Papers updated in last 365 days (2743 results)

Last updated:  2024-06-16
Unclonable Secret Sharing
Prabhanjan Ananth, Vipul Goyal, Jiahui Liu, and Qipeng Liu
Unclonable cryptography utilizes the principles of quantum mechanics to addresses cryptographic tasks that are impossible classically. We introduce a novel unclonable primitive in the context of secret sharing, called unclonable secret sharing (USS). In a USS scheme, there are $n$ shareholders, each holding a share of a classical secret represented as a quantum state. They can recover the secret once all parties (or at least $t$ parties) come together with their shares. Importantly, it should be infeasible to copy their own shares and send the copies to two non-communicating parties, enabling both of them to recover the secret. Our work initiates a formal investigation into the realm of unclonable secret sharing, shedding light on its implications, constructions, and inherent limitations. ** Connections: We explore the connections between USS and other quantum cryptographic primitives such as unclonable encryption and position verification, showing the difficulties to achieve USS in different scenarios. **Limited Entanglement: In the case where the adversarial shareholders do not share any entanglement or limited entanglement, we demonstrate information-theoretic constructions for USS. **Large Entanglement: If we allow the adversarial shareholders to have unbounded entanglement resources (and unbounded computation), we prove that unclonable secret sharing is impossible. On the other hand, in the quantum random oracle model where the adversary can only make a bounded polynomial number of queries, we show a construction secure even with unbounded entanglement. Furthermore, even when these adversaries possess only a polynomial amount of entanglement resources, we establish that any unclonable secret sharing scheme with a reconstruction function implementable using Cliffords and logarithmically many T-gates is also unattainable.
Last updated:  2024-06-16
Cryptanalysis of QARMAv2
Hosein Hadipour and Yosuke Todo
QARMAv2 is a general-purpose and hardware-oriented family of lightweight tweakable block ciphers (TBCs) introduced in ToSC 2023. QARMAv2, as a redesign of QARMAv1 with a longer tweak and tighter security margins, is also designed to be suitable for cryptographic memory protection and control flow integrity. The designers of QARMAv2 provided a relatively comprehensive security analysis in the design specification, e.g., some bounds for the number of attacked rounds in differential and boomerang analysis, together with some concrete impossible differential, zero-correlation, and integral distinguishers. As one of the first third-party cryptanalysis of QARMAv2, Hadipour et al. significantly improved the integral distinguishers of QARMAv2, and provided the longest concrete distinguishers of QARMAv2 up to now. However, they provided no key recovery attack based on their distinguishers. This paper delves into the cryptanalysis of QARMAv2 to enhance our understanding of its security. Given that the integral distinguishers of QARMAv2 are the longest concrete distinguishers for this cipher so far, we focus on integral attack. To this end, we first further improve the automatic tool introduced by Hadipour et al. for finding integral distinguishers of TBCs following the TWEAKEY framework. This new tool exploits the MixColumns property of QARMAv2 to find integral distinguishers more suitable for key recovery attacks. Then, we combine several techniques for integral key recovery attacks, e.g., Meet-in-the-middle and partial-sum techniques to build a fine-grained integral key recovery attack on QARMAv2. Notably, we demonstrate how to leverage the low data complexity of the integral distinguishers of QARMAv2 to reduce the memory complexity of the meet-in-the-middle technique. As a result, we successfully present the first concrete key recovery attacks on reduced-round versions of QARMAv2. This includes attacking 13 rounds of QARMAv2-64-128 with a single tweak block ($\mathscr{T} = 1$), 14 rounds of QARMAv2-64-128 with two independent tweak blocks ($\mathscr{T} = 2$), and 16 rounds of QARMAv2-128-256 with two independent tweak blocks ($\mathscr{T} = 2$), all in an unbalanced setting. Our attacks do not compromise the claimed security of QARMAv2, but they shed more light on the cryptanalysis of this cipher.
Last updated:  2024-06-16
Finding the Impossible: Automated Search for Full Impossible-Differential, Zero-Correlation, and Integral Attacks
Hosein Hadipour, Sadegh Sadeghi, and Maria Eichlseder
Impossible differential (ID), zero-correlation (ZC), and integral attacks are a family of important attacks on block ciphers. For example, the impossible differential attack was the first cryptanalytic attack on 7 rounds of AES. Evaluating the security of block ciphers against these attacks is very important but also challenging: Finding these attacks usually implies a combinatorial optimization problem involving many parameters and constraints that is very hard to solve using manual approaches. Automated solvers, such as Constraint Programming (CP) solvers, can help the cryptanalyst to find suitable attacks. However, previous CP-based methods focus on finding only the ID, ZC, and integral distinguishers, often only in a limited search space. Notably, none can be extended to a unified optimization problem for finding full attacks, including efficient key-recovery steps. In this paper, we present a new CP-based method to search for ID, ZC, and integral distinguishers and extend it to a unified constraint optimization problem for finding full ID, ZC, and integral attacks. To show the effectiveness and usefulness of our method, we applied it to several block ciphers, including SKINNY, CRAFT, SKINNYe-v2, and SKINNYee. For the ISO standard block cipher SKINNY, we significantly improve all existing ID, ZC, and integral attacks. In particular, we improve the integral attacks on SKINNY-$n$-$3n$ and SKINNY-$n$-$2n$ by 3 and 2 rounds, respectively, obtaining the best cryptanalytic results on these variants in the single-key setting. We improve the ZC attack on SKINNY-$n$-$n$ (SKINNY-$n$-$2n$) by 2 (resp. 1) rounds. We also improve the ID attacks on all variants of SKINNY. Particularly, we improve the time complexity of the best previous single-tweakey (related-tweakey) ID attack on SKINNY-$128$-$256$ (resp. SKINNY-$128$-$384$) by a factor of $2^{22.57}$ (resp. $2^{15.39}$). On CRAFT, we propose a 21-round (20-round) ID (resp. ZC) attack, which improves the best previous single-tweakey attack by 2 (resp. 1) rounds. Using our new model, we also provide several practical integral distinguishers for reduced-round SKINNY, CRAFT, and Deoxys-BC. Our method is generic and applicable to other strongly aligned block ciphers.
Last updated:  2024-06-16
Autoguess: A Tool for Finding Guess-and-Determine Attacks and Key Bridges
Hosein Hadipour and Maria Eichlseder
The guess-and-determine technique is one of the most widely used techniques in cryptanalysis to recover unknown variables in a given system of relations. In such attacks, a subset of the unknown variables is guessed such that the remaining unknowns can be deduced using the information from the guessed variables and the given relations. This idea can be applied in various areas of cryptanalysis such as finding the internal state of stream ciphers when a sufficient amount of output data is available, or recovering the internal state and the secret key of a block cipher from very few known plaintexts. Another important application is the key-bridging technique in key-recovery attacks on block ciphers, where the attacker aims to find the minimum number of required sub-key guesses to deduce all involved sub-keys via the key schedule. Since the complexity of the guess-and-determine technique directly depends on the number of guessed variables, it is essential to find the smallest possible guess basis, i.e., the subset of guessed variables from which the remaining variables can be deduced. In this paper, we present Autoguess, an easy-to-use general tool to search for a minimal guess basis. We propose several new modeling techniques to harness SAT/SMT, MILP, and Gröbner basis solvers. We demonstrate their usefulness in guess-and-determine attacks on stream ciphers and block ciphers, as well as finding key-bridges in key recovery attacks on block ciphers. Moreover, integrating our CP models for the key-bridging technique into the previous CP-based frameworks to search for distinguishers, we propose a unified and general CP model to search for key recovery friendly distinguishers which supports both linear and nonlinear key schedules.
Last updated:  2024-06-16
Dumbo-MVBA: Optimal Multi-valued Validated Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement, Revisited
Yuan Lu, Zhenliang Lu, Qiang Tang, and Guiling Wang
Multi-valued validated asynchronous Byzantine agreement (MVBA), proposed in the elegant work of Cachin et al. (CRYPTO '01), is fundamental for critical fault-tolerant services such as atomic broadcast in the asynchronous network. It was left as an open problem to asymptotically reduce the $O(ln^2+n^2*lambda+n^3)$ communication (where $n$ is the number of parties, $l$ is the input length, and $lambda$ is the security parameter). Recently, Abraham et al. (PODC '19) removed the $n^3$ term to partially answer the question when input is small. However, in other typical cases, e.g., building atomic broadcast through MVBA, the input length $l >= n*lambda$, and thus the communication is dominated by the $ln^2$ term and the problem raised by Cachin et al. remains open. We fill the gap and answer the remaining part of the above open problem. In particular, we present two MVBA protocols with $O(ln+n^2*lambda)$ communicated bits, which is optimal when $l >= n*lambda$. We also maintain other benefits including optimal resilience to tolerate up to $n/3$ adaptive Byzantine corruptions, optimal expected constant running time, and optimal $O(n^2)$ messages. At the core of our design, we propose asynchronous provable dispersal broadcast (APDB) in which each input can be split and dispersed to every party and later recovered in an efficient way. Leveraging APDB and asynchronous binary agreement, we design an optimal MVBA protocol, Dumbo-MVBA; we also present a general self-bootstrap framework Dumbo-MVBA* to reduce the communication of any existing MVBA protocols. Finally, we demonstrate an enticing application of our $\mathsf{MVBA}$ protocols to construct expected constant-round asynchronous common subset ($\mathsf{ACS}$) with only $\mathcal{O}(\ell n^2 +\lambda n^2)$ communication complexity in expect, where $\ell$ is the input length of $\mathsf{ACS}$ represented in bits. The resulting $\mathsf{ACS}$ has asymptotically optimal communication cost when $\ell\geq\lambda$ and might have a broad array of applications like asynchronous atomic broadcasts or asynchronous multi-party computation.
Last updated:  2024-06-15
AE Robustness as Indistinguishable Decryption Leakage under Multiple Failure Conditions
Ganyuan Cao
Robustness has emerged as a critical criterion for authenticated encryption, alongside confidentiality and integrity. In this study, we revisit the robustness of AEAD by focusing on descriptive errors. We introduce a new notion, IND-CCLA, to formalize this robustness. IND-CCLA expands on classical security notions defined for AEAD by incorporating the indistinguishability of leakage resulting from decryp- tion failures, including text-based values and descriptive error messages, especially in scenarios with multiple failure conditions. Through this notion, we investigate the discrepancy between a single-error decryption function and the actual leakage occurring during decryption. We introduce the concept of error unicity, which ensures that only one error is re- vealed—whether explicitly through decryption or implicitly through leakage—even when multiple failure conditions exist. Following this notion, we aim to mitigate the security risks associated with disclosing multiple errors through leakage and to maintain security even if one of the failure checks is flawed or compromised by an adversary. This notion captures the security of the scheme’s actual implementation, taking into account scenarios where an adversary might exploit side channels or implementation-level attacks to bypass the failure checks. We further extend this notion to IND-sf-CCLA to address stateful security involving out-of-order ciphertexts. We provide a concrete proof of the robustness of the Encode- then-Encipher ($\textsf{EtE}$) paradigm using our notions, demonstrating its ability to handle multiple failure conditions. We show the practical relevance of our notions by briefly discussing the non-malleability when a scheme is partially compromised and revisiting generic compositions for AE from this point. Additionally, we briefly present a transformation from our notion to a simulatable one, supporting future research on composable security regarding decryption leakage.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
Algorithm Substitution Attacks on Public Functions
Mihir Bellare, Doreen Riepel, and Laura Shea
We study the possibility of algorithm substitution attacks (ASAs) on functions with no secret-key material, such as hash functions, and verification algorithms of signature schemes and proof systems. We consider big-brother's goal to be three-fold: It desires utility (it can break the scheme), exclusivity (nobody else can) and undetectability (outsiders can't detect its presence). We start with a general setting in which big-brother is aiming to subvert an arbitrary public function. We give, in this setting, strong definitions for the three goals. We then present a general construction of an ASA, and prove that it meets these definitions. We use this to derive, as applications, ASAs on hash functions, signature schemes and proof systems. As a further application of the first two, we give an ASA on X.509 certificates. While ASAs were traditionally confined to exfiltrating secret keys, our work shows that they are possible and effective at subverting public functions where there are no keys to exfiltrate. Our constructions serve to help defenders and developers identify potential attacks by illustrating how they might be built.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
Extending class group action attacks via pairings
Joseph Macula and Katherine E. Stange
We introduce a new tool for the study of isogeny-based cryptography, namely pairings which are sesquilinear (conjugate linear) with respect to the $\mathcal{O}$-module structure of an elliptic curve with CM by an imaginary quadratic order $\mathcal{O}$. We use these pairings to study the security of problems based on the class group action on collections of oriented ordinary or supersingular elliptic curves. This extends work of of both (Castryck, Houben, Merz, Mula, Buuren, Vercauteren, 2023) and (De Feo, Fouotsa, Panny, 2024).
Last updated:  2024-06-14
CheckOut: User-Controlled Anonymization for Customer Loyalty Programs
Matthew Gregoire, Rachel Thomas, and Saba Eskandarian
To resist the regimes of ubiquitous surveillance imposed upon us in every facet of modern life, we need technological tools that subvert surveillance systems. Unfortunately, while cryptographic tools frequently demonstrate how we can construct systems that safeguard user privacy, there is limited motivation for corporate entities engaged in surveillance to adopt these tools, as they often clash with profit incentives. This paper demonstrates how, in one particular aspect of everyday life -- customer loyalty programs -- users can subvert surveillance and attain anonymity, without necessitating any cooperation or modification in the behavior of their surveillors. We present the CheckOut system, which allows users to coordinate large anonymity sets of shoppers to hide the identity and purchasing habits of each particular user in the crowd. CheckOut scales up and systematizes past efforts to subvert loyalty surveillance, which have been primarily ad-hoc and manual affairs where customers physically swap loyalty cards to mask their real identities. CheckOut allows increased scale while ensuring that the necessary computing infrastructure does not itself become a new centralized point of privacy failure. Of particular importance to our scheme is a protocol for loyalty programs that offer reward points, where we demonstrate how CheckOut can assist users in paying each other back for loyalty points accrued while using each others' loyalty accounts. We present two different mechanisms to facilitate redistributing rewards points, offering trade-offs in functionality, performance, and security.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
Hintless Single-Server Private Information Retrieval
Baiyu Li, Daniele Micciancio, Mariana Raykova, and Mark Schultz-Wu
We present two new constructions for private information retrieval (PIR) in the classical setting where the clients do not need to do any preprocessing or store any database dependent information, and the server does not need to store any client-dependent information. Our first construction (HintlessPIR) eliminates the client preprocessing step from the recent LWE-based SimplePIR (Henzinger et. al., USENIX Security 2023) by outsourcing the "hint" related computation to the server, leveraging a new concept of homomorphic encryption with composable preprocessing. We realize this concept with RLWE encryption schemes, and by leveraging the composibility of this technique we are able to preprocess almost all the expensive parts of the homomorphic computation and reuse them across multiple protocol executions. As a concrete application, we propose highly efficient matrix vector multiplication that allows us to build HintlessPIR. For a database of size 8GB, HintlessPIR achieves throughput about 6.37GB/s without requiring transmission of any client or server state. We additionally formalize the matrix vector multiplication protocol as a novel primitive that we call LinPIR, which may be of independent interest. In our second construction (TensorPIR) we reduce the communication of HintlessPIR from square root to cubic root in the database size. For this purpose we extend our HE with preprocessing techniques to composition of key-switching keys and the query expansion algorithm. We show how to use RLWE encryption with preprocessing to outsource LWE decryption for ciphertexts generated by homomorphic multiplications. This allows the server to do more complex processing using a more compact query under LWE. We implement and benchmark HintlessPIR which achieves better concrete costs than TensorPIR for a large set of databases of interest. We show that it improves the communication of recent preprocessing constructions when clients do not have large numbers of queries or the database updates frequently. The computation cost for removing the hint is small and decreases as the database becomes larger, and it is always more efficient than other constructions with client hints such as Spiral PIR (Menon and Wu, S&P 2022). In the setting of anonymous queries we also improve on Spiral's communication.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
Nopenena Untraceable Payments: Defeating Graph Analysis with Small Decoy Sets
Jayamine Alupotha, Mathieu Gestin, and Christian Cachin
Decentralized payments have evolved from using pseudonymous identifiers to much more elaborate mechanisms to ensure privacy. They can shield the amounts in payments and achieve untraceability, e.g., decoy-based untraceable payments use decoys to obfuscate the actual asset sender or asset receiver. There are two types of decoy-based payments: full decoy set payments that use all other available users as decoys, e.g., Zerocoin, Zerocash, and ZCash, and user-defined decoy set payments where the users select small decoy sets from available users, e.g., Monero, Zether, and QuisQuis. Existing decoy-based payments face at least two of the following problems: (1) degrading untraceability due to the possibility of payment-graph analysis in user-defined decoy payments, (2) trusted setup, (3) availability issues due to expiring transactions in full decoy sets and epochs, and (4) an ever-growing set of unspent outputs since transactions keep generating outputs without saying which ones are spent. QuisQuis is the first one to solve all these problems; however, QuisQuis requires large cryptographic proofs for validity. We introduce Nopenena (means ``cannot see''): account-based, confidential, and user-defined decoy set payment protocol, that has short proofs and also avoids these four issues. Additionally, Nopenena can be integrated with zero-knowledge contracts like Zether's $\Sigma-$Bullets and Confidential Integer Processing (CIP) to build decentralized applications. Nopenena payments are about 80% smaller than QuisQuis payments due to Nopenena's novel cryptographic protocol. Therefore, decentralized systems benefit from Nopenena's untraceability and efficiency.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
Solving the Tensor Isomorphism Problem for special orbits with low rank points: Cryptanalysis and repair of an Asiacrypt 2023 commitment scheme
Valerie Gilchrist, Laurane Marco, Christophe Petit, and Gang Tang
The Tensor Isomorphism Problem (TIP) has been shown to be equivalent to the matrix code equivalence problem, making it an interesting candidate on which to build post-quantum cryptographic primitives. These hard problems have already been used in protocol development. One of these, MEDS, is currently in Round 1 of NIST's call for additional post-quantum digital signatures. In this work, we consider the TIP for a special class of tensors. The hardness of the decisional version of this problem is the foundation of a commitment scheme proposed by D'Alconzo, Flamini, and Gangemi (Asiacrypt 2023). We present polynomial-time algorithms for the decisional and computational versions of TIP for special orbits, which implies that the commitment scheme is not secure. The key observations of these algorithms are that these special tensors contain some low-rank points, and their stabilizer groups are not trivial. With these new developments in the security of TIP in mind, we give a new commitment scheme based on the general TIP that is non-interactive, post-quantum, and statistically binding, making no new assumptions. Such a commitment scheme does not currently exist in the literature.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
Information-Theoretic 2-Party Computation from Additive Somewhat Homomorphic Encryption
Jonathan Trostle
Two-party computation has been an active area of research since Yao's breakthrough results on garbled circuits. We present secret key additive somewhat homomorphic schemes where the client has perfect privacy (server can be computationally unbounded). Our basic scheme is additive somewhat homomorphic and we give protocols to handle addition and multiplication. In one scheme, the server handles circuit multiplication gates by returning the multiplicands to the client which does the multiplication and sends back the encrypted product. We give a 2-party protocol that also incorporates server inputs where the client has perfect privacy. Server privacy is not information-theoretic, but rather depends on hardness of the subset sum problem. Correctness for the server in the malicious model can be verified by a 3rd party with high probability where the client and server privacy are information-theoretically protected from the verifier. Scaling the 2PC protocol via separate encryption parameters for smaller subcircuits allows the ciphertext size to remain constant as circuit size grows.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
MixBuy: Contingent Payment in the Presence of Coin Mixers
Diego Castejon-Molina, Dimitrios Vasilopoulos, and Pedro Moreno-Sanchez
A contingent payment protocol involves two mutually distrustful parties, a buyer and a seller, operating on the same blockchain, and a digital product, whose ownership is not tracked on a blockchain (e.g. a digital book, but not a NFT). The buyer holds coins on the blockchain and transfers them to the seller in exchange for the product. However, if the blockchain does not hide transaction details, any observer can learn that a buyer purchased some product from a seller. In this work, we take contingent payment a step further: we consider a buyer who wishes to buy a digital product from a seller routing the payment via an untrusted mixer. Crucially, we require that said payment is unlinkable, meaning that the mixer (or any other observer) does not learn which buyer is paying which seller. We refer to such setting as unlinkable contingent payment (UCP). We present MixBuy, a system that realizes UCP. Mixbuy relies on \emph{oracle-based unlinkable contingent payment} (O-UCP), a novel four-party cryptographic protocol where the mixer pays the seller and the seller provides the buyer with the product only if a semi-trusted notary attests that the buyer has paid the mixer. More specifically, we require four security notions: (i) mixer security that guarantees that if the mixer pays the seller, the intermediary must get paid from the buyer; (ii) seller security that guarantees that if the seller delivers the product to the buyer, the seller must get paid from the intermediary; (iii) buyer security that guarantees that if the buyer pays the intermediary, the buyer must obtain the product; and (iv) unlinkability that guarantees that given a set of buyers and sellers, the intermediary should not learn which buyer paid which seller. We present a provably secure and efficient cryptographic construction for O-UCP. Our construction can be readily used to realize UCP on most blockchains, as it has minimal functionality requirements (i.e., digital signatures and timelocks). To demonstrate the practicality of our construction, we provide a proof of concept for O-UCP and our benchmarks in commodity hardware show that the communication overhead is small (a few kB per message) and the running time is below one second.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
SNARGs under LWE via Propositional Proofs
Zhengzhong Jin, Yael Tauman Kalai, Alex Lombardi, and Vinod Vaikuntanathan
We construct a succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) system for every NP language $\mathcal{L}$ that has a propositional proof of non-membership for each $x\notin \mathcal{L}$. The soundness of our SNARG system relies on the hardness of the learning with errors (LWE) problem. The common reference string (CRS) in our construction grows with the space required to verify the propositional proof, and the size of the proof grows poly-logarithmically in the length of the propositional proof. Unlike most of the literature on SNARGs, our result implies SNARGs for languages $\mathcal L$ with proof length shorter than logarithmic in the deterministic time complexity of $\mathcal L$. Our SNARG improves over prior SNARGs for such ``hard'' NP languages (Sahai and Waters, STOC 2014, Jain and Jin, FOCS 2022) in several ways: - For languages with polynomial-length propositional proofs of non-membership, our SNARGs are based on a single, polynomial-time falsifiable assumption, namely LWE. - Our construction handles propositional proofs of super-polynomial length, as long as they have bounded space, under the subexponential LWE assumption. - Our SNARGs have a transparent setup, meaning that no private randomness is required to generate the CRS. Moreover, our approach departs dramatically from these prior works: we show how to design SNARGs for hard languages without publishing a program (in the CRS) that has the power to verify $\mathsf{NP}$ witnesses. The key new idea in our cryptographic construction is what we call a ``locally unsatisfiable extension'' of the $\mathsf{NP}$ verification circuit $\{C_x\}_x$. We say that an $\mathsf{NP}$ verifier has a locally unsatisfiable extension if for every $x\not\in \mathcal L$, there exists an extension $E_x$ of $C_x$ that is not even locally satisfiable in the sense of a local assignment generator [Paneth-Rothblum, TCC 2017]. Crucially, we allow $E_x$ to be depend arbitrarily on $x$ rather than being efficiently constructible. In this work, we show -- via a ``hash-and-BARG'' for a hidden, encrypted computation -- how to build SNARGs for all languages with locally unsatisfiable extensions. We additionally show that propositional proofs of unsatisfiability generically imply the existence of locally unsatisfiable extensions, which allows us to deduce our main results. As an illustrative example, our results imply a SNARG for the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) language under the LWE assumption.
Last updated:  2024-06-14
ElectionGuard: a Cryptographic Toolkit to Enable Verifiable Elections
Josh Benaloh, Michael Naehrig, Olivier Pereira, and Dan S. Wallach
ElectionGuard is a flexible set of open-source tools that---when used with traditional election systems---can produce end-to-end verifiable elections whose integrity can be verified by observers, candidates, media, and even voters themselves. ElectionGuard has been integrated into a variety of systems and used in actual public U.S. elections in Wisconsin, California, Idaho, Utah, and Maryland as well as in caucus elections in the U.S. Congress. It has also been used for civic voting in the Paris suburb of Neuilly-sur-Seine and for an online election by a Switzerland/Denmark-based organization. The principal innovation of ElectionGuard is the separation of the cryptographic tools from the core mechanics and user interfaces of voting systems. This separation allows the cryptography to be designed and built by security experts without having to re-invent and replace the existing infrastructure. Indeed, in its preferred deployment, ElectionGuard does not replace the existing vote counting infrastructure but instead runs alongside and produces its own independently-verifiable tallies. Although much of the cryptography in ElectionGuard is, by design, not novel, some significant innovations are introduced which greatly simplify the process of verification. This paper describes the design of ElectionGuard, its innovations, and many of the learnings from its implementation and growing number of real-world deployments.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Scalable Private Set Union, with Stronger Security
Yanxue Jia, Shi-Feng Sun, Hong-Sheng Zhou, and Dawu Gu
Private Set Union (PSU) protocol allows parties, each holding an input set, to jointly compute the union of the sets without revealing anything else. In the literature, scalable PSU protocols follow the “split-execute-assemble” paradigm (Kolesnikov et al., ASIACRYPT 2019); in addition, those fast protocols often use Oblivious Transfer as building blocks. Kolesnikov et al. (ASIACRYPT 2019) and Jia et al. (USENIX Security 2022), pointed out that certain security issues can be introduced in the “split-execute-assemble” paradigm. In this work, surprisingly, we observe that the typical way of invoking Oblivious Transfer also causes unnecessary leakage, and only the PSU protocols based on additively homomorphic encryption (AHE) can avoid the leakage. However, the AHE-based PSU protocols are far from being practical. To bridge the gap, we also design a new PSU protocol that can avoid the unnecessary leakage. Unlike the AHE-based PSU protocols, our new construction only relies on symmetric-key operations other than base OTs, thereby being much more scalable. The experimental results demonstrate that our protocol can obtain at least 873.74× speedup over the best-performing AHE-based scheme. Moreover, our performance is comparable to that of the state-of-the-art PSU protocol (Chen et al., USENIX Security 2023), which also suffers from the unnecessary leakage.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Length Leakage in Oblivious Data Access Mechanisms
Grace Jia, Rachit Agarwal, and Anurag Khandelwal
This paper explores the problem of preventing length leakage in oblivious data access mechanisms with passive persistent adversaries. We show that designing mechanisms that prevent both length leakage and access pattern leakage requires navigating a three-way tradeoff between storage footprint, bandwidth footprint, and the information leaked to the adversary. We establish powerful lower bounds on achievable storage and bandwidth footprints for a variety of leakage profiles, and present constructions that perfectly or near-perfectly match the lower bounds.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Arithmetisation of computation via polynomial semantics for first-order logic
Murdoch J. Gabbay
We propose a compositional shallow translation from a first-order logic with equality, into polynomials; that is, we arithmetise the semantics of first-order logic. Using this, we can translate specifications of mathematically structured programming into polynomials, in a form amenable to succinct cryptographic verification. We give worked example applications, and we propose a proof-of-concept succinct verification scheme based on inner product arguments.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Distributed Fiat-Shamir Transform: from Threshold Identification Protocols to Signatures
Michele Battagliola and Andrea Flamini
The recent surge of distribute technologies caused an increasing interest towards threshold signature protocols, that peaked with the recent NIST First Call for Multi-Party Threshold Schemes. Since its introduction, the Fiat-Shamir Transform has been the most popular way to design standard digital signature schemes. Many threshold signature schemes are designed in a way that recalls the structure of digital signatures created using Fiat Shamir, by having the signers generate a common commitment, compute the challenge as the hash of it, and then jointly create the response. In this work we formalize this approach. In particular we introduce the notion of threshold identification scheme and threshold sigma protocol. Next, we introduce the concept of generalized Fiat-Shamir transform, that links the security of the threshold signature with the underlying threshold identification protocol. Our framework seeks to be an alternative, easier way to design concurrently secure threshold digital signatures and we show its potentiality providing an alternative security proof for Sparkle, a recent threshold Schnorr signature, and GRASS, a full threshold signature based on cryptographic group actions.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Critical Perspectives on Provable Security: Fifteen Years of "Another Look" Papers
Uncategorized
Neal Koblitz and Alfred Menezes
Show abstract
Uncategorized
We give an overview of our critiques of “proofs” of security and a guide to our papers on the subject that have appeared over the past decade and a half. We also provide numerous additional examples and a few updates and errata.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Pairing-Free Blind Signatures from Standard Assumptions in the ROM
Julia Kastner, Ky Nguyen, and Michael Reichle
Blind Signatures are a useful primitive for privacy preserving applications such as electronic payments, e-voting, anonymous credentials, and more. However, existing practical blind signature schemes based on standard assumptions require either pairings or lattices. We present the first practical construction of a round-optimal blind signature in the random oracle model based on standard assumptions without resorting to pairings or lattices. In particular, our construction is secure under the strong RSA assumption and DDH (in pairing-free groups). For our construction, we provide a NIZK-friendly signature based on strong RSA, and efficiently instantiate a variant of Fischlin's generic framework (CRYPTO'06). Our Blind Signature scheme has signatures of size 4.28 KB and communication cost 10.98 KB. On the way, we develop techniques that might be of independent interest. In particular, we provide efficient \emph{relaxed} range-proofs for large ranges with subversion zero-knowledge and compact commitments to elements of arbitrary groups.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Communication Complexity vs Randomness Complexity in Interactive Proofs
Benny Applebaum, Kaartik Bhushan, and Manoj Prabhakaran
In this note, we study the interplay between the communication from a verifier in a general private-coin interactive protocol and the number of random bits it uses in the protocol. Under worst-case derandomization assumptions, we show that it is possible to transform any $I$-round interactive protocol that uses $\rho$ random bits into another one for the same problem with the additional property that the verifier's communication is bounded by $O(I\cdot \rho)$. Importantly, this is done with a minor, logarithmic, increase in the communication from the prover to the verifier and while preserving the randomness complexity. Along the way, we introduce a new compression game between computationally-bounded compressor and computationally-unbounded decompressor and a new notion of conditioned efficient distributions that may be of independent interest. Our solutions are based on a combination of perfect hashing and pseudorandom generators.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Adaptively Secure BLS Threshold Signatures from DDH and co-CDH
Sourav Das and Ling Ren
Threshold signatures are one of the most important cryptographic primitives in distributed systems. A popular choice of threshold signature scheme is the BLS threshold signature introduced by Boldyreva (PKC'03). Some attractive properties of Boldyreva's threshold signature are that the signatures are unique and short, the signing process is non-interactive, and the verification process is identical to that of non-threshold BLS. These properties have resulted in its practical adoption in several decentralized systems. However, despite its popularity and wide adoption, up until recently, the Boldyreva scheme has been proven secure only against a static adversary. Very recently, Bacho and Loss (CCS'22) presented the first proof of adaptive security for the Boldyreva scheme, but they have to rely on strong and non-standard assumptions such as the hardness of one-more discrete log (OMDL) and the Algebraic Group Model~(AGM). In this paper, we present the first adaptively secure threshold BLS signature scheme that relies on the hardness of DDH and co-CDH in asymmetric pairing groups in the Random Oracle Model~(ROM). Our signature scheme also has non-interactive signing, compatibility with non-threshold BLS verification, and practical efficiency like Boldyreva's scheme. These properties make our protocol a suitable candidate for practical adoption with the added benefit of provable adaptive security.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Improved Search for Integral, Impossible-Differential and Zero-Correlation Attacks: Application to Ascon, ForkSKINNY, SKINNY, MANTIS, PRESENT and QARMAv2
Hosein Hadipour, Simon Gerhalter, Sadegh Sadeghi, and Maria Eichlseder
Integral, impossible-differential (ID), and zero-correlation (ZC) attacks are three of the most important attacks on block ciphers. However, manually finding these attacks can be a daunting task, which is why automated methods are becoming increasingly important. Most automatic tools regarding integral, ZC, and ID attacks have focused only on finding distinguishers rather than complete attacks. At EUROCRYPT 2023, Hadipour et al. proposed a generic and efficient constraint programming (CP) model based on satisfiability for finding ID, ZC, and integral distinguishers. This new model can be extended to a unified CP model for finding full key recovery attacks. However, it has limitations, including determining the contradiction location beforehand and a cell-wise model unsuitable for weakly aligned ciphers like Ascon and PRESENT. They also deferred developing a CP model for the partial-sum technique in key recovery as future work. In this paper, we enhance Hadipour et al.'s method in several ways. First, we remove the limitation of determining the contradiction location in advance. Second, we show how to extend the distinguisher model to a bit-wise model, considering the internal structure of S-boxes and keeping the model based on satisfiability. Third, we introduce a CP model for the partial-sum technique for the first time. To show the usefulness and versatility of our approach, we apply it to various designs, from strongly aligned ones like ForkSKINNY and QARMAv2 to weakly aligned ones such as Ascon and PRESENT, yielding significantly improved results. To mention a few of our results, we improve the integral distinguisher of QARMAv2-128 (resp. QARMAv2-64) by 7 (resp. 5) rounds, and the integral distinguisher of ForkSKINNY by 1 round, only thanks to our cell-wise distinguishe modelings. By using our new bit-wise modeling, our tool can find a group of $2^{155}$ 5-round ID and ZC distinguishers for Ascon in only one run, taking a few minutes on a regular laptop. The new CP model for the partial-sum technique enhances integral attacks on all SKINNY variants, notably improving the best attack on SKINNY-$n$-$n$ in the single-key setting by 1 round. We also enhance ID attacks on ForkSKINNY and provide the first analysis of this cipher in a limited reduced-round setting. Our methods are generic and applicable to other block ciphers.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Notes on (failed) attempts to instantiate TLR3
Alexander Maximov
In this short paper we share our experience on instantiating the width-extension construct TLR3, based on a variety of tweakable block cipher constructs. As many of our attempts failed, we highlight the complexity of getting a practical tweakable block cipher and the gap between theory and practice.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Secret-Shared Shuffle with Malicious Security
Xiangfu Song, Dong Yin, Jianli Bai, Changyu Dong, and Ee-Chien Chang
A secret-shared shuffle (SSS) protocol permutes a secret-shared vector using a random secret permutation. It has found numerous applications, however, it is also an expensive operation and often a performance bottleneck. Chase et al. (Asiacrypt'20) recently proposed a highly efficient semi-honest two-party SSS protocol known as the CGP protocol. It utilizes purposely designed pseudorandom correlations that facilitate a communication-efficient online shuffle phase. That said, semi-honest security is insufficient in many real-world application scenarios since shuffle is usually used for highly sensitive applications. Considering this, recent works (CANS'21, NDSS'22) attempted to enhance the CGP protocol with malicious security over authenticated secret sharings. However, we find that these attempts are flawed, and malicious adversaries can still learn private information via malicious deviations. This is demonstrated with concrete attacks proposed in this paper. Then the question is how to fill the gap and design a maliciously secure CGP shuffle protocol. We answer this question by introducing a set of lightweight correlation checks and a leakage reduction mechanism. Then we apply our techniques with authenticated secret sharings to achieve malicious security. Notably, our protocol, while increasing security, is also efficient. In the two-party setting, experiment results show that our maliciously secure protocol introduces an acceptable overhead compared to its semi-honest version and is more efficient than the state-of-the-art maliciously secure SSS protocol from the MP-SPDZ library.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Efficient Quantum Algorithm for SUBSET-SUM Problem
Sanchita Ghosh, Anant Sharma, Sreetama Das, and Shibdas Roy
Problems in the complexity class $NP$ are not all known to be solvable, but are verifiable given the solution, in polynomial time by a classical computer. The complexity class $BQP$ includes all problems solvable in polynomial time by a quantum computer. Prime factorization is in $NP$ class, and is also in $BQP$ class, owing to Shor's algorithm. The hardest of all problems within the $NP$ class are called $NP$-complete. If a quantum algorithm can solve an $NP$-complete problem in polynomial time, it would imply that a quantum computer can solve all problems in $NP$ in polynomial time. Here, we present a polynomial-time quantum algorithm to solve an $NP$-complete variant of the $SUBSET-SUM$ problem, thereby, rendering $NP\subseteq BQP$. We illustrate that given a set of integers, which may be positive or negative, a quantum computer can decide in polynomial time whether there exists any subset that sums to zero. There are many real-world applications of our result, such as finding patterns efficiently in stock-market data, or in recordings of the weather or brain activity. As an example, the decision problem of matching two images in image processing is $NP$-complete, and can be solved in polynomial time, when amplitude amplification is not required.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
DISCO: Dynamic Searchable Encryption with Constant State
Xiangfu Song, Yu Zheng, Jianli Bai, Changyu Dong, Zheli Liu, and Ee-Chien Chang
Dynamic searchable encryption (DSE) with forward and backward privacy reduces leakages in early-stage schemes. Security enhancement comes with a price -- maintaining updatable keyword-wise state information. State information, if stored locally, incurs significant client-side storage overhead for keyword-rich datasets, potentially hindering real-world deployments. We propose DISCO, a simple and efficient framework for designing DSE schemes using constant client state. DISCO combines range-constrained pseudorandom functions (RCPRFs) over a global counter and leverages nice properties from the underlying primitives and index structure to simultaneously achieve forward-and-backward privacy and constant client state. To configure DISCO concretely, we identify a set of RCPRF properties that are vital for the resulting DISCO instantiations. By configuring DISCO with different RCPRFs, we resolve efficiency and usability issues in existing schemes. We further optimize DISCO's concrete efficiency without downgrading security. We implement DISCO constructions and report performance, showing trade-offs from different DISCO constructions. Besides, we compare the practical efficiency of DISCO with existing non-constant-state DSE schemes, demonstrating DISCO's competitive efficiency.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Return of the Kummer: a toolbox for genus 2 cryptography
Maria Corte-Real Santos and Krijn Reijnders
This work expands the machinery we have for isogeny-based cryptography in genus 2 by developing a toolbox of several essential algorithms for Kummer surfaces, the dimension 2 analogue of x-only arithmetic on elliptic curves. Kummer surfaces have been suggested in (hyper-)elliptic curve cryptography since at least the 1980s and recently these surfaces have reappeared to efficiently compute (2,2)-isogenies. We construct several essential analogues of techniques used in one-dimensional isogeny-based cryptography, such as pairings, deterministic point sampling and point compression and give an overview of (2,2)-isogenies on Kummer surfaces. We furthermore show how Scholten's construction can be used to transform isogeny-based cryptography over elliptic curves over $\mathbb{F}_{p^2}$ into protocols over Kummer surfaces over $\mathbb{F}_p$. As an example of this approach, we demonstrate that SQIsign verification can be performed completely on Kummer surfaces, and, therefore, that one-dimensional SQIsign verification can be viewed as a two-dimensional isogeny between products of elliptic curves. Curiously, the isogeny is then defined over $\mathbb{F}_p$ rather than $\mathbb{F}_{p^2}$. Contrary to expectation, the cost of SQIsign verification using Kummer surfaces does not explode: verification costs only 1.5 times more in terms of finite field operations than the SQIsign variant AprèsSQI, optimised for fast verification. Furthermore, as Kummer surfaces allow a much higher degree of parallelization, Kummer-based protocols over $\mathbb{F}_p$ could potentially outperform elliptic curve analogues over $\mathbb{F}_{p^2}$ in terms of clock cycles and actual performance.
Last updated:  2024-06-13
Efficient 2PC for Constant Round Secure Equality Testing and Comparison
Tianpei Lu, Xin Kang, Bingsheng Zhang, Zhuo Ma, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Yang Liu, and Kui Ren
Secure equality testing and comparison are two important primitives that have been widely used in many secure computation scenarios, such as privacy-preserving machine learning, private set intersection, secure data mining, etc. In this work, we propose new constant-round two-party computation (2PC) protocols for secure equality testing and secure comparison. Our protocols are designed in the online/offline paradigm. Theoretically, for 32-bit integers, the online communication for our equality testing is only 76 bits, and the cost for our secure comparison is only 384 bits.Our benchmarks show that (i) our equality is $9 \times$ faster than the Guo \emph{et al.} (EUROCRYPT 2023) and $15 \times$ of the garbled circuit scheme (EMP-toolkit). (ii) our secure comparison protocol is $3 \times$ faster than Guo et al.(EUROCRYPT 2023), $6 \times$ faster than both Rathee et al. (CCS 2020) and garbled circuit scheme.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
A Modular Approach to Registered ABE for Unbounded Predicates
Nuttapong Attrapadung and Junichi Tomida
Registered attribute-based encryption (Reg-ABE), introduced by Hohenberger et al. (Eurocrypt’23), emerges as a pivotal extension of attribute-based encryption (ABE), aimed at mitigating the key-escrow problem. Although several Reg-ABE schemes with black-box use of cryptography have been proposed so far, there remains a significant gap in the class of achievable predicates between vanilla ABE and Reg-ABE. To narrow this gap, we propose a modular framework for constructing Reg-ABE schemes for a broader class of predicates. Our framework is a Reg-ABE analog of the predicate transformation framework for ABE introduced by Attrapadung (Eurocrypt’19) and later refined by Attrapadung and Tomida (Asiacrypt’20) to function under the standard MDDH assumption. As immediate applications, our framework implies the following new Reg-ABE schemes under the standard MDDH assumption: – the first Reg-ABE scheme for (non-)monotone span programs with the traditional completely unbounded property. – the first Reg-ABE scheme for general non-monotone span programs (also with the completely unbounded property) as defined in the case of vanilla ABE by Attrapadung and Tomida (Asiacrypt’20). Here, the term “completely unbounded” signifies the absence of restrictions on attribute sets for users and policies associated with ciphertexts. From a technical standpoint, we first substantially modify pair encoding schemes (PES), originally devised for vanilla ABE by Attrapadung (Eurocrypt’14), to make them compatible with Reg-ABE. Subsequently, we present a series of predicate transformations through which we can construct complex predicates, particularly those with an “unbounded” characteristic, starting from simple ones. Finally, we define new properties of PES necessary for constructing Reg-ABE schemes and prove that these properties are preserved through the transformations. This immediately implies that we can obtain Reg-ABE schemes for any predicates derived via predicate transformations.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
CryptAttackTester: high-assurance attack analysis
Daniel J. Bernstein and Tung Chou
Quantitative analyses of the costs of cryptographic attack algorithms play a central role in comparing cryptosystems, guiding the search for improved attacks, and deciding which cryptosystems to standardize. Unfortunately, these analyses often turn out to be wrong. Sometimes errors are not caught until years later. This paper introduces CryptAttackTester (CAT), a software framework for high-assurance quantification of attack effectiveness. CAT enforces complete definitions of attack algorithms all the way down through the model of computation, enforces complete definitions of probability predictions and cost predictions all the way down through the cost metric, and systematically tests the predictions on small-scale inputs. For example, CAT gives a fully defined meaning to the statement "the median cost of brute-force search for an AES-128 key is under 2^{141.89} bit operations", and provides clear, auditable reasons to believe that the statement is correct. This does not rule out all possible analysis errors, but with CAT it is no longer possible for bugs to hide inside ambiguous or untested security-level claims. The paper gives various examples of errors in the literature that survived typical informal testing practices and that would have been caught if CAT-enforced links had been in place. As an important case study, the bulk of the current CAT release consists of full definitions of a broad spectrum of algorithms for information-set decoding (ISD), along with cost/probability predictions for each algorithm. ISD is the top attack strategy against the McEliece cryptosystem. The predictions cover interactions between (1) high-level search strategies from Prange, Lee–Brickell, Leon, Stern, Dumer, May–Meurer–Thomae, and Becker–Joux–May–Meurer; (2) random walks from Omura, Canteaut–Chabaud, Canteaut–Sendrier, and Bernstein–Lange–Peters; and (3) speedups in core subroutines such as linear algebra and sorting. The predictions also account for various attack overheads that were omitted from previous analyses. These gaps add up to roughly 10 bits, depending on parameters. CAT's tests catch much smaller errors than this. The cost metric selected in CAT has a very simple definition, is a lower bound for the price-performance ratio of non-quantum special-purpose hardware (although the bound is loose for attacks bottlenecked by long-distance communication), and allows many optimization efforts to be shared with the design of cryptographic circuits.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Provably Secure Butterfly Key Expansion from the CRYSTALS Post-Quantum Schemes
Edward Eaton, Philippe Lamontagne, and Peter Matsakis
This work presents the first provably secure protocol for Butterfly Key Expansion (BKE) -- a tripartite protocol for provisioning users with pseudonymous certificates -- based on post-quantum cryptographic schemes. Our work builds upon the CRYSTALS family of post-quantum algorithms that have been selected for standardization by NIST. We extend those schemes by imbuing them with the additional functionality of public key expansion: a process by which pseudonymous public keys can be derived by a single public key. Our work is the most detailed analysis yet of BKE: we formally define desired properties of BKE -- unforgeability and unlinkability -- as cryptographic games, and prove that BKE implemented with our modified CRYSTALS schemes satisfy those properties. We implemented our scheme by modifying the Kyber and Dilithium algorithms from the LibOQS project, and we report on our parameter choices and the performance of the schemes.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Quantum-Safe Public Key Blinding from MPC-in-the-Head Signature Schemes
Sathvika Balumuri, Edward Eaton, and Philippe Lamontagne
Key blinding produces pseudonymous digital identities by rerandomizing public keys of a digital signature scheme. It is used in anonymous networks to provide the seemingly contradictory goals of anonymity and authentication. Current key blinding schemes are based on the discrete log assumption. Eaton, Stebila and Stracovsky (LATINCRYPT 2021) proposed the first key blinding schemes from lattice assumptions. However, the large public keys and lack of QROM security means they are not ready to replace existing solutions. We present a new way to build key blinding schemes form any MPC-in-the-Head signature scheme. These schemes rely on well-studied symmetric cryptographic primitives and admit short public keys. We prove a general framework for constructing key blinding schemes and for proving their security in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). We instantiate our framework with the recent AES-based Helium signature scheme (Kales and Zaverucha, 2022). Blinding Helium only adds a minor overhead to the signature and verification time. Both Helium and the aforementioned lattice-based key blinding schemes were only proven secure in the ROM. This makes our results the first QROM proof of Helium and the first fully quantum-safe public key blinding scheme.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Quantum CCA-Secure PKE, Revisited
Navid Alamati and Varun Maram
Security against chosen-ciphertext attacks (CCA) concerns privacy of messages even if the adversary has access to the decryption oracle. While the classical notion of CCA security seems to be strong enough to capture many attack scenarios, it falls short of preserving the privacy of messages in the presence of quantum decryption queries, i.e., when an adversary can query a superposition of ciphertexts. Boneh and Zhandry (CRYPTO 2013) defined the notion of quantum CCA (qCCA) security to guarantee privacy of messages in the presence of quantum decryption queries. However, their construction is based on an exotic cryptographic primitive (namely, identity-based encryption with security against quantum queries), for which only one instantiation is known. In this work, we comprehensively study qCCA security for public-key encryption (PKE) based on both generic cryptographic primitives and concrete assumptions, yielding the following results: * We show that key-dependent message secure encryption (along with PKE) is sufficient to realize qCCA-secure PKE. This yields the first construction of qCCA-secure PKE from the LPN assumption. * We prove that hash proof systems imply qCCA-secure PKE, which results in the first instantiation of PKE with qCCA security from (isogeny-based) group actions. * We extend the notion of adaptive TDFs (ATDFs) to the quantum setting by introducing quantum ATDFs, and we prove that quantum ATDFs are sufficient to realize qCCA-secure PKE. We also show how to instantiate quantum ATDFs from the LWE assumption. * We show that a single-bit qCCA-secure PKE is sufficient to realize a multi-bit qCCA-secure PKE by extending the completeness of bit encryption for CCA security to the quantum setting.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Fully Homomorphic Encryption on large integers
Philippe Chartier, Michel Koskas, Mohammed Lemou, and Florian Méhats
At the core of fully homomorphic encryption lies a procedure to refresh the ciphertexts whose noise component has grown too big. The efficiency of the so-called bootstrap is of paramount importance as it is usually regarded as the main bottleneck towards a real-life deployment of fully homomorphic crypto-systems. In two of the fastest implementations so far, the space of messages is limited to binary integers. If the message space is extended to the discretized torus $T_{p_i}$ or equivalently to $Z_{p_i}$ with values of $p_i$ large as compared to the dimension of the polynomial ring in which the operations are realised, the bootstrap delivers incorrect results with far too high probability. As a consequence, the use of a residue numeral system to address large integers modulo $p = p_1 × \cdots × p_\kappa$ would be of limited interest in practical situations without the following remedy : rather than increasing the polynomial degree and thus the computational cost, we introduce here a novel and simple technique (hereafter referred to as “collapsing”) which, by grouping the components of the mask, attenuates both rounding errors and computational costs, and greatly helps to sharpen the correctness of the bootstrap. We then rigorously estimate the probability of success as well as the output error, determine practical parameters to reach a given correctness threshold and present implementation results.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Application-Aware Approximate Homomorphic Encryption: Configuring FHE for Practical Use
Andreea Alexandru, Ahmad Al Badawi, Daniele Micciancio, and Yuriy Polyakov
Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a powerful tool for performing privacy-preserving analytics over encrypted data. A promising method for FHE over real and complex numbers is approximate homomorphic encryption, instantiated with the Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (CKKS) scheme. The CKKS scheme enables efficient evaluation for many privacy-preserving machine learning applications. While the efficiency advantages of CKKS are clear, there is currently a lot of confusion on how to securely instantiate the scheme for any given application, especially after secret-key recovery attacks were discovered by Li and Micciancio (EUROCRYPT'21) for the $IND-CPA^D$ setting, i.e., where decryption results are shared with other parties. On the one hand, the generic definition of $IND-CPA^D$ is application-agnostic and often requires impractically large parameters. On the other hand, practical CKKS implementations target specific applications and use tighter parameters. A good illustration are the recent secret-key recovery attacks against a CKKS implementation in the OpenFHE library by Guo et al. (USENIX Security'24). These attacks misuse the library by employing different circuits during parameter estimation and run-time computation, yet they do not violate the generic (application-agnostic) $IND-CPA^D$ definition. To address this confusion, we introduce the notion of application-aware homomorphic encryption and devise related security definitions, which correspond more closely to how homomorphic encryption schemes are implemented and used in practice. We then formulate the guidelines for implementing the application-aware homomorphic encryption model to achieve $IND-CPA^D$ security for practical applications of CKKS. We also show that our application-aware model can be used for secure, efficient instantiation of exact homomorphic encryption schemes.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Homomorphic sign evaluation with a RNS representation of integers
Philippe Chartier, Michel Koskas, Mohammed Lemou, and Florian Méhats
In the context of fully-homomorphic-encryption, we consider the representation of large integers by their decomposition over a product of rings (through the Chinese Remainder Theorem) and introduce a new algorithm for the determination of the sign solely through the knowledge of ring-components. Our implementation with 128 bits of security delivers a correct result and a probability higher than 1 E-9 in less than 100 milliseconds for 32-bit integers on a laptop.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Anonymous, Timed and Revocable Proxy Signatures
Ghada Almashaqbeh and Anca Nitulescu
A proxy signature enables a party to delegate her signing power to another. This is useful in practice to achieve goals related to robustness, crowd-sourcing, and workload sharing. Such applications, especially in the blockchain model, usually require delegation to satisfy several properties, including time bounds, anonymity, revocability, and policy enforcement. Despite the large amount of work on proxy signatures in the literature, none of the existing schemes satisfy all these properties; even there is no unified formal notion that captures them. In this work, we close this gap and propose an anonymous, timed, and revocable proxy signature scheme. We achieve this in two steps: First, we introduce a tokenizable digital signature based on Schnorr signature allowing for secure distribution of signing tokens. Second, we utilize a public bulletin board, instantiated as a blockchain, and timelock encryption to support: (1) one-time usage of the signing tokens by tracking tokens used so far based on unique values associated to them, (2) timed delegation so that a proxy signer cannot sign outside a given period, and (3) delegation revocation allowing the original signer to end a delegation earlier than provisioned. All of these are done in a decentralized and anonymous way so that no one can tell that someone else signed on behalf of the original signer or even that a delegation took place. We define a formal notion for proxy signatures capturing all these properties, and prove that our construction realizes this notion. We also discuss several design considerations addressing issues related to deployment in practice.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Computational Differential Privacy for Encrypted Databases Supporting Linear Queries
Ferran Alborch Escobar, Sébastien Canard, Fabien Laguillaumie, and Duong Hieu Phan
Differential privacy is a fundamental concept for protecting individual privacy in databases while enabling data analysis. Conceptually, it is assumed that the adversary has no direct access to the database, and therefore, encryption is not necessary. However, with the emergence of cloud computing and the «on-cloud» storage of vast databases potentially contributed by multiple parties, it is becoming increasingly necessary to consider the possibility of the adversary having (at least partial) access to sensitive databases. A consequence is that, to protect the on-line database, it is now necessary to employ encryption. At PoPETs'19, it was the first time that the notion of differential privacy was considered for encrypted databases, but only for a limited type of query, namely histograms. Subsequently, a new type of query, summation, was considered at CODASPY'22. These works achieve statistical differential privacy, by still assuming that the adversary has no access to the encrypted database. In this paper, we argue that it is essential to assume that the adversary may eventually access the encrypted data, rendering statistical differential privacy inadequate. Therefore, the appropriate privacy notion for encrypted databases that we use is computational differential privacy, which was introduced by Beimel et al. at CRYPTO '08. In our work, we focus on the case of functional encryption, which is an extensively studied primitive permitting some authorized computation over encrypted data. Technically, we show that any randomized functional encryption scheme that satisfies simulation-based security and differential privacy of the output can achieve computational differential privacy for multiple queries to one database. Our work also extends the summation query to a much broader range of queries, specifically linear queries, by utilizing inner-product functional encryption. Hence, we provide an instantiation for inner-product functionalities by proving its simulation soundness and present a concrete randomized inner-product functional encryption with computational differential privacy against multiple queries. In term of efficiency, our protocol is almost as practical as the underlying inner product functional encryption scheme. As evidence, we provide a full benchmark, based on our concrete implementation for databases with up to 1 000 000 entries. Our work can be considered as a step towards achieving privacy-preserving encrypted databases for a wide range of query types and considering the involvement of multiple database owners.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
MATHEMATICAL SPECULATIONS ON CRYPTOGRAPHY
Anjali C B
The current cryptographic frameworks like RSA, ECC, and AES are potentially under quantum threat. Quantum cryptographic and post-quantum cryptography are being extensively researched for securing future information. The quantum computer and quantum algorithms are still in the early developmental stage and thus lack scalability for practical application. As a result of these challenges, most researched PQC methods are lattice-based, code-based, ECC isogeny, hash-based, and multivariate crypto schemes. In this paper, we explore other athematical topics such as stereographic projection, Mobius transformation, change of basis, Apollonian circle, Binary Quadratic form equivalence, Gauss composition law, and its conjunctions. It fulfills preliminary conditions like bijection, primality, and np-hard problems, and the feasibility of one-way functions along with its interconnection. Thus allowing the exploration of new realms of mathematics for the development of secure protocols for future communication.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
On Maximum Size Simultaneous Linear Approximations in Ascon and Keccak and Related Translation and Differential Properties
Nicolas T. Courtois, Frédéric Amiel, and Alexandre Bonnard de Fonvillars
In this paper we study the S-box known as Chi or \chi initially proposed by Daemen in 1995 and very widely used ever since in Keccak, Ascon, and many other. This type of ciphers is typically analyzed [in recent research] in terms of subspace trail attacks [TeDi19] and vector space invariants. An interesting question is then, when different spaces are mapped to each other by translations with a constant. In this paper we relax this fundamental question and we consider arbitrary sets of points and their translations. We generalize previous S-box partial linearization results on Keccak and Ascon from Eurocrypt 2017. We basically introduce new ways to linearize the Ascon S-box to the maximum possible extent. On this basis we show further remarkable properties and some surprising connections between [simultaneous] linear and [prominent] differential properties. We exhibit a new family of maximum size and optimal approximation properties with 11 points, beyond the maximum size of any set in the DDT table. We prove a theorem which guarantees that this type of properties are stable by arbitrary input-side translations which holds for all quadratic permutations. All this will be placed in the context of previous work on classification of 5-bit quadratic permutations.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Dual Polynomial Commitment Schemes and Applications to Commit-and-Prove SNARKs
Chaya Ganesh, Vineet Nair, and Ashish Sharma
We introduce a primitive called a dual polynomial commitment scheme that allows linking together a witness committed to using a univariate polynomial commitment scheme with a witness inside a multilinear polynomial commitment scheme. This yields commit-and-prove (CP) SNARKs with the flexibility of going back and forth between univariate and multilinear encodings of witnesses. This is in contrast to existing CP frameworks that assume compatible polynomial commitment schemes between different component proofs systems. In addition to application to CP, we also show that our notion yields a version of Spartan with better proof size and verification complexity, at the cost of a more expensive prover. We achieve this via a combination of the following technical contributions: (i) we construct a new univariate commitment scheme in the updatable SRS setting that has better prover complexity than KZG (ii) we construct a new multilinear commitment scheme in the updatable setting that is compatible for linking with our univariate scheme (iii) we construct an argument of knowledge to prove a given linear relationship between two witnesses committed using a two-tiered commitment scheme (Pedersen+AFG) using Dory as a black-box. These constructions are of independent interest. We implement our commitment schemes and report on performance. We also implement the version of Spartan with our dual polynomial commitment scheme and demonstrate that it outperforms Spartan in proof size and verification complexity.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Not Just Regular Decoding: Asymptotics and Improvements of Regular Syndrome Decoding Attacks
Andre Esser and Paolo Santini
Cryptographic constructions often base security on structured problem variants to enhance efficiency or to enable advanced functionalities. This led to the introduction of the Regular Syndrome Decoding (RSD) problem, which guarantees that a solution to the Syndrome Decoding (SD) problem follows a particular block-wise structure. Despite recent attacks exploiting that structure by Briaud and Øygarden (Eurocrypt ’23) and Carozza, Couteau and Joux (CCJ, Eurocrypt ’23), many questions about the impact of the regular structure on the problem hardness remain open. In this work we initiate a systematic study of the hardness of the RSD problem starting from its asymptotics. We classify different parameter regimes revealing large regimes for which RSD instances are solvable in polynomial time and on the other hand regimes that lead to particularly hard instances. Against previous perceptions, we show that a classification solely based on the uniqueness of the solution is not sufficient for isolating the worst case parameters. Further, we provide an in-depth comparison between SD and RSD in terms of reducibility and computational complexity, identifying regimes in which RSD instances are actually harder to solve. We provide the first asymptotic analyses of the algorithms presented by CCJ, establishing their worst case decoding complexities as $2^{0.141n}$ and $2^{0.135n}$, respectively. We then introduce regular-ISD algorithms by showing how to tailor the whole machinery of advanced Information Set Decoding (ISD) techniques from attacking SD to the RSD setting. The fastest regular-ISD algorithm improves the worst case decoding complexity significantly to $2^{0.112n}$. Eventually, we show that also with respect to suggested parameters regular-ISD outperforms previous approaches in most cases, reducing security levels by up to 30 bits.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
The Committing Security of MACs with Applications to Generic Composition
Ritam Bhaumik, Bishwajit Chakraborty, Wonseok Choi, Avijit Dutta, Jérôme Govinden, and Yaobin Shen
Message Authentication Codes (MACs) are ubiquitous primitives deployed in multiple flavors through standards such as HMAC, CMAC, GMAC, LightMAC, and many others. Its versatility makes it an essential building block in applications necessitating message authentication and integrity checks, in authentication protocols, authenticated encryption schemes, or as a pseudorandom or key derivation function. Its usage in this variety of settings makes it susceptible to a broad range of attack scenarios. The latest attack trends leverage a lack of commitment or context-discovery security in AEAD schemes and these attacks are mainly due to the weakness in the underlying MAC part. However, these new attack models have been scarcely analyzed for MACs themselves. This paper provides a thorough treatment of MACs committing and context-discovery security. We reveal that commitment and context-discovery security of MACs have their own interest by highlighting real-world vulnerable scenarios. We formalize the required security notions for MACs, and analyze the security of standardized MACs for these notions. Additionally, as a constructive application, we analyze generic AEAD composition and provide simple and efficient ways to build committing and context-discovery secure AEADs.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Scalable Collaborative zk-SNARK: Fully Distributed Proof Generation and Malicious Security
Xuanming Liu, Zhelei Zhou, Yinghao Wang, Bingsheng Zhang, and Xiaohu Yang
The notion of collaborative zk-SNARK is introduced by Ozdemir and Boneh (USENIX 2022), which allows multiple parties to jointly create a zk-SNARK proof over distributed secrets (also known as the witness). This approach ensures the privacy of the witness, as no corrupted servers involved in the proof generation can learn anything about the honest servers' witness. Later, Garg et al. continued the study, focusing on how to achieve faster proof generation (USENIX 2023). However, their approach requires a powerful server that is responsible for the most resource-intensive computations and communications during the proof generation. This requirement results in a scalability bottleneck, making their protocols unable to handle large-scale circuits. In this work, we address this issue by lifting a zk-SNARK called Libra (Crypto 2019) to a collaborative zk-SNARK and achieve a fully distributed proof generation, where all servers take roughly the same portion of the total workload. Further, our protocol can be adapted to be secure against a malicious adversary by incorporating some verification mechanisms. With 128 consumer machines and a 4Gbps network, we successfully generate a proof for a data-parallel circuit containing $2^{23}$ gates in merely 2.5 seconds and take only 0.5 GB memory for each server. This represents a $19\times$ speed-up, compared to a local Libra prover. Our benchmark further indicates an impressive 877$\times$ improvement in running time and a 992$\times$ enhancement in communication compared to the implementation in previous work. Furthermore, our protocol is capable of handling larger circuits, making it scalable in practice.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Let Them Drop: Scalable and Efficient Federated Learning Solutions Agnostic to Client Stragglers
Riccardo Taiello, Melek Önen, Clémentine Gritti, and Marco Lorenzi
Secure Aggregation (SA) stands as a crucial component in modern Federated Learning (FL) systems, facilitating collaborative training of a global machine learning model while protecting the privacy of individual clients' local datasets. Many existing SA protocols described in the FL literature operate synchronously, leading to notable runtime slowdowns due to the presence of stragglers (i.e. late-arriving clients). To address this challenge, one common approach is to consider stragglers as client failures and use SA solutions that are robust against dropouts. While this approach indeed seems to work, it unfortunately affects the performance of the protocol as its cost strongly depends on the dropout ratio and this ratio has increased significantly when taking stragglers into account. Another approach explored in the literature to address stragglers is to introduce asynchronicity into the FL system. Very few SA solutions exist in this setting and currently suffer from high overhead. In this paper, similar to related work, we propose to handle stragglers as client failures but design SA solutions that do not depend on the dropout ratio so that an unavoidable increase on this metric does not affect the performance of the solution. We first introduce Eagle, a synchronous SA scheme designed not to depend on the client failures but on the online users' inputs only. This approach offers better computation and communication costs compared to existing solutions under realistic settings where the number of stragglers is high. We then propose Owl, the first SA solution that is suitable for the asynchronous setting and once again considers online clients' contributions only. We implement both solutions and show that: (i) in a synchronous FL with realistic dropout rates (taking potential stragglers into account), Eagle outperforms the best SA solution, namely Flamingo, by X4; (ii) In the asynchronous setting, Owl exhibits the best performance compared to the state-of-the-art solution LightSecAgg.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
SmartZKCP: Towards Practical Data Exchange Marketplace Against Active Attacks
Xuanming Liu, Jiawen Zhang, Yinghao Wang, Xinpeng Yang, and Xiaohu Yang
The trading of data is becoming increasingly important as it holds substantial value. A blockchain-based data marketplace can provide a secure and transparent platform for data exchange. To facilitate this, developing a fair data exchange protocol for digital goods has garnered considerable attention in recent decades. The Zero Knowledge Contingent Payment (ZKCP) protocol enables trustless fair exchanges with the aid of blockchain and zero-knowledge proofs. However, applying this protocol in a practical data marketplace is not trivial. In this paper, several potential attacks are identified when applying the ZKCP protocol in a practical public data marketplace. To address these issues, we propose SmartZKCP, an enhanced solution that offers improved security measures and increased performance. The protocol is formalized to ensure fairness and secure against potential attacks. Moreover, SmartZKCP offers efficiency optimizations and minimized communication costs. Evaluation results show that SmartZKCP is both practical and efficient, making it applicable in a data exchange marketplace.
Last updated:  2024-06-12
Scalable Collaborative zk-SNARK and Its Application to Efficient Proof Outsourcing
Xuanming Liu, Zhelei Zhou, Yinghao Wang, Jinye He, Bingsheng Zhang, Xiaohu Yang, and Jiaheng Zhang
Collaborative zk-SNARK (USENIX'22) allows multiple parties to jointly create a zk-SNARK proof over distributed secrets (also known as the witness). It provides a promising approach to proof outsourcing, where a client wishes to delegate the tedious task of proof generation to many servers from different locations, while ensuring no corrupted server can learn its witness (USENIX'23). Unfortunately, existing work remains a significant efficiency problem, as the protocols rely heavily on a particularly powerful server, and thus face challenges in achieving scalability for complex applications. In this work, we address this problem by extending the existing zk-SNARKs Libra (Crypto'19) and HyperPlonk (Eurocrypt'23) into scalable collaborative zk-SNARKs. Crucially, our collaborative proof generation does not require a powerful server, and all servers take up roughly the same proportion of the total workload. In this way, we achieve privacy and scalability simultaneously for the first time in proof outsourcing. To achieve this, we develop an efficient MPC toolbox for a number of useful multivariate polynomial primitives, including sumcheck, productcheck, and multilinear polynomial commitment, which can also be applied to other applications as independent interests. For proof outsourcing purposes, when using $128$ servers to jointly generate a proof for a circuit size of $2^{24}$ gates, our benchmarks for these two collaborative proofs show a speedup of $21\times$ and $24\times$ compared to a local prover, respectively. Furthermore, we are able to handle enormously large circuits, making it practical for real-world applications.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Two RSA-based Cryptosystems
A. Telveenus
The cryptosystem RSA is a very popular cryptosystem in the study of Cryptography. In this article, we explore how the idea of a primitive m th root of unity in a ring can be integrated into the Discrete Fourier Transform, leading to the development of new cryptosystems known as RSA-DFT and RSA-HGR.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Certifying Private Probabilistic Mechanisms
Zoë Ruha Bell, Shafi Goldwasser, Michael P. Kim, and Jean-Luc Watson
In past years, entire research communities have arisen to address concerns of privacy and fairness in data analysis. At present, however, the public must trust that institutions will re-implement algorithms voluntarily to account for these social concerns. Due to additional cost, widespread adoption is unlikely without effective legal enforcement. A technical challenge for enforcement is that the methods proposed are often probabilistic mechanisms, whose output must be drawn according to precise, and sometimes secret, distributions. The Differential Privacy (DP) case is illustrative: if a cheating curator answers queries according to an overly-accurate mechanism, privacy violations could go undetected. The need for effective enforcement raises the central question of our paper: Can we efficiently certify the output of a probabilistic mechanism enacted by an untrusted party? To this end: (1) We introduce two new notions: Certified Probabilistic Mechanisms (CPM) and Random Variable Commitment Schemes (RVCS). A CPM is an interactive protocol that forces a prover to enact a given probabilistic mechanism or be caught; importantly, the interaction does not reveal secret parameters of the mechanism. An RVCS—a key primitive for constructing CPMs—is a commitment scheme where the verifier is convinced that the commitment is to an RV sampled according to an agreed-upon distribution, but learns nothing else. (2) We instantiate the general notion of CPM for the special case of Certifying DP. We build a lightweight, doubly-efficent interactive proof system to certify arbitrary-predicate counting queries released via the DP Binomial mechanism. The construction relies on a commitment scheme with perfect hiding and additive homomorphic properties that can be used to release a broad class of queries about a committed database, which we construct on top of Pedersen commitments. (3) Finally, we demonstrate the immediate feasibility of Certified DP via a highly-efficient and scalable prototype implementation to answer counting queries of arbitrary predicates. The mechanism is composed of an offline and online stage, where the online phase allows for non-interactive certification of queries. For example, we show that CDP queries over a US Census Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) ($n=7000$) can be completed in only 1.6 ms and verified in just 38 $\mu \text{s}$. Our implementation is available in open source at https://github.com/jlwatson/certified-dp.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Distributed Point Function with Constraints, Revisited
Keyu Ji, Bingsheng Zhang, Hong-Sheng Zhou, and Kui Ren
Distributed Point Function (DPF) provides a way for a dealer to split a point function $f_{\alpha, \beta}$ into multiple succinctly described function-shares, where the function $f_{\alpha, \beta}$ for a special input $\alpha$, returns a special output value $\beta$, and returns a fixed value $0$ otherwise. As the security requirement, any strict subset of the function-shares reveals nothing about the function $f_{\alpha,\beta}$. However, each function-share can be individually evaluated on the common input $x$, and these evaluation results can then be merged together to reconstruct the value $f_{\alpha, \beta}(x)$. Recently, Servan-Schreiber et al. (S&P 2023) investigate the access control problem for DPF; namely, the DPF evaluators can ensure that the DPF dealer is authorized to share the given function with privacy assurance. In this work, we revisit this problem, introducing a new notion called DPF with constraints; meanwhile, we identify that there exists a subtle flaw in their privacy definition as well as a soundness issue in one of their proposed schemes due to the lack of validation of the special output value $\beta$. Next, we show how to reduce both the storage size of the constraint representation and the server's computational overhead from $O(N)$ to $O(\log N)$, where $N$ is the number of authorized function sets. In addition, we show how to achieve fine-grained private access control, that is, the wildcard-style constraint for the choice of the special output $\beta$. Our benchmarks show that the amortized running time of our logarithmic storage scheme is $2\times$ - $3\times$ faster than the state-of-the-art when $N=2^{15}$. Furthermore, we provide the first impossibility and feasibility results of the DPF with constraints where the evaluators do not need to communicate with each other.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Willow: Secure Aggregation with One-Shot Clients
James Bell-Clark, Adrià Gascón, Baiyu Li, Mariana Raykova, and Phillipp Schoppmann
A common drawback of secure vector summation protocols in the single-server model is that they impose at least one synchronization point between all clients contributing to the aggregation. This results in clients waiting on each other to advance through the rounds of the protocol, leading to large latency even if the protocol is computationally efficient. In this paper we propose protocols in the single-server model where clients contributing data to the aggregation send a single message to the server in an asynchronous fashion, i.e., without the need for synchronizing their reporting time with any other clients. Our approach is based on a committee of parties, called decryptors, that aid in the computation. Decryptors run a setup phase before data collection starts, and a decryption phase once it ends. Unlike existing committee-based protocols such as Flamingo (S&P 2023), the cost for committee members can be made sub-linear in the number of clients, and does not depend on the size of the input data. Our experimental evaluation shows that our protocol, even while enabling asynchronous client contributions,is competitive with the state of the art protocols that do not have that feature in both computation and communication.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
MFKDF: Multiple Factors Knocked Down Flat
Matteo Scarlata, Matilda Backendal, and Miro Haller
Nair and Song (USENIX 2023) introduce the concept of a Multi-Factor Key Derivation Function (MFKDF), along with constructions and a security analysis. MFKDF integrates dynamic authentication factors, such as HOTP and hardware tokens, into password-based key derivation. The aim is to improve the security of password-derived keys, which can then be used for encryption or as an alternative to multi-factor authentication. The authors claim an exponential security improvement compared to traditional password-based key derivation functions (PBKDF). We show that the MFKDF constructions proposed by Nair and Song fall short of the stated security goals. Underspecified cryptographic primitives and the lack of integrity of the MFKDF state lead to several attacks, ranging from full key recovery when an HOTP factor is compromised, to bypassing factors entirely or severely reducing their entropy. We reflect on the different threat models of key-derivation and authentication, and conclude that MFKDF is always weaker than plain PBKDF and multi-factor authentication in each setting.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
SoK: Polynomial Multiplications for Lattice-Based Cryptosystems
Vincent Hwang
We survey various mathematical tools used in software works multiplying polynomials in $\mathbb{Z}_q[x] / ⟨xn −αx−β⟩$. In particular, we survey implementation works targeting polynomial multiplications in lattice-based cryptosystems Dilithium, Kyber, NTRU, NTRU Prime, and Saber with instruction set architectures/extensions Armv7-M, Armv7E-M, Armv8-A, and AVX2. There are three emphases in this paper: (i) modular arithmetic, (ii) homomorphisms, and (iii) vectorization. For modular arithmetic, we survey Montgomery, Barrett, and Plantard multiplications. For homomorphisms, we survey (a) various homomorphisms such as Cooley–Tukey FFT, Good–Thomas FFT, Bruun’s FFT, Rader’s FFT, Karatsuba, and Toom–Cook; (b) various algebraic techniques for adjoining nice properties to the coefficient rings, including localization, Schönhage’s FFT, Nussbaumer’s FFT, and coefficient ring switching; and (c) various algebraic techniques related to the polynomial moduli, including twisting, composed multiplication, evaluation at ∞, truncation, incomplete transformation, striding, and Toeplitz matrix-vector product. For vectorization, we survey the relations between homomorphisms and vector arithmetic. We then go through several case studies: We compare the implementations of modular multiplications used in Dilithium and Kyber, explain how the matrix-to-vector structure was exploited in Saber, and review the design choices of transformations for NTRU and NTRU Prime with vectorization. Finally, we outline several interesting implementation projects.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
On Sigma-Protocols and (packed) Black-Box Secret Sharing Schemes
Claudia Bartoli and Ignacio Cascudo
$\Sigma$-protocols are a widely utilized, relatively simple and well understood type of zero-knowledge proofs. However, the well known Schnorr $\Sigma$-protocol for proving knowledge of discrete logarithm in a cyclic group of known prime order, and similar protocols working over this type of groups, are hard to generalize to dealing with other groups. In particular with hidden order groups, due to the inability of the knowledge extractor to invert elements modulo the order. In this paper, we introduce a universal construction of $\Sigma$-protocols designed to prove knowledge of preimages of group homomorphisms for any abelian finite group. In order to do this, we first establish a general construction of a $\Sigma$-protocol for $\mathfrak{R}$-module homomorphism given only a linear secret sharing scheme over the ring $\mathfrak{R}$, where zero knowledge and special soundness can be related to the privacy and reconstruction properties of the secret sharing scheme. Then, we introduce a new construction of 2-out-of-$n$ packed black-box secret sharing scheme capable of sharing $k$ elements of an arbitrary (abelian, finite) group where each share consists of $k+\log n-3$ group elements. From these two elements we obtain a generic ``batch'' $\Sigma$-protocol for proving knowledge of $k$ preimages of elements via the same group homomorphism, which communicates $k+\lambda-3$ elements of the group to achieve $2^{-\lambda}$ knowledge error. For the case of class groups, we show that our $\Sigma$-protocol improves in several aspects on existing proofs for knowledge of discrete logarithm and other related statements that have been used in a number of works. Finally, we extend our constructions from group homomorphisms to the case of ZK-ready functions, introduced by Cramer and Damg\aa rd in Crypto 09, which in particular include the case of proofs of knowledge of plaintext (and randomness) for some linearly homomorphic encryption schemes such as Joye-Libert encryption. However, in the case of Joye-Libert, we show an even better alternative, using Shamir secret sharing over Galois rings, which achieves $2^{-k}$ knowledge soundness by communicating $k$ ciphertexts to prove $k$ statements.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Compact Encryption based on Module-NTRU problems
Shi Bai, Hansraj Jangir, Hao Lin, Tran Ngo, Weiqiang Wen, and Jinwei Zheng
The Module-NTRU problem, introduced by Cheon, Kim, Kim, Son (IACR ePrint 2019/1468), and Chuengsatiansup, Prest, Stehlé, Wallet, Xagawa (ASIACCS ’20), generalizes the versatile NTRU assump- tion. One of its main advantages lies in its ability to offer greater flexibil- ity on parameters, such as the underlying ring dimension. In this work, we present several lattice-based encryption schemes, which are IND-CPA (or OW-CPA) secure in the standard model based on the Module-NTRU and Module-LWE problems. Leveraging the Fujisaki-Okamoto transfor- mations, one can obtain IND-CCA secure key encapsulation schemes. Our first encryption scheme is based on the Module-NTRU assumption, which uses the determinant of the secret matrix over the underlying ring for the decryption. Our second scheme is analogue to the Module-LWE encryption scheme, but uses only a matrix as the public key, based on a vectorial variant of the Module-NTRU problem. In the end, we conduct comprehensive analysis of known attacks and propose concrete parame- ters for the instantiations. In particular, our ciphertext size is about 614 (resp. 1228) bytes for NIST Level 1 (resp. Level 5) security and small decryption failure, placing it on par with the most recent schemes such as the one proposed by Zhang, Feng and Yan (ASIACRYPT ’23). We also present several competitive parameters for NIST Level 3, which has a ci- phertext size of 921 bytes. Moreover, our schemes do not require specific codes for plaintext encoding and decoding.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
An Explicit High-Moment Forking Lemma and its Applications to the Concrete Security of Multi-Signatures
Gil Segev and Liat Shapira
In this work we first present an explicit forking lemma that distills the information-theoretic essence of the high-moment technique introduced by Rotem and Segev (CRYPTO '21), who analyzed the security of identification protocols and Fiat-Shamir signature schemes. Whereas the technique of Rotem and Segev was particularly geared towards two specific cryptographic primitives, we present a stand-alone probabilistic lower bound, which does not involve any underlying primitive or idealized model. The key difference between our lemma and previous ones is that instead of focusing on the tradeoff between the worst-case or expected running time of the resulting forking algorithm and its success probability, we focus on the tradeoff between higher moments of its running time and its success probability. Equipped with our lemma, we then establish concrete security bounds for the BN and BLS multi-signature schemes that are significantly tighter than the concrete security bounds established by Bellare and Neven (CCS '06) and Boneh, Drijvers and Neven (ASIACRYPT '18), respectively. Our analysis does not limit adversaries to any idealized algebraic model, such as the algebraic group model in which all algorithms are assumed to provide an algebraic justification for each group element they produce. Our bounds are derived in the random-oracle model based on the standard-model second-moment hardness of the discrete logarithm problem (for the BN scheme) and the computational co-Diffie-Hellman problem (for the BLS scheme). Such second-moment assumptions, asking that the success probability of any algorithm in solving the underlying computational problems is dominated by the second moment of the algorithm's running time, are particularly plausible in any group where no better-than-generic algorithms are currently known.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Polynomial Time Cryptanalytic Extraction of Neural Network Models
Isaac A. Canales-Martínez, Jorge Chavez-Saab, Anna Hambitzer, Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez, Nitin Satpute, and Adi Shamir
Billions of dollars and countless GPU hours are currently spent on training Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) for a variety of tasks. Thus, it is essential to determine the difficulty of extracting all the parameters of such neural networks when given access to their black-box implementations. Many versions of this problem have been studied over the last 30 years, and the best current attack on ReLU-based deep neural networks was presented at Crypto’20 by Carlini, Jagielski, and Mironov. It resembles a differential chosen plaintext attack on a cryptosystem, which has a secret key embedded in its black-box implementation and requires a polynomial number of queries but an exponential amount of time (as a function of the number of neurons). In this paper, we improve this attack by developing several new techniques that enable us to extract with arbitrarily high precision all the real-valued parameters of a ReLU-based DNN using a polynomial number of queries and a polynomial amount of time. We demonstrate its practical efficiency by applying it to a full-sized neural network for classifying the CIFAR10 dataset, which has 3072 inputs, 8 hidden layers with 256 neurons each, and about 1.2 million neuronal parameters. An attack following the approach by Carlini et al. requires an exhaustive search over 2^256 possibilities. Our attack replaces this with our new techniques, which require only 30 minutes on a 256-core computer.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Analyzing Pump and jump BKZ algorithm using dynamical systems
Leizhang Wang
The analysis of the reduction effort of the lattice reduction algorithm is important in estimating the hardness of lattice-based cryptography schemes. Recently many lattice challenge records have been cracked by using the Pnj-BKZ algorithm which is the default lattice reduction algorithm used in G6K, such as the TU Darmstadt LWE and SVP Challenges. However, the previous estimations of the Pnj-BKZ algorithm are simulator algorithms rather than theoretical upper bound analyses. In this work, we present the first dynamic analysis of Pnj-BKZ algorithm. More precisely, our analysis results show that let $L$ is the lattice spanned by $(\mathbf{a}_i)_{i\leq d}$. The shortest vector $\mathbf{b}_1$ output by running $\Omega \left ( \frac{2Jd^2}{\beta(\beta-J)}\left ( \ln_{}{d} +\ln_{} \ln_{}{\max_{i}\frac{\left \| \mathbf{a}_i^{*} \right \| }{(\mathrm{det}L )^{1/d} } } \right ) \right ) $ tours reduction of pnj-BKZ$(\beta,J)$, $\mathbf{b}_1$ satisfied that $\left \| \mathbf{b}_1 \right \| \le {\gamma}_{\beta}^{\frac{d-1}{2(\beta-J)}+2 } \cdot \left ( \mathrm{det}L \right ) ^{\frac{1}{d} } $.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Machine-Checked Security for $\mathrm{XMSS}$ as in RFC 8391 and $\mathrm{SPHINCS}^{+}$
Manuel Barbosa, François Dupressoir, Benjamin Grégoire, Andreas Hülsing, Matthias Meijers, and Pierre-Yves Strub
This work presents a novel machine-checked tight security proof for $\mathrm{XMSS}$ — a stateful hash-based signature scheme that is (1) standardized in RFC 8391 and NIST SP 800-208, and (2) employed as a primary building block of $\mathrm{SPHINCS}^{+}$, one of the signature schemes recently selected for standardization as a result of NIST’s post-quantum competition. In 2020, Kudinov, Kiktenko, and Fedoro pointed out a flaw affecting the tight security proofs of $\mathrm{SPHINCS}^{+}$ and $\mathrm{XMSS}$. For the case of $\mathrm{SPHINCS}^{+}$, this flaw was fixed in a subsequent tight security proof by Hülsing and Kudinov. Unfortunately, employing the fix from this proof to construct an analogous tight security proof for XMSS would merely demonstrate security with respect to an insufficient notion. At the cost of modeling the message-hashing function as a random oracle, we complete the tight security proof for $\mathrm{XMSS}$ and formally verify it using the EasyCrypt proof assistant. As part of this endeavor, we formally verify the crucial step common to (the security proofs of) $\mathrm{SPHINCS}^{+}$ and $\mathrm{XMSS}$ that was found to be flawed before, thereby confirming that the core of the aforementioned security proof by Hülsing and Kudinov is correct. As this is the first work to formally verify proofs for hash-based signature schemes in EasyCrypt, we develop several novel libraries for the fundamental cryptographic concepts underlying such schemes — e.g., hash functions and digital signature schemes — establishing a common starting point for future formal verification efforts. These libraries will be particularly helpful in formally verifying proofs of other hash-based signature schemes such as $\mathrm{LMS}$ or $\mathrm{SPHINCS}^{+}$.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Cheetah: Lean and Fast Secure Two-Party Deep Neural Network Inference
Zhicong Huang, Wen-jie Lu, Cheng Hong, and Jiansheng Ding
Secure two-party neural network inference (2PC-NN) can offer privacy protection for both the client and the server and is a promising technique in the machine-learning-as-a-service setting. However, the large overhead of the current 2PC-NN in- ference systems is still being a headache, especially when applied to deep neural networks such as ResNet50. In this work, we present Cheetah, a new 2PC-NN inference system that is faster and more communication-efficient than state-of-the-arts. The main contributions of Cheetah are two-fold: the first part includes carefully designed homomorphic encryption-based protocols that can evaluate the linear layers (namely convolution, batch normalization, and fully-connection) without any expensive rotation operation. The second part includes several lean and communication-efficient primitives for the non-linear functions (e.g., ReLU and truncation). Using Cheetah, we present intensive benchmarks over several large-scale deep neural networks. Take ResNet50 for an example, an end- to-end execution of Cheetah under a WAN setting costs less than 2.5 minutes and 2.3 gigabytes of communication, which outperforms CrypTFlow2 (ACM CCS 2020) by about 5.6× and 12.9×, respectively.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Pando: Extremely Scalable BFT Based on Committee Sampling
Xin Wang, Haochen Wang, Haibin Zhang, and Sisi Duan
Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) protocols are known to suffer from the scalability issue. Indeed, their performance degrades drastically as the number of replicas $n$ grows. While a long line of work has attempted to achieve the scalability goal, these works can only scale to roughly a hundred replicas. In this paper, we develop BFT protocols from the so-called committee sampling approach that selects a small committee for consensus and conveys the results to all replicas. Such an approach, however, has been focused on the Byzantine agreement (BA) problem (considering replicas only) instead of the BFT problem (in the client-replica model); also, the approach is mainly of theoretical interest only, as concretely, it works for impractically large $n$. We build an extremely efficient, scalable, and adaptively secure BFT protocol called Pando in partially synchronous environments based on the committee sampling approach. In particular, we devise novel BFT building blocks targeting scalability, including communication-efficient and computation-efficient consistent broadcast and atomic broadcast protocols. Pando inherits some inherent issues of committee sampling-based protocols: Pando can only achieve near-optimal resilience (i.e., $f<(1/3-\epsilon)n$, where $f$ is the number of faulty replicas and $\epsilon$ is a small constant), and Pando attains safety and liveness only probabilistically. Interestingly, to make $\epsilon$ come close to $0$ (near-optimal resilience), $n$ needs to be sufficiently large but not impractically large, e.g., $n>500$---just what we need for scalable BFT. Our evaluation on Amazon EC2 shows that in contrast to existing protocols, Pando can easily scale to a thousand replicas in the WAN environment, achieving a throughput of $62.57$ ktx/sec.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
Crystalor: Recoverable Memory Encryption Mechanism with Optimized Metadata Structure
Rei Ueno, Hiromichi Haneda, Naofumi Homma, Akiko Inoue, and Kazuhiko Minematsu
This study presents an efficient recoverable memory encryption mechanism, named Crystalor. Existing memory encryption mechanisms, such as Intel SGX integrity tree, offer neither crash consistency nor recoverability, which results in attack surfaces and causes a non-trivial limitation of practical availability. Although the crash consistency of encrypted memory has been studied in the research field of microarchitecture, existing mechanisms lack formal security analysis and cannot incorporate with metadata optimization mechanisms, which are essential to achieve a practical performance. Crystalor efficiently realizes provably-secure recoverable memory encryption with metadata optimization. To establish Crystalor with provable security and practical performance, we develop a dedicated universal hash function PXOR-Hash and a microarchitecture equipped with PXOR-Hash. Crystalor incurs almost no latency overhead under the nominal operations for the recoverability, while it has a simple construction in such a way as to be compatible with existing microarchitectures. We evaluate its practical performance through both algorithmic analyses and system-level simulation in comparison with the state-of-the-art ones, such as SCUE. Crystalor requires 29–62% fewer clock cycles per memory read/write operation than SCUE for protecting a 4 TB memory. In addition, Crystalor and SCUE require 312 GB and 554 GB memory overheads for metadata, respectively, which indicates that Crystalor achieves a memory overhead reduction of 44%. The results of the system-level simulation using the gem5 simulator indicate that Crystalor achieves a reduction of up to 11.5% in the workload execution time compared to SCUE. Moreover, Crystalor achieves a higher availability and memory recovery several thousand times faster than SCUE, as Crystalor offers lazy recovery.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
A Pure Indistinguishability Obfuscation Approach to Adaptively-Sound SNARGs for NP
Brent Waters and David J. Wu
We construct an adaptively-sound succinct non-interactive argument (SNARG) for NP in the CRS model from sub-exponentially-secure indistinguishability obfuscation ($i\mathcal{O}$) and sub-exponentially-secure one-way functions. Previously, Waters and Wu (STOC 2024), and subsequently, Waters and Zhandry (CRYPTO 2024) showed how to construct adaptively-sound SNARGs for NP by relying on sub-exponentially-secure indistinguishability obfuscation, one-way functions, and an additional algebraic assumption (i.e., discrete log, factoring, or learning with errors). In this work, we show that no additional algebraic assumption is needed and vanilla (sub-exponentially-secure) one-way functions already suffice in combination with $i\mathcal{O}$. We first give a direct construction of an adaptively-sound SNARG for NP assuming (sub-exponentially-secure) $i\mathcal{O}$ and an injective one-way function. Then, we show that it suffices to have an injective one-way function that has an inefficient sampler (i.e., sampling a challenge for the one-way function requires super-polynomial time). Because we rely on the existence of injective one-way functions only in the security proof and not in the actual construction, having an inefficient sampling procedure does not impact correctness. We then show that injective one-way functions with an inefficient sampler can be built generically from any vanilla one-way function. Our approach may be independently useful in other settings to replace injective one-way functions with standard one-way functions in applications of $i\mathcal{O}$.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
SoK: Zero-Knowledge Range Proofs
Miranda Christ, Foteini Baldimtsi, Konstantinos Kryptos Chalkias, Deepak Maram, Arnab Roy, and Joy Wang
Zero-knowledge range proofs (ZKRPs) allow a prover to convince a verifier that a secret value lies in a given interval. ZKRPs have numerous applications: from anonymous credentials and auctions, to confidential transactions in cryptocurrencies. At the same time, a plethora of ZKRP constructions exist in the literature, each with its own trade-offs. In this work, we systematize the knowledge around ZKRPs. We create a classification of existing constructions based on the underlying building techniques, and we summarize their properties. We provide comparisons between schemes both in terms of properties as well as efficiency levels, and construct a guideline to assist in the selection of an appropriate ZKRP for different application requirements. Finally, we discuss a number of interesting open research problems.
Last updated:  2024-06-11
CISELeaks: Information Leakage Assessment of Cryptographic Instruction Set Extension Prototypes
Aruna Jayasena, Richard Bachmann, and Prabhat Mishra
Software based cryptographic implementations provide flexibility but they face performance limitations. In contrast, hardware based cryptographic accelerators utilize application-specific customization to provide real-time security solutions. Cryptographic instruction-set extensions (CISE) combine the advantages of both hardware and software based solutions to provide higher performance combined with the flexibility of atomic-level cryptographic operations. While CISE is widely used to develop security solutions, side-channel analysis of CISE-based devices is in its infancy. Specifically, it is important to evaluate whether the power usage and electromagnetic emissions of CISE-based devices have any correlation with its internal operations, which an adversary can exploit to deduce cryptographic secrets. In this paper, we propose a test vector leakage assessment framework to evaluate the pre-silicon prototypes at the early stages of the design life-cycle. Specifically, we first identify functional units with the potential for leaking information through power side-channel signatures and then evaluate them on system prototypes by generating the necessary firmware to maximize the side-channel signature. Our experimental results on two RISC-V based cryptographic extensions, RISCV-CRYPTO and XCRYPTO, demonstrated that seven out of eight prototype AES- and SHA-related functional units are vulnerable to leaking cryptographic secrets through their power side-channel signature even in full system mode with a statistical significance of $\alpha = 0.05$.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Leveled Fully-Homomorphic Signatures from Batch Arguments
Abtin Afshar, Jiaqi Cheng, and Rishab Goyal
Fully homomorphic signatures are a significant strengthening of digital signatures, enabling computations on \emph{secretly} signed data. Today, we have multiple approaches to design fully homomorphic signatures such as from lattices, or succinct functional commitments, or indistinguishability obfuscation, or mutable batch arguments. Unfortunately, all existing constructions for homomorphic signatures suffer from one or more limitations. We do not have homomorphic signatures with features such as multi-hop evaluation, context hiding, and fast amortized verification, while relying on standard falsifiable assumptions. In this work, we design homomorphic signatures satisfying all above properties. We construct homomorphic signatures for polynomial-sized circuits from a variety of standard assumptions such as sub-exponential DDH, standard pairing-based assumptions, or learning with errors. We also discuss how our constructions can be easily extended to the multi-key setting.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
MUSES: Efficient Multi-User Searchable Encrypted Database
Tung Le, Rouzbeh Behnia, Jorge Guajardo, and Thang Hoang
Searchable encrypted systems enable privacy-preserving keyword search on encrypted data. Symmetric systems achieve high efficiency (e.g., sublinear search), but they mostly support single-user search. Although systems based on public-key or hybrid models support multi-user search, they incur inherent security weaknesses (e.g., keyword-guessing vulnerabilities) and scalability limitations due to costly public-key operations (e.g., pairing). More importantly, most encrypted search designs leak statistical information (e.g., search, result, and volume patterns) and thus are vulnerable to devastating leakage-abuse attacks. Some pattern-hiding schemes were proposed. However, they incur significant user bandwidth/computation costs, and thus are not desirable for large-scale outsourced databases with resource-constrained users. In this paper, we propose MUSES, a new multi-writer encrypted search platform that addresses the functionality, security, and performance limitations in the existing encrypted search designs. Specifically, MUSES permits single-reader, multi-writer functionalities with permission revocation and hides all statistical information (including search, result, and volume patterns) while featuring minimal user overhead. In MUSES, we demonstrate a unique incorporation of various emerging distributed cryptographic protocols including Distributed Point Function, Distributed PRF, and Oblivious Linear Group Action. We also introduce novel distributed protocols for oblivious counting and shuffling on arithmetic shares for the general multi-party setting with a dishonest majority, which can be found useful in other applications. Our experimental results showed that the keyword search by MUSES is two orders of magnitude faster with up to 97× lower user bandwidth cost than the state-of-the-art.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Information-Theoretic Single-Server PIR in the Shuffle Model
Yuval Ishai, Mahimna Kelkar, Daniel Lee, and Yiping Ma
We revisit the problem of private information retrieval (PIR) in the shuffle model, where queries can be made anonymously by multiple clients. We present the first single-server PIR protocol in this model that has sublinear per-client communication and information-theoretic security. Moreover, following one-time preprocessing on the server side, our protocol only requires sublinear per-client computation. Concretely, for every $\gamma>0$, the protocol has $O(n^{\gamma})$ communication and computation costs per (stateless) client, with $1/\text{poly}(n)$ statistical security, assuming that a size-$n$ database is simultaneously accessed by $\text{poly}(n)$ clients. This should be contrasted with the recent breakthrough result of Lin, Mook, and Wichs (STOC 2023) on doubly efficient PIR in the standard model, which is (inherently) limited to computational security.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Generalized Indifferentiable Sponge and its Application to Polygon Miden VM
Tomer Ashur and Amit Singh Bhati
Cryptographic hash functions are said to be the work-horses of modern cryptography. One of the strongest approaches to assess a cryptographic hash function's security is indifferentiability. Informally, indifferentiability measures to what degree the function resembles a random oracle when instantiated with an ideal underlying primitive. However, proving the indifferentiability security of hash functions has been challenging due to complex simulator designs and proof arguments. The Sponge construction is one of the prevalent hashing method used in various systems. The Sponge has been shown to be indifferentiable from a random oracle when initialized with a random permutation. In this work, we first introduce $\mathsf{GSponge}$, a generalized form of the Sponge construction offering enhanced flexibility in input chaining, field sizes, and padding types. $\mathsf{GSponge}$ not only captures all existing sponge variants but also unveils new, efficient ones. The generic structure of $\mathsf{GSponge}$ facilitates the discovery of two micro-optimizations for already deployed sponges. Firstly, it allows a new padding rule based on zero-padding and domain-separated inputs, saving one full permutation call in certain cases without increasing the generation time of zero-knowledge proofs. Secondly, it allows to absorb up to $\mathsf{c}/2$ more elements (that can save another permutation call for certain message lengths) without compromising the indifferentiability security. These optimizations enhance hashing time for practical use cases such as Merkle-tree hashing and short message processing. We then propose a new efficient instantiation of $\mathsf{GSponge}$ called $\mathsf{Sponge2}$ capturing these micro-optimizations and provide a formal indifferentiability proof to establish both $\mathsf{Sponge2}$ and $\mathsf{GSponge}$'s security. This proof, simpler than the original for Sponges, offers clarity and ease of understanding for real-world practitioners. Additionally, it is demonstrated that $\mathsf{GSponge}$ can be safely instantiated with permutations defined over large prime fields, a result not previously formally proven.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Combining Outputs of a Random Permutation: New Constructions and Tight Security Bounds by Fourier Analysis
Itai Dinur
We consider constructions that combine outputs of a single permutation $\pi:\{0,1\}^n \rightarrow \{0,1\}^n$ using a public function. These are popular constructions for achieving security beyond the birthday bound when implementing a pseudorandom function using a block cipher (i.e., a pseudorandom permutation). One of the best-known constructions (denoted SXoP$[2,n]$) XORs the outputs of 2 domain-separated calls to $\pi$. Modeling $\pi$ as a uniformly chosen permutation, several previous works proved a tight information-theoretic indistinguishability bound for SXoP$[2,n]$ of about $q/2^{n}$, where $q$ is the number of queries. On the other hand, tight bounds are unknown for the generalized variant (denoted SXoP$[r,n]$) which XORs the outputs of $r>2$ domain-separated calls to a uniform permutation. In this paper, we obtain two results. Our first result improves the known bounds for SXoP$[r,n]$ for all (constant) $r \geq 3$ (assuming $q \leq O(2^n/r)$ is not too large) in both the single-user and multi-user settings. In particular, for $q=3$, our bound is about $\sqrt{u}q_{\max}/2^{2.5n}$ (where $u$ is the number of users and $q_{\max}$ is the maximal number of queries per user), improving the best-known previous result by a factor of at least $2^n$. For odd $r$, our bounds are tight for $q > 2^{n/2}$, as they match known attacks. For even $r$, we prove that our single-user bounds are tight by providing matching attacks. Our second and main result is divided into two parts. First, we devise a family of constructions that output $n$ bits by efficiently combining outputs of 2 calls to a permutation on $\{0,1\}^n$, and achieve multi-user security of about $\sqrt{u} q_{\max}/2^{1.5n}$. Then, inspired by the CENC construction of Iwata [FSE'06], we further extend this family to output $2n$ bits by efficiently combining outputs of 3 calls to a permutation on $\{0,1\}^n$. The extended construction has similar multi-user security of $\sqrt{u} q_{\max}/2^{1.5n}$. The new single-user ($u=1$) bounds of $q/2^{1.5n}$ for both families should be contrasted with the previously best-known bounds of $q/2^n$, obtained by the comparable constructions of SXoP$[2,n]$ and CENC. All of our bounds are proved by Fourier analysis, extending the provable security toolkit in this domain in multiple ways.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Verifiable and Private Vote-by-Mail
Henri Devillez, Olivier Pereira, and Thomas Peters
Vote-by-mail is increasingly used in Europe and worldwide for government elections. Nevertheless, very few attempts have been made towards the design of verifiable vote-by-mail, and none of them come with a rigorous security analysis. Furthermore, the ballot privacy of the currently deployed (non-verifiable) vote-by-mail systems relies on procedural means that a single malicious operator can bypass. We propose a verifiable vote-by-mail system that can accommodate the constraints of many of the large ballots that are common in Europe. Verifiability and privacy hold unless multiple system components collude to cheat on top of the postal channel. These security notions are expressed and analyzed in the simplified UC security framework. Our vote-by-mail system only makes limited requirements on the voters: voters can verify their vote by copying and comparing short strings and verifying the computation of a single hash on a short input, and they can vote normally if they want to ignore the verification steps completely. Our system also relies on common cryptographic components, all available in the ElectionGuard verifiable voting SDK for instance, which limits the risks of errors in the implementation of the cryptographic aspects of the system.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
MUSEN: Aggregatable Key-Evolving Verifiable Random Functions and Applications
Bernardo David, Rafael Dowsley, Anders Konring, and Mario Larangeira
A Verifiable Random Function (VRF) can be evaluated on an input by a prover who holds a secret key, generating a pseudorandom output and a proof of output validity that can be verified using the corresponding public key. VRFs are a central building block of committee election mechanisms that sample parties to execute tasks in cryptographic protocols, e.g. generating blocks in a Proof-of-Stake (PoS) blockchain or executing a round of MPC protocols. We propose the notion, and a matching construction, of an Aggregatable Key-Evolving VRF (A-KE-VRF) with the following extra properties: 1. Aggregation: combining proofs for several VRF evaluations of different inputs under different secret keys into a single constant size proof; 2. Key-Evolving: preventing adversaries who corrupt a party (learning their secret key) from ``forging'' proofs of past VRF evaluations. As an immediate application, we improve on the block size of PoS blockchains and on the efficiency of Proofs of Proof-of-Stake (PoPoS). Furthermore, the A-KE-VRF notion allows us to construct Encryption to the Future (EtF) and Authentication from the Past (AfP) schemes with a Key-Evolving property, which provides forward security. An EtF scheme allows for sending a message to a party who is randomly selected to execute a role in the future, while an AfP scheme allows for this party to authenticate their messages as coming from a past execution of this role. These primitives are essential for realizing the YOSO MPC Framework (CRYPTO'21).
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Two-Round Threshold Lattice-Based Signatures from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption
Kamil Doruk Gur, Jonathan Katz, and Tjerand Silde
Much recent work has developed efficient protocols for threshold signatures, where $n$ parties share a signing key and some threshold $t$ of those parties must interact to produce a signature. Yet efficient threshold signatures with post-quantum security have been elusive, with the state-of-the-art being a two-round scheme by Damgård et al. (PKC'21) based on lattices that supports only the full threshold case (i.e., $t=n$). We show here a two-round threshold signature scheme based on standard lattice assumptions that supports arbitrary thresholds $t\leq n$. Estimates of our scheme's performance at the $128$-bit security level show that in the 3-out-of-5 case, we obtain signatures of size $46.6$ KB and public keys of size $13.6$ KB. We achieve $\approx 5\times$ improved parameters if only a small number of signatures are ever issued with the same key. As an essential building block and independent contribution, we construct an actively secure threshold (linearly) homomorphic encryption scheme that supports arbitrary thresholds $t \leq n$.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
YPIR: High-Throughput Single-Server PIR with Silent Preprocessing
Samir Jordan Menon and David J. Wu
We introduce YPIR, a single-server private information retrieval (PIR) protocol that achieves high throughput (up to 83% of the memory bandwidth of the machine) without any offline communication. For retrieving a 1-bit (or 1-byte) record from a 32 GB database, YPIR achieves 12.1 GB/s/core server throughput and requires 2.5 MB of total communication. On the same setup, the state-of-the-art SimplePIR protocol achieves a 12.5 GB/s/core server throughput, requires 1.5 MB total communication, but additionally requires downloading a 724 MB hint in an offline phase. YPIR leverages a new lightweight technique to remove the hint from high-throughput single-server PIR schemes with small overhead. We also show how to reduce the server preprocessing time in the SimplePIR family of protocols by a factor of $10$-$15\times$. By removing the need for offline communication, YPIR significantly reduces the server-side costs for private auditing of Certificate Transparency logs. Compared to the best previous PIR-based approach, YPIR reduces the server-side costs by a factor of $8\times$. Note that to reduce communication costs, the previous approach assumed that updates to the Certificate Transparency log servers occurred in weekly batches. Since there is no offline communication in YPIR, our approach allows clients to always audit the most recent Certificate Transparency logs (e.g., updating once a day). Supporting daily updates using the prior scheme would cost $48\times$ more than YPIR (based on current AWS compute costs).
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Secret and Shared Keys Recovery on Hamming Quasi-Cyclic with SASCA
Chloé Baïsse, Antoine Moran, Guillaume Goy, Julien Maillard, Nicolas Aragon, Philippe Gaborit, Maxime Lecomte, and Antoine Loiseau
Soft Analytical Side Channel Attacks (SASCA) are a powerful family of Side Channel Attacks (SCA) that allows the recovery of secret values with only a small number of traces. Their effectiveness lies in the Belief Propagation (BP) algorithm, which enables efficient computation of the marginal distributions of intermediate values. Post-quantum schemes such as Kyber, and more recently, Hamming Quasi-Cyclic (HQC), have been targets of SASCA. Previous SASCA on HQC focused on Reed-Solomon (RS) codes and successfully retrieved the shared key with a high success rate for high noise levels using a single trace. In this work, we present new SASCA on HQC, where both the shared key and the secret key are targeted. Our attacks are realized on simulations. Unlike the previous SASCA, we take a closer look at the Reed-Muller (RM) code. The advantage of this choice is that the RM decoder is applied before the RS decoder, enabling attacks targeting both the secret key and shared key. We build a factor graph of the Fast Hadamard Transform (FHT) function from the HQC reference implementation of April 2023. The information recovered from BP allows us to retrieve the shared key with a single trace. In addition to the previous SASCA targeting HQC, we also manage to recover the secret key with two different chosen ciphertext attacks. One of them requires a single trace and is successful until high noise levels.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Privacy-Preserving Epidemiological Modeling on Mobile Graphs
Daniel Günther, Marco Holz, Benjamin Judkewitz, Helen Möllering, Benny Pinkas, Thomas Schneider, and Ajith Suresh
The latest pandemic COVID-19 brought governments worldwide to use various containment measures to control its spread, such as contact tracing, social distance regulations, and curfews. Epidemiological simulations are commonly used to assess the impact of those policies before they are implemented. Unfortunately, the scarcity of relevant empirical data, specifically detailed social contact graphs, hampered their predictive accuracy. As this data is inherently privacy-critical, a method is urgently needed to perform powerful epidemiological simulations on real-world contact graphs without disclosing any sensitive information. In this work, we present RIPPLE, a privacy-preserving epidemiological modeling framework enabling standard models for infectious disease on a population’s real contact graph while keeping all contact information locally on the participants’ devices. As a building block of independent interest, we present PIR-SUM, a novel extension to private information retrieval for secure download of element sums from a database. Our protocols are supported by a proof-of-concept implementation, demonstrating a 2-week simulation over half a million participants completed in 7 minutes, with each participant communicating less than 50 KB.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
A note on Failing gracefully: Completing the picture for explicitly rejecting Fujisaki-Okamoto transforms using worst-case correctness
Kathrin Hövelmanns and Christian Majenz
The Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transformation is used in most proposals for post-quantum secure key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) like, e.g., Kyber [BDK+18]. The security analysis of FO in the presence of quantum attackers has made huge progress over the last years. Recently, [HHM22] made a particular improvement by giving a security proof that is agnostic towards how invalid ciphertexts are being treated: in contrast to previous proofs, it works regardless whether invalid ciphertexts are rejected by reporting decryption failure explicitly or implicitly (by returning pseudorandom values). The proof in [HHM22] involves a new correctness notion for the encryption scheme that is used to encapsulate the keys. This allows in principle for a smaller additive security related to decryption failures, but requires to analyze this new notion for the encryption scheme on which a concrete KEM at hand is based. This note offers a trade-off between [HHM22] and its predecessors: it offers a bound for both rejection variants, being mostly based on [HHM22], but uses a more established correctness notion.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Time Sharing - A Novel Approach to Low-Latency Masking
Dilip Kumar S. V., Siemen Dhooghe, Josep Balasch, Benedikt Gierlichs, and Ingrid Verbauwhede
We present a novel approach to small area and low-latency first-order masking in hardware. The core idea is to separate the processing of shares in time in order to achieve non-completeness. Resulting circuits are proven first-order glitch-extended PINI secure. This means the method can be straightforwardly applied to mask arbitrary functions without constraints which the designer must take care of. Furthermore we show that an implementation can benefit from optimization through EDA tools without sacrificing security. We provide concrete results of several case studies. Our low-latency implementation of a complete PRINCE core shows a 32% area improvement (44% with optimization) over the state-of-the-art. Our PRINCE S-Box passes formal verification with a tool and the complete core on FPGA shows no first-order leakage in TVLA with 100 million traces. Our low-latency implementation of the AES S-Box costs roughly one third (one quarter with optimization) of the area of state-of-the-art implementations. It shows no first-order leakage in TVLA with 250 million traces.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Hints from Hertz: Dynamic Frequency Scaling Side-Channel Analysis of Number Theoretic Transform in Lattice-Based KEMs
Tianrun Yu, Chi Cheng, Zilong Yang, Yingchen Wang, Yanbin Pan, and Jian Weng
Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) has been widely used in accelerating computations in lattice-based cryptography. However, attackers can potentially launch power analysis targeting NTT because it is usually the most time-consuming part of the implementation. This extended time frame provides a natural window of opportunity for attackers. In this paper, we investigate the first CPU frequency leakage (Hertzbleed-like) attacks against NTT in lattice-based KEMs. Our key observation is that different inputs to NTT incur different Hamming weights in its output and intermediate layers. By measuring the CPU frequency during the execution of NTT, we propose a simple yet effective attack idea to find the input to NTT that triggers NTT processing data with significantly low Hamming weight. We further apply our attack idea to real-world applications that are built upon NTT: CPA-secure Kyber without Compression and Decompression functions, and CCA-secure NTTRU. This leads us to extract information or frequency Hints about the secret key. Integrating these Hints into the LWE-estimator framework, we estimate a minimum of $35\%$ security loss caused by the leakage. The frequency and timing measurements on the Reference and AVX2 implementations of NTT in both Kyber and NTTRU align well with our theoretical analysis, confirming the existence of frequency side-channel leakage in NTT. It is important to emphasize that our observation is not limited to a specific implementation but rather the algorithm on which NTT is based. Therefore, our results call for more attention to the analysis of power leakage against NTT in lattice-based cryptography.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Leakage Certification Made Simple
Aakash Chowdhury, Carlo Brunetta, Arnab Roy, and Elisabeth Oswald
Side channel evaluations benefit from sound characterisations of adversarial leakage models, which are the determining factor for attack success. Two questions are of interest: can we define and estimate a quantity that captures the ideal adversary (who knows all the distributions that are involved in an attack), and can we define and estimate a quantity that captures a concrete adversary (represented by a given leakage model)? Existing work has led to a proliferation of custom quantities to measure both types of adversaries, which can be data intensive to estimate in the ideal case, even for discrete side channels and especially when the number of dimensions in the side channel traces grows. In this paper, we show how to define the mutual information between carefully chosen variables of interest and how to instantiate a recently suggested mutual information estimator for practical estimation. We apply our results to real-world data sets and are the first to provide a mutual information-based characterisation of ideal and concrete adversaries utilising up to 30 data points.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
Climbing and descending tall volcanos
Steven Galbraith
We revisit the question of relating the elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) between ordinary elliptic curves over finite fields with the same number of points. This problem was considered in 1999 by Galbraith and in 2005 by Jao, Miller, and Venkatesan. We apply recent results from isogeny cryptography and cryptanalysis, especially the Kani construction, to this problem. We improve the worst case bound in Galbraith's 1999 paper from $\tilde{O}( q^{1.5} )$ to (heuristically) $\tilde{O}( q^{0.4} )$ operations. The two cases of main interest for discrete logarithm cryptography are random curves (flat volcanoes) and pairing-based crypto (tall volcanoes with crater of constant or polynomial size). In both cases we show a rigorous $\tO( q^{1/4})$ algorithm to compute an isogeny between any two curves in the isogeny class. We stress that this paper is motivated by pre-quantum elliptic curve cryptography using ordinary elliptic curves, which is not yet obsolete.
Last updated:  2024-06-10
On Orchestrating Parallel Broadcasts for Distributed Ledgers
Peiyao Sheng, Chenyuan Wu, Dahlia Malkhi, Michael K. Reiter, Chrysoula Stathakopoulou, Michael Wei, and Maofan Yin
This paper introduces and develops the concept of ``ticketing'', through which atomic broadcasts are orchestrated by nodes in a distributed system. The paper studies different ticketing regimes that allow parallelism, yet prevent slow nodes from hampering overall progress. It introduces a hybrid scheme which combines managed and unmanaged ticketing regimes, striking a balance between adaptivity and resilience. The performance evaluation demonstrates how managed and unmanaged ticketing regimes benefit throughput in systems with heterogeneous resources both in static and dynamic scenarios, with the managed ticketing regime performing better among the two as it adapts better. Finally, it demonstrates how using the hybrid ticketing regime performance can enjoy both the adaptivity of the managed regime and the liveness guarantees of the unmanaged regime.
Last updated:  2024-06-09
Traceable Secret Sharing: Strong Security and Efficient Constructions
Dan Boneh, Aditi Partap, and Lior Rotem
Suppose Alice uses a $t$-out-of-$n$ secret sharing to store her secret key on $n$ servers. Her secret key is protected as long as $t$ of them do not collude. However, what if a less-than-$t$ subset of the servers decides to offer the shares they have for sale? In this case, Alice should be able to hold them accountable, or else nothing prevents them from selling her shares. With this motivation in mind, Goyal, Song, and Srinivasan (CRYPTO 21) introduced the concept of {\em traceable secret sharing}. In such schemes, it is possible to provably trace the leaked secret shares back to the servers who leaked them. Goyal et al.~presented the first construction of a traceable secret sharing scheme. However, secret shares in their construction are quadratic in the secret size, and their tracing algorithm is quite involved as it relies on Goldreich-Levin decoding. In this work, we put forth new definitions and practical constructions for traceable secret sharing. In our model, some $f < t$ servers output a reconstruction box~$R$ that may arbitrarily depend on their shares. Given additional $t-f$ shares, $R$ reconstructs and outputs the secret. The task is to trace $R$ back to the corrupted servers given black-box access to $R$. Unlike Goyal et al., we do not assume that the tracing algorithm has any information on how the corrupted servers constructed~$R$ from the shares in their possession. We then present two very efficient constructions of traceable secret sharing based on two classic secret sharing schemes. In both of our schemes, shares are only twice as large as the secret, improving over the quadratic overhead of Goyal et al. Our first scheme is obtained by presenting a new practical tracing algorithm for the widely-used Shamir secret sharing scheme. Our second construction is based on an extension of Blakley's secret sharing scheme. Tracing in this scheme is optimally efficient, and requires just one successful query to $R$. We believe that our constructions are an important step towards bringing traceable secret-sharing schemes to practice. This work also raises several interesting open problems that we describe in the paper.
Last updated:  2024-06-09
Simple Logarithmic-size LSAG signature
Edsger Hughes
A number of existing cryptosystems use the well-known LSAG signature and its extensions. This article presents a simple logarithmic-size signature scheme LS-LSAG which, despite a radical reduction in size, retains the basic code block of the LSAG signature. Therefore, substituting LS-LSAG for LSAG requires minimal changes to almost any existing coded LSAG extension, making it logarithmic instead of linear.
Last updated:  2024-06-09
Leveraging Small Message Spaces for CCA1 Security in Additively Homomorphic and BGN-type Encryption
Benoit Libert
We show that the smallness of message spaces can be used as a checksum allowing to hedge against CCA1 attacks in additively homomorphic encryption schemes. We first show that the additively homomorphic variant of Damgård's Elgamal provides IND-CCA1 security under the standard DDH assumption. Earlier proofs either required non-standard assumptions or only applied to hybrid versions of Damgård's Elgamal, which are not additively homomorphic. Our security proof builds on hash proof systems and exploits the fact that encrypted messages must be contained in a polynomial-size interval in order to enable decryption. With $3$ group elements per ciphertext, this positions Damgård's Elgamal as the most efficient/compact DDH-based additively homomorphic CCA1 cryptosystem. Under the same assumption, the best candidate so far was the lite Cramer-Shoup cryptosystem, where ciphertexts consist of $4$ group elements. We extend this observation to build an IND-CCA1 variant of the Boneh-Goh-Nissim encryption scheme, which allows evaluating 2-DNF formulas on encrypted data. By computing tensor products of Damgård's Elgamal ciphertexts, we obtain product ciphertexts consisting of $9$ group elements (instead of $16$ elements if we were tensoring lite Cramer-Shoup ciphertexts) in the target group of a bilinear map. Using similar ideas, we also obtain a CCA1 variant of the Elgamal-Paillier cryptosystem by forcing $\lambda$ plaintext bits to be zeroes, which yields CCA1 security almost for free. In particular, the message space remains exponentially large and ciphertexts are as short as in the IND-CPA scheme. We finally adapt the technique to the Castagnos-Laguillaumie system.
Last updated:  2024-06-09
Multi-Input Functional Encryption for Unbounded Inner Products
Bishnu Charan Behera and Somindu C. Ramanna
In this work, we propose a construction for $ Multi~Input~Inner ~Product ~Encryption$ (MIPFE) that can handle vectors of variable length in different encryption slots. This construction is the first of its kind, as all existing MIPFE schemes allow only equal length vectors. The scheme is constructed in the private key setting, providing privacy for both message as well as the function, thereby achieving the so-called $full-hiding$ security. Our MIPFE scheme uses bilinear groups of prime order and achieves security under well studied cryptographic assumptions, namely, the symmetric external Diffie-Hellman assumption.
Last updated:  2024-06-09
Cryptographic Analysis of Delta Chat
Yuanming Song, Lenka Mareková, and Kenneth G. Paterson
We analyse the cryptographic protocols underlying Delta Chat, a decentralised messaging application which uses e-mail infrastructure for message delivery. It provides end-to-end encryption by implementing the Autocrypt standard and the SecureJoin protocols, both making use of the OpenPGP standard. Delta Chat's adoption by categories of high-risk users such as journalists and activists, but also more generally users in regions affected by Internet censorship, makes it a target for powerful adversaries. Yet, the security of its protocols has not been studied to date. We describe five new attacks on Delta Chat in its own threat model, exploiting cross-protocol interactions between its implementation of SecureJoin and Autocrypt, as well as bugs in rPGP, its OpenPGP library. The findings have been disclosed to the Delta Chat team, who implemented fixes.
Last updated:  2024-06-09
Unbounded Non-Zero Inner Product Encryption
Bishnu Charan Behera and Somindu C. Ramanna
In a non-zero inner product encryption (NIPE) scheme, ciphertexts and keys are associated with vectors from some inner-product space. Decryption of a ciphertext for $\vec{x}$ is allowed by a key for $\vec{y}$ if and only if the inner product $\langle{\vec{x}},{\vec{y}}\rangle \neq 0$. Existing constructions of NIPE assume the length of the vectors are fixed apriori. We present the first constructions of $ unbounded $ non-zero inner product encryption (UNIPE) with constant sized keys. Unbounded here refers to the size of vectors not being pre-fixed during setup. Both constructions, based on bilinear maps, are proven selectively secure under the decisional bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption. Our constructions are obtained by transforming the unbounded inner product functional encryption (IPFE) schemes of Dufour-Sans and Pointcheval (ACNS 2019), one in the $strict ~ domain$ setting and the other in the $permissive ~ domain$ setting. Interestingly, in the latter case, we prove security from DBDH, a static assumption while the original IPE scheme relied on an interactive parameterised assumption. In terms of efficiency, features of the IPE constructions are retrained after transformation to NIPE. Notably, the public key and decryption keys have constant size.
Last updated:  2024-06-08
Polymath: Groth16 Is Not The Limit
Helger Lipmaa
Shortening the argument (three group elements or 1536 / 3072 bits over the BLS12-381/BLS24-509 curves) of the Groth16 zk-SNARK for R1CS is a long-standing open problem. We propose a zk-SNARK Polymath for the Square Arithmetic Programming constraint system using the KZG polynomial commitment scheme. Polymath has a shorter argument (1408 / 1792 bits over the same curves) than Groth16. At 192-bit security, Polymath's argument is nearly half the size, making it highly competitive for high-security future applications. Notably, we handle public inputs in a simple way. We optimized Polymath's prover through an exhaustive parameter search. Polymath's prover does not output $\mathbb{G}_{2}$ elements, aiding in batch verification, SNARK aggregation, and recursion. Polymath's properties make it highly suitable to be the final SNARK in SNARK compositions.
Last updated:  2024-06-08
Secure Noise Sampling for DP in MPC with Finite Precision
Hannah Keller, Helen Möllering, Thomas Schneider, Oleksandr Tkachenko, and Liang Zhao
While secure multi-party computation (MPC) protects the privacy of inputs and intermediate values of a computation, differential privacy (DP) ensures that the output itself does not reveal too much about individual inputs. For this purpose, MPC can be used to generate noise and add this noise to the output. However, securely generating and adding this noise is a challenge considering real-world implementations on finite-precision computers, since many DP mechanisms guarantee privacy only when noise is sampled from continuous distributions requiring infinite precision. We introduce efficient MPC protocols that securely realize noise sampling for several plaintext DP mechanisms that are secure against existing precision-based attacks: the discrete Laplace and Gaussian mechanisms, the snapping mechanism, and the integer-scaling Laplace and Gaussian mechanisms. Due to their inherent trade-offs, the favorable mechanism for a specific application depends on the available computation resources, type of function evaluated, and desired $(\epsilon,\delta)$-DP guarantee. The benchmarks of our protocols implemented in the state-of-the-art MPC framework MOTION (Braun et al., TOPS'22) demonstrate highly efficient online runtimes of less than 32 ms/query and down to about 1ms/query with batching in the two-party setting. Also the respective offline phases are practical, requiring only 51 ms to 5.6 seconds/query depending on the batch size.
Last updated:  2024-06-08
DoS-resistant Oblivious Message Retrieval and Snake-eye Resistant PKE from LWE
Uncategorized
Zeyu Liu, Katerina Sotiraki, Eran Tromer, and Yunhao Wang
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Uncategorized
Oblivious message retrieval (OMR) allows messages resource-limited recipients to outsource the message retrieval process without revealing which messages are pertinent to which recipient. Its realizations in recent works leave an open problem: can an OMR scheme be both practical and provably secure against spamming attacks from malicious senders (i.e., DoS-resistant) under standard assumptions? In this paper, we first prove that a prior construction OMRp2 is DoS-resistant under a standard LWE assumption, resolving an open conjecture of prior works. Then, we present DoS-PerfOMR: a provably DoS-resistant OMR construction that is 12x faster than OMRp2, and (almost) matches the performance of the state-of-the-art OMR scheme that is not DoS-resistant. As a building block, we analyze the snake-eye resistance property for general PKE schemes. We construct a new lattice-based PKE scheme, LWEmongrass that is provably snake-eye resistant and has better efficiency than the PVW scheme underlying OMRp2. We also show that the natural candidates (e.g., RingLWE PKE) are not snake-eye resistant. Of independent interest, we introduce two variants of LWE with side information, as components towards proving the properties of LWEmongrass, and reduce standard LWE to them for the parameters of interest.
Last updated:  2024-06-08
SoK: Model Reverse Engineering Threats for Neural Network Hardware
Seetal Potluri and Farinaz Koushanfar
There has been significant progress over the past seven years in model reverse engineering (RE) for neural network (NN) hardware. Although there has been systematization of knowledge (SoK) in an overall sense, however, the treatment from the hardware perspective has been far from adequate. To bridge this gap, this paper systematically categorizes the types of NN hardware used prevalently by the industry/academia, and also the model RE attacks/defenses published in each category. Further, we sub-categorize existing NN model RE attacks based on different criteria including the degree of hardware parallelism, threat vectors like side channels, fault-injection, scan-chain attacks, system-level attacks, type of asset under attack, the type of NN, exact versus approximate recovery, etc. We make important technical observations and identify key open research directions. Subsequently, we discuss the state-of-the-art defenses against NN model RE, identify certain categorization criteria, and compare the existing works based on these criteria. We note significant qualitative gaps for defenses, and suggest recommendations for important open research directions for protection of NN models. Finally, we discuss limitations of existing work in terms of the types of models where security evaluation or defenses were proposed, and suggest open problems in terms of protecting practically expensive model IPs.
Last updated:  2024-06-08
Glitch-Stopping Circuits: Hardware Secure Masking without Registers
Zhenda Zhang, Svetla Nikova, and Ventzislav Nikov
Masking is one of the most popular countermeasures to protect implementations against power and electromagnetic side channel attacks, because it offers provable security. Masking has been shown secure against d-threshold probing adversaries by Ishai et al. at CRYPTO'03, but this adversary's model doesn't consider any physical hardware defaults and thus such masking schemes were shown to be still vulnerable when implemented as hardware circuits. To addressed these limitations glitch-extended probing adversaries and correspondingly glitch-immune masking schemes have been introduced. This paper introduces glitch-stopping circuits which, when instantiated with registers, coincide with circuits protected via glitch-immune masking. Then we show that one can instantiate glitch-stopping circuits without registers by using clocked logic gates or latches. This is illustrated for both ASIC and FPGA, offering a promising alternative to conventional register-based masked implementations. Compared to the traditional register-based approach, these register-free solutions can reduce the latency to a single cycle and achieve a lower area cost. We prove and experimentally confirm that the proposed solution is as secure as the register-based one. In summary, this paper proposes a novel method to address the latency of register-based hardware masking without jeopardising their security. This method not only reduces the latency down to one clock, but also improves the areas costs of the implementations.
Last updated:  2024-06-07
REACTIVE: Rethinking Effective Approaches Concerning Trustees in Verifiable Elections
Josh Benaloh, Michael Naehrig, and Olivier Pereira
For more than forty years, two principal questions have been asked when designing verifiable election systems: how will the integrity of the results be demonstrated and how will the privacy of votes be preserved? Many approaches have been taken towards answering the first question such as use of MixNets and homomorphic tallying. But in the academic literature, the second question has always been answered in the same way: decryption capabilities are divided amongst multiple independent “trustees” so that a collusion is required to compromise privacy. In practice, however, this approach can be fairly challenging to deploy. Human trustees rarely have a clear understanding of their responsibilities, and they typically all use identical software for their tasks. Rather than exercising independent judgment to maintain privacy, trustees are often reduced to automata who just push the buttons they are told to when they are told to, doing little towards protecting voter privacy. This paper looks at several aspects of the trustee experience. It begins by discussing various cryptographic protocols that have been used for key generation in elections, explores their impact on the role of trustees, and notes that even the theory of proper use of trustees is more challenging than it might seem. This is illustrated by showing that one of the only references defining a full threshold distributed key generation (DKG) for elections defines an insecure protocol. Belenios claims to rely on that reference for its DKG and security proof. Fortunately, it does not inherit the same vulnerability. We offer a security proof for the Belenios DKG. The paper then discusses various practical contexts, in terms of humans, software, and hardware, and their impact on the practical deployment of a trustee-based privacy model.
Last updated:  2024-06-07
Fast pairings via biextensions and cubical arithmetic
Damien Robert
Biextensions associated to line bundles on abelian varieties allows to reinterpret the usual Weil, Tate, Ate, optimal Ate, \ldots, pairings as monodromy pairings. We introduce a cubical arithmetic, derived from the canonical cubical torsor structure of these line bundles, to obtain an efficient arithmetic of these biextensions. This unifies and extends Miller's standard algorithm to compute pairings along with other algorithms like elliptic nets and theta functions, and allows to adapt these algorithms to pairings on any model of abelian varieties with a polarisation $\Phi_D$, as long as we have an explicit theorem of the square for $D$. In particular, we give explicit formulas for the arithmetic of the biextension (and cubical torsor structure) associated to the divisor $D=2(0_E)$ on an elliptic curve. We derive very efficient pairing formulas on elliptic curves and Kummer lines. Notably for generic pairings on Montgomery curves, our cubical biextension ladder algorithm to compute pairings costs only $15M$ by bits, which as far as I know is faster than any pairing doubling formula in the literature.
Last updated:  2024-06-07
Failed crypto: Matrices over non-standard arithmetic
Daniel R. L. Brown
A failed hypothesis is reported here. The hope was that large matrices over small non-standard arithmetic are likely to have infeasible division, and furthermore be secure for use in Rabi–Sherman associative cryptography.
Last updated:  2024-06-07
Cryptanalysis of Lattice-Based Sequentiality Assumptions and Proofs of Sequential Work
Chris Peikert and Yi Tang
This work *completely breaks* the sequentiality assumption (and broad generalizations thereof) underlying the candidate lattice-based proof of sequential work (PoSW) recently proposed by Lai and Malavolta at CRYPTO 2023. In addition, it breaks an essentially identical variant of the PoSW, which differs from the original in only an arbitrary choice that is immaterial to the design and security proof (under the falsified assumption). This suggests that whatever security the original PoSW may have is fragile, and further motivates the search for a construction based on a sound lattice-based assumption. Specifically, for sequentiality parameter $T$ and SIS parameters $n,q,m = n \log q$, the attack on the sequentiality assumption finds a solution of quasipolynomial norm $m^{\lceil \log T \rceil}$ (or norm $O(\sqrt{m})^{\lceil \log T \rceil}$ with high probability) in only *logarithmic* $\tilde{O}_{n,q}(\log T)$ depth; this strongly falsifies the assumption that finding such a solution requires depth *linear* in $T$. (The $\tilde{O}$ notation hides polylogarithmic factors in the variables appearing in its subscript.) Alternatively, the attack finds a solution of polynomial norm $m^{1/\varepsilon}$ in depth $\tilde{O}_{n,q}(T^{\varepsilon})$, for any constant $\varepsilon > 0$. Similarly, the attack on the (slightly modified) PoSW constructs a valid proof in \emph{polylogarithmic} $\tilde{O}_{n,q}(\log^2 T)$ depth, thus strongly falsifying the expectation that doing so requires linear sequential work.
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