactive VSS using Class Groups and Application to DKG

We put forward a non-interactive verifiable secret sharing (NI-VSS) scheme using class groups – we call it cgVSS. Our construction follows the standard framework of encrypting the shares to a set of recipients and generating a non-interactive proof of correct sharing. However, as opposed to prior works, such as Groth’s [Eprint 2021], or Gentry et al.’s [Eurocrypt 2022], we do not require any range proof - this is possible due to the unique structure of class groups, that enables efficient encryption/decryption of large field elements in the exponent of an ElGamal-style encryption scheme. Importantly, this is possible without destroying the additive holomorphic structure, which is required to make the proof-of-correctness highly efficient. This approach not only substantially simplifies the NI-VSS process, but also outperforms the state-of-art schemes significantly. For example, our implementation shows that for a 150 node system cgVSS outperforms (a simplified implementation of) Groth’s protocol in overall communication complexity by 5.6x, about 9.3 − 9.7x in the dealer time and 2.4 − 2.7x in the receiver time per node.
Additionally, we formalize the notion of public verifiability, which enables anyone, possibly outside the participants, to verify the correctness of the dealing. In fact, we re-interpret the notion of public verifiability and extend it to the setting when potentially all recipients may be corrupt and yet can not defy public verifiability – to distinguish from state-of-art, we call this strong public verifiability. Our formalization uses the universal composability framework.
Finally, through a generic transformation, we obtain a non-interactive distributed key generation (NI-DKG) scheme for threshold systems, where the secret key is the discrete log of the public key. Our security analysis in the VSS-hybrid model uses a formalization that considers a (strong) public verifiability notion for DKG, even when more than threshold parties are corrupt. Instantiating with cgVSS we obtain a NI-DKG scheme from class groups – we call it cgDKG.

Concrete Analysis of Schnorr-type Signatures with Aborts

Lyubashevsky’s signature can be viewed as a lattice-based adapation of the Schnorr signature, with the core difference being the use of aborts during signature generation process. Since the proposal of Lyubashevsky’s signature, a number of other variants of Schnorr-type signatures with aborts have been proposed, both in lattice-based and code-based setting. In this paper, we examine the security of Schnorr-type signature schemes with aborts. We give a detailed analysis of when the expected value of the signature is correlated to the secret key, and when it is not. Our analysis shows that even when abort condition is employed, it is crucial to set the parameters carefully in order to defend against statistical attack. In particular, we recommend to set δ ≥ β (where δ, β are public parameters) as in this case we prove that the signature does not reveal any information about the secret key. On the other hand, if this condition is not satisfied, then some information about the secret key are leaked, making the scheme susceptible to statistical attacks. For completeness, we also analyze the security of Schnorr-type signatures without aborts. In particular, we present a detailed key recovery attack via statistical method on the EagleSign signature, which is one of the submission to the NIST call for Additional PQC Signature. Moreover, we give a formula for determining the number of required signatures to successfully launch the statistical attack.

Compass: Encrypted Semantic Search with High Accuracy

We introduce Compass, a semantic search system over encrypted data that offers high accuracy, comparable to state-of-the-art plaintext search algorithms while protecting data, queries and search results from a fully compromised server. Compass also enables privacy-preserving RAG where both the RAG database and the query are protected. Compass's search index contributes a novel way to traverse the search graph in Hierarchical Navigable Small Worlds (HNSW), a top performing vector nearest neighbor search, using Oblivious RAM, a cryptographic primitive with strong security guarantees. Our techniques, Directional Neighbor Filtering, Speculative Greedy Search and HNSW-tailored Path ORAM ensure that Compass achieves user-perceived latencies of few seconds and is orders of magnitude faster than a baseline for encrypted embeddings search.

Lossy Cryptography from Code-Based Assumptions

Over the past few decades, we have seen a proliferation of advanced cryptographic primitives with lossy or homomorphic properties built from various assumptions such as Quadratic Residuosity, Decisional Diffie-Hellman, and Learning with Errors. These primitives imply hard problems in the complexity class $\mathcal{SZK}$ (statistical zero-knowledge); as a consequence, they can only be based on assumptions that are broken in $\mathcal{BPP}^{\mathcal{SZK}}$. This poses a barrier for building advanced primitives from code-based assumptions, as the only known such assumption is Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) with an extremely low noise rate $\frac{\log^2 n}{n}$, which is broken in quasi-polynomial time.
In this work, we propose a new code-based assumption: Dense-Sparse LPN, that falls in the complexity class $\mathcal{BPP}^{\mathcal{SZK}}$ and is conjectured to be secure against subexponential time adversaries. Our assumption is a variant of LPN that is inspired by McEliece's cryptosystem and random $k\mbox{-}$XOR in average-case complexity. Roughly, the assumption states that
\[(\mathbf{T}\, \mathbf{M}, \mathbf{s} \,\mathbf{T}\, \mathbf{M} + \mathbf{e}) \quad \text{is indistinguishable from}\quad (\mathbf{T} \,\mathbf{M}, \mathbf{u}),\] for a random (dense) matrix $\mathbf{T}$, random sparse matrix $\mathbf{M}$, and sparse noise vector $\mathbf{e}$ drawn from the Bernoulli distribution with inverse polynomial noise probability.
We leverage our assumption to build lossy trapdoor functions (Peikert-Waters STOC 08). This gives the first post-quantum alternative to the lattice-based construction in the original paper. Lossy trapdoor functions, being a fundamental cryptographic tool, are known to enable a broad spectrum of both lossy and non-lossy cryptographic primitives; our construction thus implies these primitives in a generic manner. In particular, we achieve collision-resistant hash functions with plausible subexponential security, improving over a prior construction from LPN with noise rate $\frac{\log^2 n}{n}$ that is only quasi-polynomially secure.

Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge from LPN and MQ

We give the first construction of non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) arguments from post-quantum assumptions other than Learning with Errors. In particular, we achieve NIZK under the polynomial hardness of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) assumption, and the exponential hardness of solving random under-determined multivariate quadratic equations (MQ). We also construct NIZK satisfying statistical zero-knowledge assuming a new variant of LPN, Dense-Sparse LPN, introduced by Dao and Jain (CRYPTO 2024), together with exponentially-hard MQ.
The main technical ingredient of our construction is an extremely natural (but only in hindsight!) construction of correlation-intractable (CI) hash functions from MQ, for a NIZK-friendly sub-class of constant-degree polynomials that we call concatenated constant-degree polynomials. Under exponential security, this hash function also satisfies the stronger notion of approximate CI for concatenated constant-degree polynomials. The NIZK construction then follows from a prior blueprint of Brakerski-Koppula-Mour (CRYPTO 2020). In addition, we show how to construct (approximate) CI hashing for degree-$d$ functions from the (exponential) hardness of solving random degree-$d$ equations, a natural generalization of MQ. To realize NIZK with statistical zero-knowledge, we design a lossy public-key encryption scheme with approximate linear decryption and inverse-polynomial decryption error from Dense-Sparse LPN. These constructions may be of independent interest.
Our work therefore gives a new way to leverage MQ with uniformly random equations, which has found little cryptographic applications to date. Indeed, most applications in the context of encryption and signature schemes make use of structured variants of MQ, where the polynomials are not truly random but posses a hidden planted structure. We believe that the MQ assumption may plausibly find future use in the designing other advanced proof systems.

FELIX (XGCD for FALCON): FPGA-based Scalable and Lightweight Accelerator for Large Integer Extended GCD

The Extended Greatest Common Divisor (XGCD) computation is a critical component in various cryptographic applications and algorithms, including both pre- and post-quantum cryptosystems. In addition to computing the greatest common divisor (GCD) of two integers, the XGCD also produces Bezout coefficients $b_a$ and $b_b$ which satisfy $\mathrm{GCD}(a,b) = a\times b_a + b\times b_b$. In particular, computing the XGCD for large integers is of significant interest. Most recently, XGCD computation between 6,479-bit integers is required for solving $N$-th degree Truncated polynomial Ring Unit (NTRU) trapdoors in Falcon, a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)-selected Post-Quantum digital signature scheme. To this point, existing literature has primarily focused on exploring software-based implementations for XGCD. The few existing high-performance hardware architectures require significant hardware resources and may not be desirable for practical usage, and the lightweight architectures suffer from poor performance. To fill the research gap, this work proposes a novel FPGA-based scalablE and Lightweight accelerator for large Integer XGCD (FELIX). First, a new algorithm suitable for scalable and lightweight computation of XGCD is proposed. Next, a hardware accelerator (FELIX) is presented, including both constant- and variable-time versions. Finally, a thorough evaluation is carried out to showcase the efficiency of the proposed FELIX. In certain configurations, FELIX involves 81% less equivalent area-time product (eATP) than the state-of-the-art design for 1,024-bit integers, and achieves a 95% reduction in latency over the software for 6,479-bit integers (Falcon parameter set) with reasonable resource usage. Overall, the proposed FELIX is highly efficient, scalable, lightweight, and suitable for very large integer computation, making it the first such XGCD accelerator in the literature (to the best of our knowledge).

Legendre Sequences are Pseudorandom under the Quadratic-Residuosity Assumption

The Legendre sequence of an integer $x$ modulo a prime $p$ with respect to offsets $\vec a = (a_1, \dots, a_\ell)$ is the string of Legendre symbols $(\frac{x+a_1}{p}), \dots, (\frac{x+a_\ell}{p})$. Under the quadratic-residuosity assumption, we show that the function that maps the pair $(x,p)$ to the Legendre sequence of $x$ modulo $p$, with respect to public random offsets $\vec a$, is a pseudorandom generator. This answers an open question of Damgård (CRYPTO 1988), up to the choice of the offsets $\vec a$.

Complete Knowledge: Preventing Encumbrance of Cryptographic Secrets

Uncategorized

Uncategorized

Most cryptographic protocols model a player’s knowledge of secrets in a simple way. Informally, the player knows a secret in the sense that she can directly furnish it as a (private) input to a protocol, e.g., to digitally sign a message.
The growing availability of Trusted Execution Environments (TEEs) and secure multiparty computation, however, undermines this model of knowledge. Such tools can encumber a secret sk and permit a chosen player to access sk conditionally, without actually knowing sk. By permitting selective access to sk by an adversary, encumbrance of secrets can enable vote-selling in cryptographic voting schemes, illegal sale of credentials for online services, and erosion of deniability in anonymous messaging systems.
Unfortunately, existing proof-of-knowledge protocols fail to demonstrate that a secret is unencumbered. We therefore introduce and formalize a new notion called complete knowledge (CK). A proof (or argument) of CK shows that a prover does not just know a secret, but also has fully unencumbered knowledge, i.e., unrestricted ability to use the secret.
We introduce two practical CK schemes that use special-purpose hardware, specifically TEEs and off-the-shelf mining ASICs. We prove the security of these schemes and explore their practical deployment with a complete, end-to-end prototype with smart-contract verification that supports both. We show how CK can address encumbrance attacks identified in previous work. Finally, we introduce two new applications enabled by CK that involve proving ownership of blockchain assets.

A Simple and Generic Approach to Dynamic Collusion Model

Functional Encryption (FE) is a powerful notion of encryption which enables computations and partial message recovery of encrypted data. In FE, each decryption key is associated with a function $f$ such that decryption recovers the function evaluation $f(m)$ from an encryption of $m$. Informally, security states that a user with access to function keys $sk_{f_1}, sk_{f_2}, \ldots$ (and so on) can only learn $f_1(m), f_2(m), \ldots$ (and so on) but nothing more about the message. The system is said to be $q$-bounded collusion resistant if the security holds as long as an adversary gets access to at most $q = q(\lambda)$ decryption keys. In the last decade, numerous works have proposed many FE constructions from a wide array of algebraic and general cryptographic assumptions, and proved their security in the bounded collusion model.
However, until very recently, all these works studied bounded collusion resistance in a ``static model", where the collusion bound $q$ was a global system parameter. While the static collusion model led to great research progress in the community, it has many major drawbacks. Very recently, Agrawal et al. (Crypto 2021) and Garg et al. (Eurocrypt 2022) independently introduced the dynamic model for bounded collusion resistance, where the collusion bound $q$ was a fluid parameter that was not globally set but only chosen by each encryptor. The dynamic collusion model enabled harnessing the many virtues of the static collusion model, while avoiding its various drawbacks.
In this work, we give a simple and generic approach to upgrade any scheme from the static collusion model to the dynamic collusion model. Our result captures all existing results in the dynamic model in the form of a single unified framework, and also gives new results as simple corollaries with a lot more potential in the future. An interesting artifact of our result is that it gives a generic way to match existing lower bounds in functional encryption.

Inject Less, Recover More: Unlocking the Potential of Document Recovery in Injection Attacks Against SSE

Searchable symmetric encryption has been vulnerable to inference attacks that rely on uniqueness in leakage patterns. However, many keywords in datasets lack distinctive leakage patterns, limiting the effectiveness of such attacks. The file injection attacks, initially proposed by Cash et al. (CCS 2015), have shown impressive performance with 100% accuracy and no prior knowledge requirement. Nevertheless, this attack fails to recover queries with underlying keywords not present in the injected files. To address these limitations, our research introduces a novel attack strategy called LEAP-Hierarchical Fusion Attack (LHFA) that combines the strengths of both file injection attacks and inference attacks. Before initiating keyword injection, we introduce a new approach for inert/active keyword selection. In the phase of selecting injected keywords, we focus on keywords without unique leakage patterns and recover them, leveraging their presence for document recovery. Our goal is to achieve an amplified effect in query recovery. We demonstrate a minimum query recovery rate of 1.3 queries per injected keyword with a 10% data leakage of a real-life dataset, and initiate further research to overcome challenges associated with non-distinctive keywords.

Beyond the Whitepaper: Where BFT Consensus Protocols Meet Reality

This paper presents a collection of lessons learned from analyzing the real-world security of various Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) consensus protocol implementations. Drawing upon our experience as a team of security experts who have both developed and audited BFT systems, including BA★, HotStuff variants, Paxos variants, and DAG-based algorithms like Narwhal and Bullshark, we identify and analyze a variety of security vulnerabilities discovered in the translation of theoretical protocols into real-world code. Our analysis covers a range of issues, including subtle logic errors, concurrency bugs, cryptographic vulnerabilities, and mismatches between the theoretical model and the implementation. We provide detailed case studies illustrating these vulnerabilities, discuss their potential impact, and propose mitigation strategies. This work aims to provide valuable insights for both designers and implementers of BFT consensus protocols, ultimately contributing to the development of more secure and reliable distributed systems.

File-Injection Attacks on Searchable Encryption, Based on Binomial Structures

One distinguishable feature of file-inject attacks on searchable encryption schemes is the 100% query recovery rate, i.e., confirming the corresponding keyword for each query. The main efficiency consideration of file-injection attacks is the number of injected files. In the work of Zhang et al. (USENIX 2016), $|\log_2|K||$ injected files are required, each of which contains $|K|/2$ keywords for the keyword set $K$. Based on the construction of the uniform $(s,n)$-set, Wang et al. need fewer injected files when considering the threshold countermeasure. In this work, we propose a new attack that further reduces the number of injected files where Wang et al. need up to 38% more injections to achieve the same results. The attack is based on an increment $(s,n)$-set, which is also defined in this paper.

The One-Wayness of Jacobi Signatures

We show that under a mild number-theoretic conjecture, recovering an integer from its Jacobi signature modulo $N = p^2 q$, for primes $p$ and $q$, is as hard as factoring $N$. This relates, for the first time, the one-wayness of a pseudorandom generator that Damgård proposed in 1988, to a standard number-theoretic problem. In addition, we show breaking the Jacobi pseudorandom function is no harder than factoring.

Solving McEliece-1409 in One Day --- Cryptanalysis with the Improved BJMM Algorithm

Syndrome decoding problem (SDP) is the security assumption of the code-based cryptography. Three out of the four NIST-PQC round 4 candidates are code-based cryptography. Information set decoding (ISD) is known for the fastest existing algorithm to solve SDP instances with relatively high code rate. Security of code-based cryptography is often constructed on the asymptotic complexity of the ISD algorithm. However, the concrete complexity of the ISD algorithm has hardly ever been known. Recently, Esser, May and Zweydinger (Eurocrypt '22) provide the first implementation of the representation-based ISD, such as May--Meurer--Thomae (MMT) or Becker--Joux--May--Meurer (BJMM) algorithm and solve the McEliece-1284 instance in the decoding challenge, revealing the practical efficiency of these ISDs.
In this work, we propose a practically fast depth-2 BJMM algorithm and provide the first publicly available GPU implementation. We solve the McEliece-1409 instance for the first time and present concrete analysis for the record. Cryptanalysis for NIST-PQC round 4 code-based candidates against the improved BJMM algorithm is also conducted. In addition, we revise the asymptotic space complexity of the time-memory trade-off MMT algorithm presented by Esser and Zweydinger (Eurocrypt '23) from $2^{0.375n}$ to $2^{0.376n}$.

Uncovering Impact of Mental Models towards Adoption of Multi-device Crypto-Wallets

Uncategorized

Uncategorized

Cryptocurrency users saw a sharp increase in different types of crypto wallets in the past decade. However, the emerging multi-device (threshold) wallets, even with improved security guarantees over their single-device counterparts, are yet to receive proportionate adoption. This work presents a data-driven investigation into the perceptions of users towards multi-device/threshold wallets, using a survey of 357 crypto-wallet users. Our results revealed two significant groups among our participants—Newbies and Non-newbies. Our follow-up qualitative analysis, after educating revealed a gap between the mental model for these participants and actual security guarantees. Furthermore, we investigated preferred default settings for crypto-wallets across our participants over different key-share distribution settings of multi-device wallets—the threat model considerations affected user preferences, signifying a need for contextualizing default settings. We identify concrete, actionable design avenues for future multi-device wallet designs and present novel cryptographic problems to realize those.

EMI Shielding for Use in Side-Channel Security: Analysis, Simulation and Measurements

Considering side-channel analysis (SCA) security for cryptographic devices, the mitigation of electromagnetic leakage and electromagnetic interference (EMI) between modules poses significant challenges. This paper presents a comprehensive review and deep analysis of the utilization of EMI shielding materials, devised for reliability purposes and standards such as EMI/EMC, as a countermeasure to enhance EM-SCA security. We survey the current landscape of EMI-shields materials, including conductive polymers, metal-foams, carbon-based materials, and meta-materials, evaluating their effectiveness in attenuating emissions and preventing information-leakage, a task done with security-centric metrics for such materials for the first time. Through a systematic examination of existing literature, experimental studies and a construction of fully-simulatable EM environment in ANSYS-solver, we identify key factors influencing the performance of EMI-shield materials, such as shielding-effectiveness (SE), bandwidth, thickness, and material properties, on security characteristics.
We devise a connection between SE and cryptographic-SNR, and we demonstrate from real hardware measurements how and in what conditions can such materials provide very high security levels. By synthesizing insights from multidisciplinary research domains, this paper aims to provide valuable two-way benefit and guidance for researchers, engineers, and practitioners in the design and deployment of robust side-channel security measures leveraging EMI-shields, already in utilization devised by reliability standards.

EagleSignV3 : A new secure variant of EagleSign signature over lattices

With the potential arrival of quantum computers, it is essential to build cryptosystems resistant to attackers with the computing power of a quantum computer. With Shor's algorithm, cryptosystems based on discrete logarithms and factorization become obsolete. Reason why NIST has launching two competitions in 2016 and 2023 to standardize post-quantum cryptosystems (such as KEM and signature ) based on problems supposed to resist attacks using quantum computers. EagleSign was prosed to NIT competition in Jun 2023 as an additional signature. An improvement called EagleSign-V2 was proposed in December 2023 but Tibouchi and Pells prove that these two variants don't hold the zero knowledge property. In this document we present the family of lattices based post-quantum signatures called EagleSignV3. They are secure and efficient successors of both EagleSign-V1 (NIST, June 2023) and EagleSign-V2 (NIST forum, December 2023). The public key of EagleSignV3 is based on a mix of MLE (Module Learning with Error) and MNTRU (module variant of the famous NTRU problem). The instantiations EagleSignV3 are new variants of the EagleSign signatures family posted to NIST competition in June 2023 as additional signatures. EagleSignV3 uses the rejection of Lyubashevsky-2012 to achieve the zero-knowledge property. The main difference between EagleSign and Dilithium is the public key.
We have two instantiations based either on ring or on module. The sizes of the ring based variant of EagleSignV3 are close to those of Dilithium but the sizes of its module based instantiation is bigger than those of Dilithium.
NB: The implementation of EagleSign-V1 is available on NIST website and those of EagleSign-V2 can be found on Github at https://github.com/EagleSignteam/EagleSign_v2 and in NIST forum as a comment on improvements on EagleSign in December 2023. The implementation of EagleSign-V3 can be deduced from those of EagleSignV2.

High-Throughput Secure Multiparty Computation with an Honest Majority in Various Network Settings

In this work, we present novel protocols over rings for semi-honest secure three-party computation (3PC) and malicious four-party computation (4PC) with one corruption. While most existing works focus on improving total communication complexity, challenges such as network heterogeneity and computational complexity, which impact MPC performance in practice, remain underexplored.
Our protocols address these issues by tolerating multiple arbitrarily weak network links between parties without any substantial decrease in performance. Additionally, they significantly reduce computational complexity by requiring up to half the number of basic instructions per gate compared to related work. These improvements lead to up to twice the throughput of state-of-the-art protocols in homogeneous network settings and even larger performance improvements in heterogeneous settings. These advantages come at no additional cost: Our protocols maintain the best-known total communication complexity per multiplication, requiring 3 elements for 3PC and 5 elements for 4PC.
We implemented our protocols alongside several state-of-the-art protocols (Replicated 3PC, ASTRA, Fantastic Four, Tetrad) in a novel open-source C++ framework optimized for high throughput. Five out of six implemented 3PC and 4PC protocols achieve more than one billion 32-bit multiplications or over 32 billion AND gates per second using our implementation in a 25 Gbit/s LAN environment. This represents the highest throughput achieved in 3PC and 4PC so far, outperforming existing frameworks like MP-SPDZ, ABY3, MPyC, and MOTION by two to three orders of magnitude.

Impossibilities in Succinct Arguments: Black-box Extraction and More

The celebrated result by Gentry and Wichs established a theoretical barrier for succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs), showing that for (expressive enough) hard-on-average languages, we must assume non-falsifiable assumptions.
We further investigate those barriers by showing new negative and positive results related to the proof size.
1. We start by formalizing a folklore lower bound for the proof size of black-box extractable arguments based on the hardness of the language. This separates knowledge-sound SNARGs (SNARKs) in the random oracle model (that can have black-box extraction) and those in the standard model.
2. We find a positive result in the non-adaptive setting. Under the existence of non-adaptively sound SNARGs (without extractability) and from standard assumptions, it is possible to build SNARKs with black-box extractability for a non-trivial subset of NP.
3. On the other hand, we show that (under some mild assumptions) all NP languages cannot have SNARKs with black-box extractability even in the non-adaptive setting.
4. The Gentry-Wichs result does not account for the preprocessing model, under which fall several efficient constructions. We show that also, in the preprocessing model, it is impossible to construct SNARGs that rely on falsifiable assumptions in a black-box way.
Along the way, we identify a class of non-trivial languages, which we dub “trapdoor languages”, that bypass some of these impossibility results.

Revisiting the Security of Approximate FHE with Noise-Flooding Countermeasures

Approximate fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) schemes, such as the CKKS scheme (Cheon, Kim, Kim, Song, ASIACRYPT '17), are among the leading schemes in terms of efficiency and are particularly suitable for Machine Learning (ML) tasks. Although efficient, approximate FHE schemes have some inherent risks: Li and Micciancio (EUROCRYPT '21) demonstrated that while these schemes achieved the standard notion of CPA-security, they failed against a variant, $\mathsf{IND}\mbox{-}\mathsf{CPA}^D$, in which the adversary is given limited access to the decryption oracle. Subsequently, Li, Micciancio, Schultz, and Sorrell (CRYPTO '22) proved that with noise-flooding countermeasures which add Gaussian noise of sufficiently high variance before outputting the decrypted value, the CKKS scheme is secure. However, the variance required for provable security is very high, inducing a large loss in message precision.
In this work, we consider a broad class of attacks on CKKS with noise-flooding countermeasures, which we call ``semi-honest'' attacks, in which an adversary may submit only correctly distributed ciphertexts to the decryption oracle. The ciphertexts submitted for decryption can be fresh ciphertexts, or can be ciphertexts resulting from the homomorphic evaluation of some circuit on fresh and independent ciphertexts. Our motivation is to model an internal threat scenario where an adversary can passively access the internal randomness of the system.
We analyze the concrete security of CKKS with various levels of noise-flooding in the face of such attacks. The aim of this work is to outline and precisely quantify the various trade-offs between the number of allowed decryptions before refreshing the keys, noise-flooding levels, and the concrete security of the scheme after a number of decryptions have been observed by the adversary.
Due to the large dimension and modulus in typical FHE parameter sets, previous techniques even for \emph{estimating} the concrete runtime of such attacks -- such as those in (Dachman-Soled, Ducas, Gong, Rossi, CRYPTO '20) -- become computationally infeasible, since they involve high dimensional and high precision matrix multiplication and inversion. We therefore develop new techniques that allow us to perform fast security estimation, even for FHE-size parameter sets.

Revisiting Oblivious Top-$k$ Selection with Applications to Secure $k$-NN Classification

An oblivious Top-$k$ algorithm selects the $k$ smallest elements from $d$ elements while ensuring the sequence of operations and memory accesses do not depend on the input. In 1969, Alekseev proposed an oblivious Top-$k$ algorithm with complexity $O(d \log^2{k})$, which was later improved by Yao in 1980 for small $k \ll \sqrt{d}$.
In this paper, we revisit the literature on oblivious Top-$k$ and propose another improvement of Alekseev's method that outperforms both for large $k = \Omega(\sqrt{d})$. Our construction is equivalent to applying a new truncation technique to Batcher's odd-even sorting algorithm. In addition, we propose a combined network to take advantage of both Yao's and our technique that achieves the best concrete performance, in terms of the number of comparators, for any $k$. To demonstrate the efficiency of our combined Top-$k$ network, we implement a secure non-interactive $k$-nearest neighbors classifier using homomorphic encryption as an application. Compared with the work of Zuber and Sirdey (PoPETS 2021) where oblivious Top-$k$ was realized with complexity $O(d^2)$, our experimental results show a speedup of up to 47 times (not accounting for difference in CPU) for $d = 1000$.

A Complete Analysis of the BKZ Lattice Reduction Algorithm

We present the first rigorous dynamic analysis of BKZ,
the most widely used lattice reduction algorithm besides LLL. Previous analyses were either heuristic or only applied to variants of BKZ. Namely, we provide guarantees on the quality of the current lattice basis
during execution. Our analysis extends to a generic BKZ algorithm
where the SVP-oracle is replaced by an approximate oracle
and/or the basis update is not necessarily performed by LLL.
Interestingly, it also provides
currently the best and simplest bounds
for both the output quality and the running time.
As an application, we observe that
in certain approximation regimes, it is more
efficient to use BKZ with an approximate rather than exact SVP-oracle.

A Generic Framework for Side-Channel Attacks against LWE-based Cryptosystems

Lattice-based cryptography is in the process of being standardized. Several proposals to deal with side-channel information using lattice reduction exist. However, it has been shown that algorithms based on Bayesian updating are often more favorable in practice.
In this work, we define distribution hints; a type of hint that allows modelling probabilistic information. These hints generalize most previously defined hints and the information obtained in several attacks.
We define two solvers for our hints; one is based on belief propagation and the other one uses a greedy approach. We prove that the latter is a computationally less expensive approximation of the former and that previous algorithms used for specific attacks may be seen as special cases of our solvers. Thereby, we provide a systematization of previously obtained information and used algorithms in real-world side-channel attacks.
In contrast to lattice-based approaches, our framework is not limited to value leakage. For example, it can deal with noisy Hamming weight leakage or partially incorrect information. Moreover, it improves upon the recovery of the secret key from approximate hints in the form they arise in real-world attacks.
Our framework has several practical applications: We exemplarily show that a recent attack can be improved; we reduce the number of traces and corresponding ciphertexts and increase the noise resistance. Further, we explain how distribution hints could be applied in the context of previous attacks and outline a potential new attack.

Blue fish, red fish, live fish, dead fish

We show that the DAG-based consensus protocol Tusk [DKSS22] does not achieve liveness, at least under certain reasonable assumptions on the implementation that are consistent with its specification. In addition, we give a simple 2-round variation of Tusk with lower latency and strong liveness properties, but with suboptimal resilience. We also show that another 2-round protocol, GradedDAG [DZX+24], which has optimal resilience, also has liveness problems analogous to Tusk.

AutoHoG: Automating Homomorphic Gate Design for Large-Scale Logic Circuit Evaluation

Recently, an emerging branch of research in the field of fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) attracts growing attention, where optimizations are carried out in developing fast and efficient homomorphic logic circuits. While existing works have pointed out that compound homomorphic gates can be constructed without incurring significant computational overheads, the exact theory and mechanism of homomorphic gate design have not yet been explored. In this work, we propose AutoHoG, an automated procedure for the generation of compound gates over FHE. We show that by formalizing the gate generation procedure, we can adopt a match-and-replace strategy to significantly improve the evaluation speed of logic circuits over FHE. In the experiment, we first show the effectiveness of AutoHoG through a set of benchmark gates. We then apply AutoHoG to optimize common Boolean tasks, including adders, multipliers, the ISCAS’85 benchmark circuits, and the ISCAS’89 benchmark circuits. We show that for various circuit benchmarks, we can achieve up to 5.7x reduction in computational latency when compared to the state-of-the-art implementations of logic circuits using conventional gates.

Koala: A Low-Latency Pseudorandom Function

This paper introduces the Koala PRF, which maps a variable-length sequence of $64$-bit input blocks to a single $257$-bit output block.
Its design focuses on achieving low latency in its implementation in ASIC.
To construct Koala, we instantiate the recently introduced Kirby construction with the Koala-P permutation and add an input encoding layer.
The Koala-P permutation is obtained as the $8$-fold iteration of a simple round function inspired by that of Subterranean.
Based on careful preliminary cryptanalysis, we made a variant of the Subterranean permutation by reordering and modifying it in a way that does not introduce any implementation overhead and enhances the cryptographic resistance of the resulting PRF.
Indeed, we demonstrate that Koala exhibits a high resistance against integral, cube, division property, and higher-order differential attacks.
Additionally, we compare the hardware implementation of Koala with the smallest latency with state-of-the-art low-latency PRF Orthros and Gleeok and the block cipher Prince in the same ASIC synthesis setup.
Our results show that Koala outperforms these primitives not only in terms of latency but also with respect to various other performance measures.

A Not So Discrete Sampler: Power Analysis Attacks on HAWK signature scheme

HAWK is a lattice-based signature scheme candidate to the fourth call of the NIST's Post-Quantum standardization campaign. Considered as a cousin of Falcon (one of the future NIST post-quantum standards) one can wonder whether HAWK shares the same drawbacks as Falcon in terms of side-channel attacks. Indeed, Falcon signature algorithm and particularly its Gaussian sampler, has shown to be highly vulnerable to power-analysis attacks. Besides, efficiently protecting Falcon's signature algorithm against these attacks seems a very challenging task.
This work presents the first power analysis leakage review on HAWK signature scheme: it extensively assesses the vulnerabilities of a central and sensitive brick of the scheme, the discrete Gaussian sampler. Knowing the output x of the sampler for a given signature leads to linear information about the private key of the scheme.
This paper includes several demonstrations of simple power analysis attacks targeting this sample x with various attacker strengths, all of them performed on the reference implementation on a ChipWhisperer Lite with STM32F3 target (ARM Cortex M4). We report being able to perform key recoveries with very low (to no) offline resources. As this reference implementation of HAWK is not claimed to be protected against side-channel attacks, the existence of such attacks is not surprising, but they still concretely warn about the use of this unprotected signature on physical devices.
To go further, our study proposes a generic way of assessing the performance of a side-channel attack on x even when less information is recovered, in a setting where some protections are implemented or when the attacker has less measurement possibilities. While it is easy to see that x is a sensitive value, quantifying the residual complexity of the key recovery with some knowledge about x (like the parity or the sign of some coefficients) is not straightforward as the underlying hardness assumption is the newly introduced Module-LIP problem. We propose to adapt the existing methodology of leaky LWE estimation tools (Dachman-Soled et al. at Crypto 2020) to exploit the retrieved information and lower down the residual key recovery complexity.
To finish, we propose an ad-hoc technique to lower down the leakage on the identified vulnerability points. These modifications prevent our attacks on our platform and come with essentially no cost in terms of performance. It could be seen as a temporary solution and encourages more analysis on proven side-channel protection of HAWK like masking.

XHash: Efficient STARK-friendly Hash Function

Zero-knowledge proofs are widely used in real-world applications
for authentication, access control, blockchains, and cryptocurren-
cies, to name a few. A core element in zero-knowledge proof systems
is the underlying hash function, which plays a vital role in the effi-
ciency of the proof system. While the traditional hash functions,
such as SHA3 or BLAKE3 are efficient on CPU architectures, they
perform poorly within zero-knowledge proof systems. This is pri-
marily due to the requirement of these systems for hash functions
that operate efficiently over finite fields of large prime order as well
as binary fields. To address this challenge, a new paradigm called
Arithmetization-Orientation has emerged. These designs are tai-
lored to improve the efficiency of hashing within zero-knowledge
proof systems while providing reliable security guarantees.
In this work, we propose XHash, which is a high-performance
hash function designed for ZK-STARKs and is inspired by the Mar-
vellous design strategy. When using Algebraic Intermediate Repre-
sentation, XHash outperforms Rescue and Poseidon as the most im-
portant ZK-friendly hash functions for STARKs. Moreover, XHash
has a competitive performance on CPU architectures with an av-
erage speed of ≈ 3𝜇𝑠 for 2-to-1 hashing. Compared to RPO, which
is the fastest hash function of the Marvellous family, XHash per-
forms ≈ 2.5 times faster on CPU. From the security perspective,
XHash inherits the security of the Marvellous design strategy, and
we analyze its security against state-of-the-art algebraic attacks.
Additionally, we propose a new type of security argument against
algebraic attacks that relies on a single well-defined and reasonable
conjecture of a novel type. Finally, we specify a standard version of
XHash designed for Polygon Miden VM, with its AIR complexity
being 504, compared to Rescue with an AIR complexity of 672, and
Poseidon with an AIR complexity of 1176.

More Embedded Curves for SNARK-Pairing-Friendly Curves

Embedded curves are elliptic curves defined over a prime field whose order (characteristic) is the prime subgroup order (the scalar field) of a pairing-friendly curve. Embedded curves have a large prime-order subgroup of cryptographic size but are not pairing-friendly themselves. Sanso and El Housni published families of embedded curves for BLS pairing-friendly curves. Their families are parameterized by polynomials, like families of pairing-friendly curves are. However their work did not found embedded families for KSS pairing-friendly curves. In this note we show how the problem of finding families of embedded curves is related to the problem of finding optimal formulas for $\G_1$ subgroup membership testing on the pairing-friendly curve side. Then we apply Smith's technique and Dai, Lin, Zhao, and Zhou (DLZZ) criteria to obtain the formulas of embedded curves with KSS, and outline a generic algorithm for solving this problem in all cases. We provide two families of embedded curves of prime-order for KSS18 that can form a plain cycle, and give examples of cryptographic size. We also give families of even-order $j=1728$ embedded curves for KSS16 with examples. We also suggest alternative embedded curves for BLS that have a seed of much lower Hamming weight than Sanso et al.~and much higher 2-valuation for fast FFT. In particular we highlight BLS12 curves which have a prime-order embedded curve that form a plain cycle (no pairing), and a second (plain) embedded curve in Montgomery form. A Brezing-Weng outer curve to have a pairing-friendly 2-chain is also possible like in the BLS12-377-BW6-761 construction. All curves have $j$-invariant 0 and an endomorphism for a faster arithmetic on the curve side.

A Note on the Quasigroup Lai-Massey Structures

In our paper, we explore the consequences of replacing the commutative group operation used in Lai-Massey structures with a quasigroup operation.
We introduce four quasigroup versions of the Lai-Massey structure, and prove that for quasigroups isotopic with a group $\mathbb{G}$, the complexity of launching a differential attack against these variants of the Lai-Massey structure is equivalent to attacking an alternative structure based on $\mathbb{G}$.
Then we provide the conditions needed for correct decryption, and further refine the resulting structure. The emerging structure is both intriguing and novel, and we hope that it will form the basis for future secure block ciphers based on non-commutative groups. In the case of commutative groups, we show that the resulting structure reduces to the classical Lai-Massey structure.

MSMAC: Accelerating Multi-Scalar Multiplication for Zero-Knowledge Proof

Multi-scalar multiplication (MSM) is the most computation-intensive part in proof generation of Zero-knowledge proof (ZKP). In this paper, we propose MSMAC, an FPGA accelerator for large-scale MSM. MSMAC adopts a specially designed Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) for MSM and optimizes pipelined Point Addition Unit (PAU) with hybrid Karatsuba multiplier. Moreover, a runtime system is proposed to split MSM tasks with the optimal sub-task size and orchestrate execution of Processing Elements (PEs). Experimental results show that MSMAC achieves up to 328× and 1.96× speedups compared to the state-of-the-art implementation on CPU (one core) and GPU, respectively, outperforming the state-of-the-art ASIC accelerator by 1.79×. On 4 FPGAs, MSMAC performs 1,261× faster than a single CPU core.

A Note on ``Three-Factor Anonymous Authentication and Key Agreement Based on Fuzzy Biological Extraction for Industrial Internet of Things''

We show that the key agreement scheme [IEEE Trans. Serv. Comput. 16(4): 3000-3013, 2023] fails to keep user anonymity, not as claimed. The scheme simply acknowledges that user anonymity is equivalent to preventing user's identity from being recovered. But the true anonymity means that the adversary cannot attribute different sessions to target users. It relates to entity-distinguishable, not just identity-revealable. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first time to clarify the explicit signification of user anonymity.

Tailoring two-dimensional codes for structured lattice-based KEMs and applications to Kyber

Kyber is a post-quantum lattice-based key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) selected by NIST for standardization as ML-KEM. The scheme is designed to ensure that the unintentional errors accumulated during decryption do not prevent the receiver to correctly recover the encapsulated key. This is done by using a simple error-correction code independently applied to each bit of the message, for which it is possible to show that the decryption failure rate (DFR) is negligible. Although there have been other proposals of more complex error-correction codes for Kyber, these have important limitations. Some proposals use independence assumptions on the noise distribution that do not hold. Others require significant changes in Kyber's core parameters, which make them unpractical. In this work, we propose a family of 2-dimensional codes that can, in principle, be applied to any lattice-based scheme. Even though our 2D codes have a rather simple construction, they can be tailored for the specific noise distribution observed for different Kyber parameters, and reduce Kyber's DFR by factors of $2^{4.8}$, $2^{5.4}$, and $2^{9.9}$, for security levels 1, 3, and 5, respectively, without requiring independence assumptions. Alternatively, the proposed codes allow for up to $6\%$ ciphertext compression in Kyber Level 5 while maintaining the DFR lower than $2^{-160}$, which is the target value defined in Kyber's specification. Furthermore, we provide an efficient isochronous implementation of the encoding and decoding procedures for our 2D codes. Compared with Kyber's reference implementation, the performance impact of the 2D codes in the decapsulation time is negligible (namely, between $0.08\%$ to $0.18\%$, depending on the security level).

PROF: Protected Order Flow in a Profit-Seeking World

Users of decentralized finance (DeFi) applications face significant risks from adversarial actions that manipulate the order of transactions to extract value from users. Such actions---an adversarial form of what is called maximal-extractable value (MEV)---impact both individual outcomes and the stability of the DeFi ecosystem. MEV exploitation, moreover, is being institutionalized through an architectural paradigm known Proposer-Builder Separation (PBS).
This work introduces a system called PROF (PRotected Order Flow) that is designed to limit harmful forms of MEV in existing PBS systems. PROF aims at this goal using two ideas. First, PROF imposes an ordering on a set ("bundle") of privately input transactions and enforces that ordering all the way through to block production-preventing transaction-order manipulation. Second, PROF creates bundles whose inclusion is profitable to block producers, thereby ensuring that bundles see timely inclusion in blocks.
PROF is backward-compatible, meaning that it works with existing and future PBS designs. PROF is also compatible with any desired algorithm for ordering transactions within a PROF bundle (e.g., first-come, first-serve, fee-based, etc.). It executes efficiently, i.e., with low latency, and requires no additional trust assumptions among PBS entities. We quantitatively and qualitatively analyze PROF’s incentive structure, and its utility to users compared with existing solutions. We also report on inclusion likelihood of PROF transactions, and concrete latency numbers through our end-to-end implementation.

ARADI and LLAMA: Low-Latency Cryptography for Memory Encryption

In this paper, we describe a low-latency block cipher (ARADI) and authenticated encryption mode (LLAMA) intended to support memory encryption applications.

Efficient Variants of TNT with BBB Security

At EUROCRYPT'20, Bao et al. have shown that three-round cascading of $\textsf{LRW1}$ construction, which they dubbed as $\textsf{TNT}$, is a strong tweakable pseudorandom permutation that provably achieves $2n/3$-bit security bound. Jha et al. showed a birthday bound distinguishing attack on $\textsf{TNT}$ and invalidated the proven security bound and proved a tight birthday bound security on the $\textsf{TNT}$ construction in EUROCRYPT'24.
In a recent work, Datta et al. have shown that four round cascading of the $\textsf{LRW1}$ construction, which they dubbed as $\textsf{CLRW1}^4$ is a strong tweakable pseudorandom permutation that provably achieves $3n/4$-bit security. In this paper, we propose a variant of the $\textsf{TNT}$ construction, called $\textsf{b-TNT1}$, and proved its security up to $2^{3n/4}$ queries. However, unlike $\textsf{CLRW1}^4$, $\textsf{b-TNT1}$ requires three block cipher calls along with a field multiplication. Besides, we also propose another variant of the $\textsf{TNT}$ construction, called $\textsf{b-TNT2}$ and showed a similar security bound. Compared to $\textsf{b-TNT1}$, $\textsf{b-TNT2}$ requires four block cipher calls. Nevertheless, its execution of block cipher calls can be pipelined which makes it efficient over $\textsf{CLRW1}^4$. We have also experimentally verified that both $\textsf{b-TNT1}$ and $\textsf{b-TNT2}$ outperform $\textsf{CLRW1}^4$.

Bandwidth-Hard Functions: Reductions and Lower Bounds

Memory Hard Functions (MHFs) have been proposed as an answer to the growing inequality between the computational speed of general purpose CPUs and Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs).
MHFs have seen widespread applications including password hashing, key stretching and proofs of work.
Several metrics have been proposed to quantify the ``memory hardness'' of a function. Cumulative memory complexity (CMC) (Alwen and Serbinenko, STOC 2015) (or amortized Area $\times$ Time complexity (Alwen et. al., CCS 2017)) attempts to quantify the cost to acquire/build the hardware to evaluate the function --- after normalizing the time it takes to evaluate the function repeatedly at a given rate.
By contrast, bandwidth hardness (Ren and Devadas, TCC 2017) attempts to quantify the energy costs of evaluating this function --- which in turn is largely dominated by the number of cache misses.
Ideally, a good MHF would be both bandwidth hard and have high cumulative memory complexity.
While the cumulative memory complexity of leading MHF candidates is well understood, little is known about the \emph{bandwidth hardness} of many prominent MHF candidates.
Our contributions are as follows:
First, we provide the first reduction proving that, in the parallel random oracle model, the bandwidth hardness of a Data-Independent Memory Hard Function (iMHF) is described by the red-blue pebbling cost of the directed acyclic graph (DAG) associated with that iMHF.
Second, we show that the goals of designing an MHF with high CMC/bandwidth hardness are well aligned. In particular, we prove that any function (data-independent or not) with high CMC also has relatively high bandwidth costs.
Third, we analyze the bandwidth hardness of several prominent iMHF candidates such as Argon2i (Biryukov et. al., 2015), winner of the password hashing competition, aATSample and DRSample (Alwen et. al., CCS 2017) --- the first practical iMHF with essentially asymptotically optimal CMC. We prove that in the parallel random oracle model each iMHFs are maximally bandwidth hard.
Fourth, we analyze the bandwidth hardness of a prominent dMHF called Scrypt. We prove the first unconditional tight lower bound on the energy cost of Scrypt in the parallel random oracle model.
Finally, we show that the problem of finding the minimum cost red-blue pebbling of a directed acyclic graph is NP-hard.

Formal Analysis of SPDM: Security Protocol and Data Model version 1.2

DMTF is a standards organization by major industry players in IT infrastructure including AMD, Alibaba, Broadcom, Cisco, Dell, Google, Huawei, IBM, Intel, Lenovo, and NVIDIA, which aims to enable interoperability, e.g., including cloud, virtualization, network, servers and storage. It is currently standardizing a security protocol called SPDM, which aims to secure communication over the wire and to enable device attestation, notably also explicitly catering for communicating hardware components.
The SPDM protocol inherits requirements and design ideas from IETF’s TLS 1.3. However, its state machines and transcript handling are substantially different and more complex. While architecture, specification, and open-source libraries of the current versions of SPDM are publicly available, these include no significant security analysis of any kind.
In this work we develop the first formal models of the three modes of the SPDM protocol version 1.2.1, and formally analyze their main security properties.

Formal Analysis of Session-Handling in Secure Messaging: Lifting Security from Sessions to Conversations

The building blocks for secure messaging apps, such as Signal’s X3DH and Double Ratchet (DR) protocols, have received a lot of attention from the research community. They have notably been proved to meet strong security properties even in the case of compromise such as Forward Secrecy (FS) and Post-Compromise Security (PCS). However, there is a lack of formal study of these properties at the application level. Whereas the research works have studied such properties in the context of a single ratcheting chain, a conversation between two persons in a messaging application can in fact be the result of merging multiple ratcheting chains.
In this work, we initiate the formal analysis of secure messaging taking the session-handling layer into account, and apply our approach to Sesame, Signal’s session management. We first experimentally show practical scenarios in which PCS can be violated in Signal by a clone attacker, despite its use of the Double Ratchet. We identify how this is enabled by Signal’s session-handling layer. We then design a formal model of the session-handling layer of Signal that is tractable for automated verification with the Tamarin prover, and use this model to rediscover the PCS violation and propose two provably secure mechanisms to offer stronger guarantees.

Route Discovery in Private Payment Channel Networks

In this work, we are the first to explore route discovery in private channel networks.
We first determine what ``ideal" privacy for a routing protocol means in this setting. We observe that protocols achieving this strong privacy definition exist by leveraging (topology hiding) Multi-Party Computation but they are (inherently) inefficient as route discovery must involve the entire network.
We then present protocols with weaker privacy guarantees but much better efficiency. In particular, route discovery typically only involves small fraction of the nodes but some information on the topology and balances -- beyond what is necessary for performing the transaction -- is leaked.
The core idea is that both sender and receiver gossip a message which then slowly propagates through the network, and the moment any node in the network receives both messages, a path is found. In our first protocol the message is always sent to all neighbouring nodes with a delay proportional to the fees of that edge. In our second protocol the message is only sent to one neighbour chosen randomly with a probability proportional to its degree. While the first instantiation always finds the cheapest path, the second might not, but it involves a smaller fraction of the network.
% We discuss some extensions like employing bilinear maps so the gossiped messages can be re-randomized, making them unlikeable and thus improving privacy.
We also discuss some extensions to further improve privacy by employing bilinear maps.
Simulations of our protocols on the Lightning network topology (for random transactions and uniform fees) show that our first protocol (which finds the cheapest path) typically involves around 12\% of the 6376 nodes, while the second only touches around 18 nodes $(<0.3\%)$, and the cost of the path that is found is around twice the cost of the optimal one.

Efficient Differentially Private Set Intersection

Private Set Intersection (PSI) enables a sender and a receiver to jointly compute the intersection of their sets without disclosing other information about items not in the intersection. However, in many cases of joint data analysis, it is not just the items outside the intersection that are sensitive but the items within it. To protect such sensitive information, prior work presents a Differentially Private version of PSI (DPSI) based on a circuit-PSI using Fully Homomorphic Encryption. However, their concrete protocol is somewhat inefficient compared with the state-of-the-art (SOTA) circuit-PSI.
In this paper, we revisit the DPSI definition and formalize its ideal functionality. We identify the key desiderata required by PSI-related tools to construct DPSI and propose two frameworks to construct efficient DPSI protocols. The first one generalizes the idea of existing DPSI, showing that any circuit-PSI can be used to construct DPSI. We obtain a more efficient DPSI protocol by plugging the SOTA circuit-PSI protocol in the framework. The second one helps to obtain a more efficient DPSI protocol based on the multi-query Reverse Private Membership Test (mqRPMT) that was previously used to construct Private Set Operation (PSO). However, mqRPMT additionally leaks the intersection size to the sender. We bound such leakage using differential privacy by padding random dummy items in input sets. We implement numerous constructions based on our frameworks. Experiments show that our protocols significantly outperform the existing DPSI construction, 2.5-22.6$\times$ more communication efficient and up to 110.5-151.8$\times$ faster. Our work also shows a new use case for mqRPMT besides obtaining PSO.

Dynamic Collusion Functional Encryption and Multi-Authority Attribute-Based Encryption

Functional Encryption (FE) is a powerful notion of encryption which enables computations and partial message recovery of encrypted data. In FE, each decryption key is associated with a function $f$ such that decryption recovers the function evaluation $f(m)$ from an encryption of $m$. Informally, security states that a user with access to function keys $\mathsf{sk}_{f_1}, \mathsf{sk}_{f_2}, \ldots$ (and so on) can only learn $f_1(m), f_2(m), \ldots$ (and so on) but nothing more about the message. The system is said to be $q$-bounded collusion resistant if the security holds as long as an adversary gets access to at most $q = q(\lambda)$ decryption keys. In the last decade, numerous works have proposed many FE constructions from a wide array of algebraic and general cryptographic assumptions, and proved their security in the bounded collusion model.
However, until very recently, all these works studied bounded collusion resistance in a "static model", where the collusion bound $q$ was a global system parameter. While the static collusion model led to great research progress in the community, it has many major drawbacks. Very recently, Agrawal et al. (Crypto 2021) and Garg et al. (Eurocrypt 2022) independently introduced the "dynamic model" for bounded collusion resistance, where the collusion bound $q$ was a fluid parameter that was not globally set but only chosen by each encryptor. The dynamic collusion model enabled harnessing the many virtues of the static collusion model, while avoiding its various drawbacks.
In this work, we give a simple and generic approach to upgrade any scheme from the static collusion model to the dynamic collusion model. Our result captures all existing results in the dynamic model in the form of a single unified framework, and also gives new results as simple corollaries with a lot more potential in the future. An interesting artifact of our result is that it gives a generic way to match existing lower bounds in functional encryption.

A Statistical Verification Method of Random Permutations for Hiding Countermeasure Against Side-Channel Attacks

As NIST is putting the final touches on the standardization of PQC (Post Quantum Cryptography) public key algorithms, it is a racing certainty that peskier cryptographic attacks undeterred by those new PQC algorithms will surface. Such a trend in turn will prompt more follow-up studies of attacks and countermeasures. As things stand, from the attackers’ perspective, one viable form of attack that can be implemented thereupon is the so-called “side-channel attack”. Two best-known countermeasures heralded to be durable against side-channel attacks are: “masking” and “hiding”. In that dichotomous picture, of particular note are successful single-trace attacks on some of the NIST’s PQC then-candidates, which worked to the detriment of the former: “masking”. In this paper, we cast an eye over the latter: “hiding”. Hiding proves to be durable against both side-channel attacks and another equally robust type of attacks called “fault injection attacks”, and hence is deemed an auspicious countermeasure to be implemented. Mathematically, the hiding method is fundamentally based on random permutations. There has been a cornucopia of studies on generating random permutations. However, those are not tied to implementation of the hiding method. In this paper, we propose a reliable and efficient verification of permutation implementation, through employing Fisher–Yates’ shuffling method. We introduce the concept of an 𝑛-th order permutation and explain how it can be used to verify that our implementation is more efficient than its previous-gen counterparts for hiding countermeasures.

Privacy Preserving Biometric Authentication for Fingerprints and Beyond

Biometric authentication eliminates the need for users to remember secrets and serves as a convenient mechanism for user authentication. Traditional implementations of biometric-based authentication store sensitive user biometry on the server and the server becomes an attractive target of attack and a source of large-scale unintended disclosure of biometric data. To mitigate the problem, we can resort to privacy-preserving computation and store only protected biometrics on the server. While a variety of secure computation techniques is available, our analysis of privacy-preserving biometric computation and biometric authentication constructions revealed that available solutions fall short of addressing the challenges of privacy-preserving biometric authentication. Thus, in this work we put forward new constructions to address the challenges.
Our solutions employ a helper server and use strong threat models, where a client is always assumed to be malicious, while the helper server can be semi-honest or malicious. We also determined that standard secure multi-party computation security definitions are insufficient to properly demonstrate security in the two-phase (enrollment and authentication) entity authentication application. We thus extend the model and formally show security in the multi-phase setting, where information can flow from one phase to another and the set of participants can change between the phases. We implement our constructions and show that they exhibit practical performance for authentication in real time.

Optimizing Big Integer Multiplication on Bitcoin: Introducing w-windowed Approach

A crucial component of any zero-knowledge system is operations with finite fields. This, in turn, leads to the implementation of the fundamental operation: multiplying two big integers. In the realm of Bitcoin, this problem gets revisited, as Bitcoin utilizes its own stack-based and not Turing-complete scripting system called Bitcoin Script. Inspired by Elliptic Curve scalar multiplication, this paper introduces the $w$-windowed method for multiplying two numbers. We outperform state-of-the-art approaches, including BitVM’s implementation. Finally, we also show how the windowed method can lead to optimizations not only in big integer arithmetic solely but in more general arithmetic problems.

Competitive Policies for Online Collateral Maintenance

Layer-two blockchain protocols emerged to address scalability issues related to fees, storage cost, and confirmation delay of on-chain transactions. They aggregate off-chain transactions into a fewer on-chain ones, thus offering immediate settlement and reduced transaction fees. To preserve security of the underlying ledger, layer-two protocols often work in a collateralized model; resources are committed on-chain to backup off-chain activities. A fundamental challenge that arises in this setup is determining a policy for establishing, committing, and replenishing the collateral in a way that maximizes the value of settled transactions.
In this paper, we study this problem under two settings that model collateralized layer-two protocols. The first is a general model in which a party has an on-chain collateral $C$ with a policy to decide on whether to settle or discard each incoming transaction. The policy also specifies when to replenish $C$ based on the remaining collateral value. The second model considers a discrete setup in which $C$ is divided among $k$ wallets, each of which is of size $C/k$, such that when a wallet is full, and so cannot settle any incoming transactions, it will be replenished. We devise several online policies for these models, and show how competitive they are compared to optimal (offline) policies that have full knowledge of the incoming transaction stream. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to study and formulate online competitive policies for collateral and wallet management in the blockchain setting.

SoK: Model Reverse Engineering Threats for Neural Network Hardware

There has been significant progress over the past seven years in model reverse engineering (RE) for neural network (NN) hardware. Although there has been systematization of knowledge (SoK) in an overall sense, however, the treatment from the hardware perspective has been far from adequate. To bridge this gap, this paper systematically categorizes the types of NN hardware used prevalently by the industry/academia, and also the model RE attacks/defenses published in each category. Further, we sub-categorize existing NN model RE attacks based on different criteria including the degree of hardware parallelism, threat vectors like side channels, fault-injection, scan-chain attacks, system-level attacks, type of asset under attack, the type of NN, exact versus approximate recovery, etc.
We make important technical observations and identify key open research directions. Subsequently, we discuss the state-of-the-art defenses against NN model RE, identify certain categorization criteria, and compare the existing works based on these criteria. We note significant qualitative gaps for defenses, and suggest recommendations for important open research directions for protection of NN models. Finally, we discuss limitations of existing work in terms of the types of models where security evaluation or defenses were proposed, and suggest open problems in terms of protecting practically expensive model IPs.

Anonymous, Timed and Revocable Proxy Signatures

A proxy signature enables a party to delegate her signing power to another. This is useful in practice to achieve goals related to robustness, crowd-sourcing, and workload sharing. Such applications, especially in the blockchain model, usually require delegation to satisfy several properties, including time bounds, anonymity, revocability, and policy enforcement. Despite the large amount of work on proxy signatures in the literature, none of the existing schemes satisfy all these properties; even there is no unified formal notion that captures them.
In this work, we close this gap and propose RelaySchnorr, an anonymous, timed, and revocable proxy signature scheme. We achieve this in two steps: First, we introduce a tokenizable digital signature based on Schnorr signature allowing for secure distribution of signing tokens. Second, we utilize a public bulletin board, instantiated as a blockchain, and timelock encryption to support: (1) one-time usage of the signing tokens by tracking tokens used so far based on unique values associated to them, (2) timed delegation so that a proxy signer cannot sign outside a given period, and (3) delegation revocation allowing the original signer to end a delegation earlier than provisioned. All of these are done in a decentralized and anonymous way so that no one can tell that someone else signed on behalf of the original signer or even that a delegation took place. We define a formal notion for proxy signatures capturing all these properties, and prove that our construction realizes this notion. We also discuss several design considerations addressing issues related to deployment in practice.

Benchmarking Attacks on Learning with Errors

Lattice cryptography schemes based on the learning with errors (LWE) hardness assumption have been standardized by NIST for use as post-quantum cryptosystems, and by HomomorphicEncryption.org for encrypted compute on sensitive data. Thus, understanding their concrete security is critical. Most work on LWE security focuses on theoretical estimates of attack performance, which is important but may overlook attack nuances arising in real-world implementations. The sole existing concrete benchmarking effort, the Darmstadt Lattice Challenge, does not include benchmarks relevant to the standardized LWE parameter choices - such as small secret and small error distributions, and Ring-LWE (RLWE) and Module-LWE (MLWE) variants. To improve our understanding of concrete LWE security, we provide the first benchmarks for LWE secret recovery on standardized parameters, for small and low-weight (sparse) secrets. We evaluate four LWE attacks in these settings to serve as a baseline: the Search-LWE attacks uSVP, SALSA, and Cool & Cruel, and the Decision-LWE attack: Dual Hybrid Meet-in-the-Middle (MitM). We extend the SALSA and Cool & Cruel attacks in significant ways, and implement and scale up MitM attacks for the first time. For example, we recover hamming weight $9-11$ binomial secrets for KYBER ($\kappa=2$) parameters in $28-36$ hours with SALSA and Cool & Cruel, while we find that MitM can solve Decision-LWE instances for hamming weights up to $4$ in under an hour for Kyber parameters, while uSVP attacks do not recover any secrets after running for more than $1100$ hours. We also compare concrete performance against theoretical estimates. Finally, we open source the code to enable future research.

On the practical CPAD security of “exact” and threshold FHE schemes and libraries

In their 2021 seminal paper, Li and Micciancio presented a passive attack against the CKKS approximate FHE scheme and introduced the notion of CPAD security. The current status quo is that this line of attacks does not apply to ``exact'' FHE. In this paper, we challenge this status quo by exhibiting a CPAD key recovery attack on the linearly homomorphic Regev cryptosystem which easily generalizes to other xHE schemes such as BFV, BGV and TFHE showing that these cryptosystems are not CPAD secure in their basic form. We also show that existing threshold variants of BFV, BGV and CKKS are particularily exposed to CPAD attackers and would be CPAD-insecure without smudging noise addition after partial decryption. Finally we successfully implement our attack against several mainstream FHE libraries and discuss a number of natural countermeasures as well as their consequences in terms of FHE practice, security and efficiency. The attack itself is quite practical as it typically takes less than an hour on an average laptop PC, requiring a few thousand ciphertexts as well as up to around a million evaluations/decryptions, to perform a full key recovery.

Designing a General-Purpose 8-bit (T)FHE Processor Abstraction

Making the most of TFHE programmable bootstrapping to evaluate functions or operators otherwise difficult to perform with only the native addition and multiplication of the scheme is a very active line of research. In this paper, we systematize this approach and apply it to build an 8-bit FHE processor abstraction, i.e., a software entity that works over FHE-encrypted 8-bits data and presents itself to the programmer by means of a conventional-looking assembly instruction set. In doing so, we provide several homomorphic LUT dereferencing operators based on variants on the tree-based method and show that they are the most efficient option for manipulating encryptions of 8-bit data (optimally represented as two base 16 digits). We then systematically apply this approach over a set of around 50 instructions, including, notably, conditional assignments, divisions, or fixed-point arithmetic operations. We then conclude the paper by testing the approach on several simple algorithms, including the execution of a neuron with a sigmoid activation function over 16-bit precision. Finally, this work reveals that a very limited set of functional bootstrapping patterns is versatile and efficient enough to achieve general-purpose FHE computations beyond the boolean circuit approach. As such, these patterns may be an appropriate target for further works on advanced software optimizations or hardware implementations.

Binding Security of Implicitly-Rejecting KEMs and Application to BIKE and HQC

In this work, we continue the analysis of the binding properties of implicitly-rejecting key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) obtained via the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transform. These binding properties, in earlier literature known under the term robustness, thwart attacks that can arise when using KEMs in larger protocols. Recently, Cremers et al. (ePrint'24) introduced a framework for binding notions, encompassing previously existing but also new ones. While implicitly-rejecting KEMs have been analyzed with respect to multiple of these notions, there are still several gaps. We complete the picture by providing positive and negative results for the remaining notions. Further, we show how to apply our results to the code-based KEMs BIKE and HQC, which are among the round-4 candidates in NISTs PQC standardization process. Through this, we close a second gap as our results finish the analysis of the binding notions for the NIST round-4 KEMs.

Representations of Group Actions and their Applications in Cryptography

Cryptographic group actions provide a flexible framework that allows the instantiation of several primitives, ranging from key exchange protocols to PRFs and digital signatures. The security of such constructions is based on the intractability of some computational problems. For example, given the group action $(G,X,\star)$, the weak unpredictability assumption (Alamati et al., Asiacrypt 2020) requires that, given random $x_i$'s in $X$, no probabilistic polynomial time algorithm can compute, on input $\{(x_i,g\star x_i)\}_{i=1,\dots,Q}$ and $y$, the set element $g\star y$.
In this work, we study such assumptions, aided by the definition of group action representations and a new metric, the $q$-linear dimension, that estimates the "linearity'' of a group action, or in other words, how much it is far from being linear.
We show that under some hypotheses on the group action representation, and if the $q$-linear dimension is polynomial in the security parameter, then the weak unpredictability and other related assumptions cannot hold.
This technique is applied to some actions from cryptography, like the ones arising from the equivalence of linear codes, as a result, we obtain the impossibility of using such actions for the instantiation of certain primitives.
As an additional result, some bounds on the $q$-linear dimension are given for classical groups, such as $\mathcal{S}_n$, $\mathrm{GL}(\mathbb{F}^n)$ and the cyclic group $\mathbb{Z}_n$ acting on itself.

Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Collective Remote Attestation for NFV

The virtualization of network functions is a promising technology, which can enable mobile network operators to provide more flexibility and better resilience for their infrastructure and services. Yet, virtualization comes with challenges, as 5G operators will require a means of verifying the state of the virtualized network components (e.g. Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) or managing hypervisors) in order to fulfill security and privacy commitments. One such means is the use of attestation protocols. In this paper, we focus on Collective Remote Attestation (cRA), which is used to attest the state of a group of devices. Although cRA has been extensively studied in the context of IoT, it has not been used yet in virtualized mobile networks, a different use-case, with constraints of its own.
In this paper, we propose the first protocol to efficiently and securely attest a group of Virtualized Network Functions which make up a VNF Forwarding Graph. Our protocol comes with strong and provable guarantees of: unforgeability of attestation, the linkability of attestations for related components, and the privacy of sensitive configuration details for the infrastructure provider. In particular, we are the first to formally define and analyze such properties for VNF-FG attestation. Finally, through our Proof-of-Concept implementation, we show that our construction is not only strongly secure, but also efficient.

Keeping Up with the KEMs: Stronger Security Notions for KEMs and automated analysis of KEM-based protocols

Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs) are a critical building block for hybrid encryption and modern security protocols, notably in the post-quantum setting. Given the asymmetric public key of a recipient, the primitive establishes a shared secret key between sender and recipient. In recent years, a large number of abstract designs and concrete implementations of KEMs have been proposed, e.g., in the context of the NIST process for post-quantum primitives.
In this work, we (i) establish stronger security notions for KEMs, and (ii) develop a symbolic analysis method to analyze security protocols that use KEMs. First, we generalize existing security notions for KEMs in the computational setting, introduce several stronger security notions, and prove their relations. Our new properties formalize in which sense outputs of the KEM uniquely determine, i.e., bind, other values. Our new binding properties can be used, e.g., to prove the absence of attacks that were not captured by prior security notions, such as re-encapsulation attacks.
Second, we develop a family of fine-grained symbolic models that correspond to our hierarchy of computational security notions, and are suitable for the automated analysis of KEM-based security protocols. We encode our models as a library in the framework of the Tamarin prover. Given a KEM-based protocol, our approach can automatically derive the minimal binding properties required from the KEM; or, if also given a concrete KEM, can analyze if the protocols meets its security goals. In case studies, Tamarin automatically discovers, e.g., that the key exchange protocol proposed in the original Kyber paper requires stronger properties from the KEM than were proven in the paper.

Impossible Boomerang Attacks Revisited: Applications to Deoxys-BC, Joltik-BC and SKINNY

The impossible boomerang (IB) attack was first introduced by Lu in his doctoral thesis and subsequently published at DCC in 2011. The IB attack is a variant of the impossible differential (ID) attack by incorporating the idea of the boomerang attack. In this paper, we revisit the IB attack, and introduce the incompatibility of two characteristics in boomerang to the construction of an IB distinguisher. With our methodology, all the constructions of IB distinguisher are represented in a unified manner. Moreover, we show that the related-(twea)key IB distinguishers possess more freedom than the ones of ID so that it can cover more rounds.
We also propose a new tool based on Mixed-Integer Quadratically-Constrained Programming (MIQCP) to search for IB attacks. To illustrate the power of the IB attack, we mount attacks against three tweakable block ciphers: Deoxys-BC, Joltik-BC and SKINNY. For Deoxys-BC, we propose a related-tweakey IB attack on 14-round Deoxys-BC-384, which improves the best previous related-tweakey ID attack by 2 rounds, and we improve the data complexity of the best previous related-tweakey ID attack on 10-round Deoxys-BC-256. For Joltik-BC, we propose the best attacks against 10-round Joltik-BC-128 and 14-round Joltik-BC-192 with related-tweakey IB attack. For SKINNY-n-3n, we propose a 27-round related-tweakey IB attack, which improves both the time and the memory complexities of the best previous ID attack. We also propose the first related-tweakey IB attack on 28 round SKINNY-n-3n, which improves the previous best ID attack by one round.

PEReDi: Privacy-Enhanced, Regulated and Distributed Central Bank Digital Currencies

Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs) aspire to offer a digital replacement for physical cash and as such need to tackle two fundamental requirements that are in conflict. On the one hand, it is desired they are private so that a financial “panopticon” is avoided, while on the other, they should be regulation friendly in the sense of facilitating any threshold-limiting, tracing, and counterparty auditing functionality that is necessary to comply with regulations such as Know Your Customer (KYC), Anti Money Laundering (AML) and Combating Financing of Terrorism (CFT) as well as financial stability considerations.
In this work, we put forth a new asynchronous model for CBDCs and an efficient construction that, for the first time, fully addresses these issues simultaneously. Moreover, recognizing the importance of avoiding a single point of failure, our construction is distributed so that all its properties can withstand a suitably bounded entities getting corrupted by an adversary. Achieving all the above properties efficiently is technically involved; among others, our construction uses suitable cryptographic tools to thwart man-in-the-middle attacks, it showcases a novel traceability mechanism with significant performance gains compared to previously known techniques and, perhaps surprisingly, shows how to obviate Byzantine agreement or broadcast from the optimistic execution path of a payment, something that results in an essentially optimal communication pattern and communication overhead. We demonstrate the efficiency of our payment system by presenting detailed computation and communication costs. Going beyond “simple” payments, we also discuss how our scheme can facilitate one-off large transfers complying with Know Your Transaction (KYT) disclosure requirements. Our CBDC concept is expressed and realized in the Universal Composition (UC) framework providing in this way a modular and secure way to embed it within a larger financial ecosystem.

Attacks Against the INDCPA-D Security of Exact FHE Schemes

A recent security model for fully homomorphic encryption (FHE), called IND-CPA^D security and introduced by Li and Micciancio [Eurocrypt'21], strengthens IND-CPA security by giving the attacker access to a decryption oracle for ciphertexts for which it should know the underlying plaintexts. This includes ciphertexts that it (honestly) encrypted and those obtained from the latter by evaluating circuits that it chose. Li and Micciancio singled out the CKKS FHE scheme for approximate data [Asiacrypt'17] by giving an IND-CPA^D attack on it and claiming that IND-CPA security and IND-CPA^D security coincide for exact FHE schemes.
We correct the widespread belief according to which IND-CPA^D attacks are specific to approximate homomorphic computations. Indeed, the equivalency formally proved by Li and Micciancio assumes that the schemes have a negligible probability of incorrect decryption. However, almost all competitive implementations of exact FHE schemes give away strong correctness by analyzing correctness heuristically and allowing noticeable probabilities of incorrect decryption.
We exploit this imperfect correctness to mount efficient non-adaptive indistinguishability and key-recovery attacks against all major exact FHE schemes. We illustrate their strength by implementing them for BFV using OpenFHE and simulating an attack for the default parameter set of the CGGI implementation of TFHE-rs (the attack experiment is too expensive to be run on commodity desktops, because of the cost of CGGI bootstrapping). Our attacks extend to CKKS for discrete data, and threshold versions of the exact FHE schemes, when the correctness is similarly loose.

Efficient Quantum Algorithm for SUBSET-SUM Problem

Problems in the complexity class $NP$ are not all known to be solvable, but are verifiable given the solution, in polynomial time by a classical computer. The complexity class $BQP$ includes all problems solvable in polynomial time by a quantum computer. Prime factorization is in $NP$ class, and is also in $BQP$ class, owing to Shor's algorithm. The hardest of all problems within the $NP$ class are called $NP$-complete. If a quantum algorithm can solve an $NP$-complete problem in polynomial time, it would imply that a quantum computer can solve all problems in $NP$ in polynomial time. Here, we present a polynomial-time quantum algorithm to solve an $NP$-complete variant of the $SUBSET-SUM$ problem, thereby, rendering $NP\subseteq BQP$. We illustrate that given a set of integers, which may be positive or negative, a quantum computer can decide in polynomial time whether there exists any subset that sums to zero. There are many real-world applications of our result, such as finding patterns efficiently in stock-market data, or in recordings of the weather or brain activity. As an example, the decision problem of matching two images in image processing is $NP$-complete, and can be solved in polynomial time, when amplitude amplification is not required.

On the Number of Restricted Solutions to Constrained Systems and their Applications

In this paper, we formulate a special class of systems of linear equations over finite fields that appears naturally in the provable security analysis of several MAC and PRF modes of operation. We derive lower bounds on the number of solutions for such systems adhering to some predefined restrictions, and apply these lower bounds to derive tight PRF security for several constructions. We show security up to $2^{3n/4}$ queries for the single-keyed variant of the Double-block Hash-then-Sum (DBHtS) construction, called 1k-DBHtS, under appropriate assumptions on the underlying hash function. We show that the single-key variants of PMAC+ and LightMAC+, called 1k-PMAC+ and 1k-LightMAC+ achieve the required hash function properties, and thus, achieve $3n/4$-bit security. Additionally, we show that the sum of $r$ independent copies of the Even-Mansour cipher is a secure PRF up to $2^{\frac{r}{r+1}n}$ queries.

Collision Attacks on Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)

Advanced Encryption Standard in Galois/Counter Mode (AES-GCM) is the most widely used Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD) algorithm in the world. In this paper, we analyze the use of GCM with all the Initialization Vector (IV) constructions and lengths approved by NIST SP 800-38D when encrypting multiple plaintexts with the same key. We derive attack complexities in both ciphertext-only and known-plaintext models, with or without nonce hiding, for collision attacks compromising integrity and confidentiality. To facilitate the analysis of GCM with random IVs, we derive a new, simplified equation for near birthday collisions. Our analysis shows that GCM with random IVs provides less than 128 bits of security. When 96-bit IVs are used, as recommended by NIST, the security drops to less than 97 bits. Therefore, we strongly recommend NIST to forbid the use of GCM with 96-bit random nonces.

Efficient Implementation of Super-optimal Pairings on Curves with Small Prime Fields at the 192-bit Security Level

For many pairing-based cryptographic protocols such as Direct Anonymous Attestation (DAA) schemes, the arithmetic on the first pairing subgroup $\mathbb{G}_1$ is more fundamental. Such operations heavily depend on the sizes of prime fields. At the 192-bit security level, Gasnier and Guillevic presented a curve named GG22D7-457 with CM-discriminant $D = 7$ and embedding degree $k = 22$. Compared to other well-known pairing-friendly curves at the same security level, the curve GG22D7-457 has smaller prime field size and $\rho$-value, which benefits from the fast operations on $\mathbb{G}_1$. However, the pairing computation on GG22D7-457 is not efficient.
In this paper, we investigate to derive a higher performance for the pairing computation on GG22D7-457. We first propose novel formulas of the super-optimal pairing on this curve by utilizing a $2$-isogeny as GLV-endomorphism. Besides, this tool can be generalized to more generic families of pairing-friendly curves with $n$-isogenies as endomorphisms. In our paper, we provide the explicit formulas for the super-optimal pairings exploiting $2, 3$-isogenies. Finally, we make a concrete computational cost analysis and implement the pairing computations on curve GG22D7-457 using our approaches. In terms of Miller function evaluation, employing the techniques in this paper obtain a saving of $24.44\% $ in $\mathbb{F}_p$-multiplications compared to the optimal ate pairing. As for the running time, the experimental results illustrate that the Miller loop on GG22D7-457 by utilizing our methods is $26.0\%$ faster than the state-of-the-art. Additionally, the performance of the super-optimal pairing on GG22D7-457 is competitive compared to the well-known pairing-friendly curves at the 192-bit security level. These results show that GG22D7-457 becomes an attractive candidate for the pairing-based protocols. Furthermore, our techniques have the potential to enhance the applications of super-optimal pairings on more pairing-friendly curves.

Automated Software Vulnerability Static Code Analysis Using Generative Pre-Trained Transformer Models

Generative Pre-Trained Transformer models have been shown to be surprisingly effective at a variety of natural language processing tasks -- including generating computer code. However, in general GPT models have been shown to not be incredibly effective at handling specific computational tasks (such as evaluating mathematical functions).
In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of open source GPT models, with no fine-tuning, and with context introduced by the langchain and localGPT Large Language Model (LLM) framework, for the task of automatic identification of the presence of vulnerable code syntax (specifically targeting C and C++ source code). This task is evaluated on a selection of $36$ source code examples from the NIST SARD dataset, which are specifically curated to not contain natural English that indicates the presence, or lack thereof, of a particular vulnerability (including the removal of all source code comments). The NIST SARD source code dataset contains identified vulnerable lines of source code that are examples of one out of the $839$ distinct Common Weakness Enumerations (CWE), allowing for exact quantification of the GPT output classification error rate. A total of $5$ GPT models are evaluated, using $10$ different inference temperatures and $100$ repetitions at each setting, resulting in $5,000$ GPT queries per vulnerable source code analyzed.
Ultimately, we find that the open source GPT models that we evaluated are not suitable for fully automated vulnerability scanning because the false positive and false negative rates are too high to likely be useful in practice. However, we do find that the GPT models perform surprisingly well at automated vulnerability detection for some of the test cases, in particular surpassing random sampling (for some GPT models and inference temperatures), and being able to identify the exact lines of code that are vulnerable albeit at a low success rate. The best performing GPT model result found was Llama-2-70b-chat-hf with inference temperature of $0.1$ applied to NIST SARD test case 149165 (which is an example of a buffer overflow vulnerability), which had a binary classification recall score of $1.0$ and a precision of $1.0$ for correctly and uniquely identifying the vulnerable line of code and the correct CWE number.
Additionally, the GPT models are able to, with a rate quantifiably better than random sampling, identify the specific line of source that contains the identified CWE for many of the NIST SARD test cases.

SILBE: an Updatable Public Key Encryption Scheme from Lollipop Attacks

We present a new post-quantum Public Key Encryption scheme (PKE) named Supersingular Isogeny Lollipop Based Encryption or SILBE. SILBE is obtained by leveraging the generalised lollipop attack of Castryck and Vercauteren on the M-SIDH Key exchange by Fouotsa, Moriya and Petit.
Doing so, we can in fact make SILBE a post-quantum secure Updatable Public Key Encryption scheme (UPKE). SILBE is in fact the first isogeny-based UPKE which is not based on group actions. Hence, SILBE overcomes the limitations highlighted by Eaton, Jao, Komlo and Mokrani at SAC'21 regarding the design of an SIDH-style UPKE. This is possible by leveraging both the Deuring Correspondence and Kani's Lemma, two central concepts in Isogeny-Based Cryptography.

Exponential Quantum Speedup for the Traveling Salesman Problem

The traveling salesman problem is the problem of finding out the shortest route in a network of cities, that a salesman needs to travel to cover all the cities, without visiting the same city more than once. This problem is known to be $NP$-hard with a brute-force complexity of $O(N^N)$ or $O(N^{2N})$ for $N$ number of cities. This problem is equivalent to finding out the shortest Hamiltonian cycle in a given graph, if at least one Hamiltonian cycle exists in it. Quantum algorithms for this problem typically provide with a quadratic speedup only, using Grover's search, thereby having a complexity of $O(N^{N/2})$ or $O(N^N)$. We present a bounded-error quantum polynomial-time (BQP) algorithm for solving the problem, providing with an exponential speedup. The overall complexity of our algorithm is $O(N^3\log(N)\kappa/\epsilon + 1/\epsilon^3)$, where the errors $\epsilon$ are $O(1/{\rm poly}(N))$, and $\kappa$ is the not-too-large condition number of the matrix encoding all Hamiltonian cycles.

An Efficient ZK Compiler from SIMD Circuits to General Circuits

We propose a generic compiler that can convert any zero-knowledge (ZK) proof for SIMD circuits to general circuits efficiently, and an extension that can preserve the space complexity of the proof systems. Our compiler can immediately produce new results improving upon state of the art.
-By plugging in our compiler to Antman, an interactive sublinear-communication protocol, we improve the overall communication complexity for general circuits from $\mathcal{O}(C^{3/4})$ to $\mathcal{O}(C^{1/2})$. Our implementation shows that for a circuit of size $2^{27}$, it achieves up to $83.6\times$ improvement on communication compared to the state-of-the-art implementation. Its end-to-end running time is at least $70\%$ faster in a $10$Mbps network.
-Using the recent results on compressed $\Sigma$-protocol theory, we obtain a discrete-log-based constant-round zero-knowledge argument with $\mathcal{O}(C^{1/2})$ communication and common random string length, improving over the state of the art that has linear-size common random string and requires heavier computation.
-We improve the communication of a designated $n$-verifier zero-knowledge proof from $\mathcal{O}(nC/B+n^2B^2)$ to $\mathcal{O}(nC/B+n^2)$.
To demonstrate the scalability of our compilers, we were able to extract a commit-and-prove SIMD ZK from Ligero and cast it in our framework. We also give one instantiation derived from LegoSNARK, demonstrating that the idea of CP-SNARK also fits in our methodology.

ZIPNet: Low-bandwidth anonymous broadcast from (dis)Trusted Execution Environments

Anonymous Broadcast Channels (ABCs) allow a group of clients to announce messages without revealing the exact author. Modern ABCs operate in a client-server model, where anonymity depends on some threshold (e.g., 1 of 2) of servers being honest. ABCs are an important application in their own right, e.g., for activism and whistleblowing. Recent work on ABCs (Riposte, Blinder) has focused on minimizing the bandwidth cost to clients and servers when supporting large broadcast channels for such applications. But, particularly for low bandwidth settings, they impose large costs on servers, make cover traffic costly, and make volunteer operators unlikely.
In this paper, we describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of ZIPNet, an anonymous broadcast channel that 1) scales to hundreds of anytrust servers by minimizing the computational costs of each server, 2) substantially reduces the servers’ bandwidth costs by outsourcing the aggregation of client messages to untrusted (for privacy) infrastructure, and 3) supports cover traffic that is both cheap for clients to produce and for servers to handle.

A Spectral Analysis of Noise: A Comprehensive, Automated, Formal Analysis of Diffie-Hellman Protocols

The Noise specification describes how to systematically construct a large family of Diffie-Hellman based key exchange protocols, including the secure transports used by WhatsApp, Lightning, and WireGuard. As the specification only makes informal security claims, earlier work has explored which formal security properties may be enjoyed by protocols in the Noise framework, yet many important questions remain open.
In this work we provide the most comprehensive, systematic analysis of the Noise framework to date. We start from first principles and, using an automated analysis tool, compute the strongest threat model under which a protocol is secure, thus enabling formal comparison between protocols. Our results allow us to objectively and automatically associate each informal security level presented in the Noise specification with a formal security claim.
We also provide a fine-grained separation of Noise protocols that were previously described as offering similar security properties, revealing a subclass for which alternative Noise protocols exist that offer strictly better security guarantees. Our analysis also uncovers missing assumptions in the Noise specification and some surprising consequences, e.g. in some situations higher security levels yield strictly worse security.

SIGNITC: Supersingular Isogeny Graph Non-Interactive Timed Commitments

Non-Interactive Timed Commitment schemes (NITC) allow to open any commitment after a specified delay $t_{\mathrm{fd}}$ . This is useful for sealed bid auctions and as primitive for more complex protocols. We present the first NITC without repeated squaring or theoretical black box algorithms like NIZK proofs or one-way functions. It has fast verification, almost arbitrary delay and satisfies IND-CCA hiding and perfect binding. Additionally, it needs no trusted setup. Our protocol is based on isogenies between supersingular elliptic curves making it presumably quantum secure, and all algorithms have been implemented as part of SQISign or other well-known isogeny-based cryptosystems.

The syzygy distinguisher

We present a new distinguisher for alternant and Goppa codes, whose complexity is subexponential in the error-correcting capability, hence better than that of generic decoding algorithms. Moreover it does not suffer from the strong regime limitations of the previous distinguishers or structure recovery algorithms: in particular, it applies to the codes used in the Classic McEliece candidate for postquantum cryptography standardization. The invariants that allow us to distinguish are graded Betti numbers of the homogeneous coordinate ring of a shortening of the dual code.
Since its introduction in 1978, this is the first time an analysis of the McEliece cryptosystem breaks the exponential barrier.