Papers updated in last 365 days (2787 results)

Last updated:  2024-07-23
Perceived Information Revisited II: Information-Theoretical Analysis of Deep-Learning Based Side-Channel Attacks
Akira Ito, Rei Ueno, and Naofumi Homma
Previous studies on deep-learning-based side-channel attacks (DL-SCAs) have shown that traditional performance evaluation metrics commonly used in DL, like accuracy and F1 score, are not effective in evaluating DL-SCA performance. Therefore, some previous studies have proposed new alternative metrics for evaluating the performance of DL-SCAs. Notably, perceived information (PI) and effective perceived information (EPI) are major metrics based on information theory. While it has been experimentally confirmed that these metrics can give the attack success rate (SR) for DL-SCAs, their theoretical validity remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a new theoretically valid performance evaluation metric called latent perceived information (LPI), which serves as an alternative to the existing metrics. LPI is defined as the mutual information between the output of the feature extractor of a neural network (NN) model and the intermediate value, representing the potential attack performance of the trained model. First, we prove that LPI provides an upper bound on the SR of a DL-SCA by modeling and formulating DL-SCA as a communication channel. Additionally, we clarify the conditions under which PI and EPI theoretically provide an upper bound on the SR from the perspective of LPI. For practical computation of LPI, we present two methods. One utilizes the Kraskov (KSG) estimator, a common mutual information estimator, and the other is based on the logistic regression. While the KSG estimator is computationally intensive, it yields accurate LPI values. In contrast, the logistic regression is faster but provides a lower bound for LPI. Through experimental attacks on AES software and hardware implementations with masking countermeasures, we demonstrate that the LPI values estimated by these two methods are significantly similar, indicating the reliability and soundness of our proposed estimation techniques. Furthermore, we present the use of a classifier based on logistic regression to improve the attack performance of the trained model. We experimentally demonstrate that an NN model with the logistic regression-based classifier can achieve the upper bound of attack performance predicted by LPI, meaning a significant improvement in attack performance from the original NN. Thus, our study contributes to realizing the optimal distinguisher using the trained model in terms of attack performance.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Linea Prover Documentation
Linea Prover
Rollup technology today promises long-term solutions to the scalability of the blockchain. Among a thriving ecosystem, Consensys has launched the Linea zkEVM Rollup network for Ethereum. At a high level, the Ethereum blockchain can be seen as a state machine and its state transition can be arithmetized carefully. Linea's prover protocol uses this arithmetization, along with transactions on layer two in order to compute a cryptographic proof that the state transition is performed correctly. The proof is then sent over to the Ethereum layer, where the smart contract (verifier contract) on Ethereum checks the proof and accepts the state transition if the proof is valid. The interaction between layer two and Ethereum is costly, which imposes substantial limitations on the proof size. Therefore, Linea's prover aims to compress the proof via cryptographic tools such as list polynomial commitments (LPCs), polynomial interactive oracle proofs (PIOPs), and Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments of Knowledge (SNARKs). We introduce Wizard-IOP, a cryptographic tool for handling a wide class of queries (such as range checks, scalar products, permutations checks, etc.) needed to ensure the correctness of the executions of the state machines efficiently and conveniently. Another cryptographic tool is the Arcane compiler, which outputs standard PIOPs and is employed by Wizard-IOP to make different queries homogeneous. After applying Arcane, all the queries constitute evaluation queries over the polynomials. We then apply the Unique Evaluation compiler (UniEval), which receives the output of the Arcane and provides us with a PIOP that requires only a single evaluation check. At this point, we employ Vortex, a list polynomial commitment (LPC) scheme to convert the resulting PIOP into an argument of knowledge. The argument of knowledge is then made succinct by applying different techniques such as self-recursion, standard recursion, and proof aggregations.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Swoosh: Efficient Lattice-Based Non-Interactive Key Exchange
Phillip Gajland, Bor de Kock, Miguel Quaresma, Giulio Malavolta, and Peter Schwabe
The advent of quantum computers has sparked significant interest in post-quantum cryptographic schemes, as a replacement for currently used cryptographic primitives. In this context, lattice-based cryptography has emerged as the leading paradigm to build post-quantum cryptography. However, all existing viable replacements of the classical Diffie-Hellman key exchange require additional rounds of interactions, thus failing to achieve all the benefits of this protocol. Although earlier work has shown that lattice-based Non-Interactive Key Exchange (NIKE) is theoretically possible, it has been considered too inefficient for real-life applications. In this work, we challenge this folklore belief and provide the first evidence against it. We construct an efficient lattice-based NIKE whose security is based on the standard module learning with errors (M-LWE) problem in the quantum random oracle model. Our scheme is obtained in two steps: (i) A passively-secure construction that achieves a strong notion of correctness, coupled with (ii) a generic compiler that turns any such scheme into an actively-secure one. To substantiate our efficiency claim, we provide an optimised implementation of our passively-secure construction in Rust and Jasmin. Our implementation demonstrates the scheme's applicability to real-world scenarios, yielding public keys of approximately 220 KBs. Moreover, the computation of shared keys takes fewer than 12 million cycles on an Intel Skylake CPU, offering a post-quantum security level exceeding 120 bits.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Interactive Authentication
Deepak Maram, Mahimna Kelkar, and Ittay Eyal
Authentication is the first, crucial step in securing digital assets like cryptocurrencies and online services like banking. It relies on principals maintaining exclusive access to credentials like cryptographic signing keys, passwords, and physical devices. But both individuals and organizations struggle to manage their credentials, resulting in loss of assets and identity theft. In this work, we study mechanisms with back-and-forth interaction with the principals. For example, a user receives an email notification about sending money from her bank account and is given a period of time to abort. We define the authentication problem, where a mechanism interacts with a user and an attacker. A mechanism's success depends on the scenario, namely, which credentials each principal knows. The profile of a mechanism is the set of scenarios in which it succeeds. The subset relation on profiles defines a partial order on mechanisms. We bound the profile size and discover three types of novel mechanisms that are maximally secure. We show the efficacy of our model by analyzing existing mechanisms and make concrete improvement proposals: Using sticky messages for security notifications, prioritizing credentials when accessing one's bank account, and using one of our maximal mechanisms to improve a popular cryptocurrency wallet. We demonstrate the practicality of our mechanisms by implementing the latter.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Formal Verification of Emulated Floating-Point Arithmetic in Falcon
Vincent Hwang
We show that there is a discrepancy between the emulated floating-point multiplication in the submission package of the digital signature Falcon and the claimed behavior. In particular, we show that some floating-point products with absolute values the smallest normal positive floating-point number are incorrectly zeroized. However, we show that the discrepancy doesn’t affect the complex fast Fourier transform in the signature generation of Falcon by modeling the floating-point addition, subtraction, and multiplication in CryptoLine. We later implement our own floating-point multiplications in Armv7-M assembly and Jasmin and prove their equivalence with our model, demonstrating the possibility of transferring the challenging verification task (verifying highly-optimized assembly) to the presumably more readable code base (Jasmin).
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Zero-Knowledge Proofs of Training for Deep Neural Networks
Kasra Abbaszadeh, Christodoulos Pappas, Jonathan Katz, and Dimitrios Papadopoulos
A zero-knowledge proof of training (zkPoT) enables a party to prove that they have correctly trained a committed model based on a committed dataset without revealing any additional information about the model or the dataset. An ideal zkPoT should offer provable security and privacy guarantees, succinct proof size and verifier runtime, and practical prover efficiency. In this work, we present \name, a zkPoT targeted for deep neural networks (DNNs) that achieves all these goals at once. Our construction enables a prover to iteratively train their model via (mini-batch) gradient descent, where the number of iterations need not be fixed in advance; at the end of each iteration, the prover generates a commitment to the trained model parameters attached with a succinct zkPoT, attesting to the correctness of the executed iterations. The proof size and verifier time are independent of the number of iterations. Our construction relies on two building blocks. First, we propose an optimized GKR-style (sumcheck-based) proof system for the gradient-descent algorithm with concretely efficient prover cost; this allows the prover to generate a proof for each iteration. We then show how to recursively compose these proofs across multiple iterations to attain succinctness. As of independent interest, we propose a generic framework for efficient recursive composition of GKR-style proofs, along with aggregatable polynomial commitments. Benchmarks indicate that \name\ can handle the training of complex models such as VGG-11 with 10~million parameters and batch size~$16$. The prover runtime is $15$~minutes per iteration, which is $\mathbf{24 \times}$ faster than generic recursive proofs, with prover memory overhead $\mathbf{27\times}$ lower. The proof size is $1.63$~megabytes, and the verifier runtime is only $130$~milliseconds, where both are independent of the number of iterations and the size of the dataset.
Last updated:  2024-07-21
Towards Quantum-Safe Blockchain: Exploration of PQC and Public-key Recovery on Embedded Systems
Dominik Marchsreiter
Blockchain technology ensures accountability, transparency, and redundancy in critical applications, includ- ing IoT with embedded systems. However, the reliance on public-key cryptography (PKC) makes blockchain vulnerable to quantum computing threats. This paper addresses the urgent need for quantum-safe blockchain solutions by integrating Post- Quantum Cryptography (PQC) into blockchain frameworks. Utilizing algorithms from the NIST PQC standardization pro- cess, we aim to fortify blockchain security and resilience, partic- ularly for IoT and embedded systems. Despite the importance of PQC, its implementation in blockchain systems tailored for embedded environments remains underexplored. We propose a quantum-secure blockchain architecture, evaluating various PQC primitives and optimizing transaction sizes through tech- niques such as public-key recovery for Falcon, achieving up to 17% reduction in transaction size. Our analysis identifies Falcon-512 as the most suitable algorithm for quantum-secure blockchains in embedded environments, with XMSS as a viable stateful alternative. However, for embedded devices, Dilithium demonstrates a higher transactions-per-second (TPS) rate compared to Falcon, primarily due to Falcon’s slower sign- ing performance on ARM CPUs. This highlights the signing time as a critical limiting factor in the integration of PQC within embedded blockchains. Additionally, we integrate smart contract functionality into the quantum-secure blockchain, assessing the impact of PQC on smart contract authentication. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of deploying quantum-secure blockchain solutions in embedded systems, paving the way for robust and future-proof IoT applications.
Last updated:  2024-07-21
Cryptanalysis of two post-quantum authenticated key agreement protocols
Mehdi Abri and Hamid Mala
As the use of the internet and digital devices has grown rapidly, keeping digital communications secure has become very important. Authenticated Key Agreement (AKA) protocols play a vital role in securing digital communications. These protocols enable the communicating parties to mutually authenticate and securely establish a shared secret key. The emergence of quantum computers makes many existing AKA protocols vulnerable to their immense computational power. Consequently, designing new protocols that are resistant to quantum attacks has become essential. Extensive research in this area had led to the design of several post-quantum AKA schemes. In this paper, we analyze two post-quantum AKA schemes proposed by Dharminder et al. [2022] and Pursharthi and Mishra. [2024] and demonstrate that these schemes are not secure against active adversaries. An adversary can impersonate an authorized user to the server. We then propose reliable solutions to prevent these attacks.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
A zero-trust swarm security architecture and protocols
Alex Shafarenko
This report presents the security protocols and general trust architecture of the SMARTEDGE swarm computing platform. Part 1 describes the coordination protocols for use in a swarm production environment, e.g. a smart factory, and Part 2 deals with crowd-sensing scenarios characteristic of traffic-control swarms.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
AVeCQ: Anonymous Verifiable Crowdsourcing with Worker Qualities
Vlasis Koutsos, Sankarshan Damle, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Sujit Gujar, and Dimitris Chatzopoulos
In crowdsourcing systems, requesters publish tasks, and interested workers provide answers to get rewards. Worker anonymity motivates participation since it protects their privacy. Anonymity with unlinkability is an enhanced version of anonymity because it makes it impossible to ``link'' workers across the tasks they participate in. Another core feature of crowdsourcing systems is worker quality which expresses a worker's trustworthiness and quantifies their historical performance. In this work, we present AVeCQ, the first crowdsourcing system that reconciles these properties, achieving enhanced anonymity and verifiable worker quality updates. AVeCQ relies on a suite of cryptographic tools, such as zero-knowledge proofs, to (i) guarantee workers' privacy, (ii) prove the correctness of worker quality scores and task answers, and (iii) commensurate payments. AVeCQ is developed modularly, where requesters and workers communicate over a platform that supports pseudonymity, information logging, and payments. To compare AVeCQ with the state-of-the-art, we prototype it over Ethereum. AVeCQ outperforms the state-of-the-art in three popular crowdsourcing tasks (image annotation, average review, and Gallup polls). E.g., for an Average Review task with 5 choices and 128 workers AVeCQ is 40% faster (including computing and verifying necessary proofs, and blockchain transaction processing overheads) with the task's requester consuming 87% fewer gas.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Grafted Trees Bear Better Fruit: An Improved Multiple-Valued Plaintext-Checking Side-Channel Attack against Kyber
Jinnuo Li, Chi Cheng, Muyan Shen, Peng Chen, Qian Guo, Dongsheng Liu, Liji Wu, and Jian Weng
As a prominent category of side-channel attacks (SCAs), plaintext-checking (PC) oracle-based SCAs offer the advantages of generality and operational simplicity on a targeted device. At TCHES 2023, Rajendran et al. and Tanaka et al. independently proposed the multiple-valued (MV) PC oracle, significantly reducing the required number of queries (a.k.a., traces) in the PC oracle. However, in practice, when dealing with environmental noise or inaccuracies in the waveform classifier, they still rely on majority voting or the other technique that usually results in three times the number of queries compared to the ideal case. In this paper, we propose an improved method to further reduce the number of queries of the MV-PC oracle, particularly in scenarios where the oracle is imperfect. Compared to the state-of-the-art at TCHES 2023, our proposed method reduces the number of queries for a full key recovery by more than $42.5\%$. The method involves three rounds. Our key observation is that coefficients recovered in the first round can be regarded as prior information to significantly aid in retrieving coefficients in the second round. This improvement is achieved through a newly designed grafted tree. Notably, the proposed method is generic and can be applied to both the NIST key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) standard Kyber and other significant candidates, such as Saber and Frodo. We have conducted extensive software simulations against Kyber-512, Kyber-768, Kyber-1024, FireSaber, and Frodo-1344 to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. An electromagnetic attack conducted on real-world implementations, using an STM32F407G board equipped with an ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller and Kyber implementation from the public library \textit{pqm4}, aligns well with our simulations.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Key-and-Signature Compact Multi-Signatures for Blockchain: A Compiler with Realizations
Shaoquan Jiang, Dima Alhadidi, and Hamid Fazli Khojir
Multi-signature is a protocol where a set of signatures jointly sign a message so that the final signature is significantly shorter than concatenating individual signatures together. Recently, it finds applications in blockchain, where several users want to jointly authorize a payment through a multi-signature. However, in this setting, there is no centralized authority and it could suffer from a rogue key attack where the attacker can generate his own keys arbitrarily. Further, to minimize the storage on blockchain, it is desired that the aggregated public-key and the aggregated signature are both as short as possible. In this paper, we find a compiler that converts a kind of identification (ID) scheme (which we call a linear ID) to a multi-signature so that both the aggregated public-key and the aggregated signature have a size independent of the number of signers. Our compiler is provably secure. The advantage of our results is that we reduce a multi-party problem to a weakly secure two-party problem. We realize our compiler with two ID schemes. The first is Schnorr ID. The second is a new lattice-based ID scheme, which via our compiler gives the first regular lattice-based multi-signature scheme with key-and-signature compact without a restart during signing process.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Cryptanalysis of Rank-2 Module-LIP with Symplectic Automorphisms
Hengyi Luo, Kaijie Jiang, Yanbin Pan, and Anyu Wang
At Eurocrypt'24, Mureau et al. formally defined the Lattice Isomorphism Problem for module lattices (module-LIP) in a number field $\mathbb{K}$, and proposed a heuristic randomized algorithm solving module-LIP for modules of rank 2 in $\mathbb{K}^2$ with a totally real number field $\mathbb{K}$, which runs in classical polynomial time for a large class of modules and a large class of totally real number field under some reasonable number theoretic assumptions. In this paper, by introducing a (pseudo) symplectic automorphism of the module, we successfully reduce the problem of solving module-LIP over CM number field to the problem of finding certain symplectic automorphism. Furthermore, we show that a weak (pseudo) symplectic automorphism can be computed efficiently, which immediately turns out to be the desired automorphism when the module is in a totally real number field. This directly results in a provable deterministic polynomial-time algorithm solving module-LIP for rank-2 modules in $\mathbb{K}^2$ where $\mathbb{K}$ is a totally real number field, without any assumptions or restrictions on the modules and the totally real number fields. Moreover, the weak symplectic automorphism can also be utilized to invalidate the omSVP assumption employed in HAWK's forgery security analysis, although it does not yield any actual attacks against HAWK itself.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Nova: Recursive Zero-Knowledge Arguments from Folding Schemes
Abhiram Kothapalli, Srinath Setty, and Ioanna Tzialla
We introduce a new approach to realize incrementally verifiable computation (IVC), in which the prover recursively proves the correct execution of incremental computations of the form $y=F^{(\ell)}(x)$, where $F$ is a (potentially non-deterministic) computation, $x$ is the input, $y$ is the output, and $\ell > 0$. Unlike prior approaches to realize IVC, our approach avoids succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) entirely and arguments of knowledge in general. Instead, we introduce and employ folding schemes, a weaker, simpler, and more efficiently-realizable primitive, which reduces the task of checking two instances in some relation to the task of checking a single instance. We construct a folding scheme for a characterization of $\mathsf{NP}$ and show that it implies an IVC scheme with improved efficiency characteristics: (1) the "recursion overhead" (i.e., the number of steps that the prover proves in addition to proving the execution of $F$) is a constant and it is dominated by two group scalar multiplications expressed as a circuit (this is the smallest recursion overhead in the literature), and (2) the prover's work at each step is dominated by two multiexponentiations of size $O(|F|)$, providing the fastest prover in the literature. The size of a proof is $O(|F|)$ group elements, but we show that using a variant of an existing zkSNARK, the prover can prove the knowledge of a valid proof succinctly and in zero-knowledge with $O(\log{|F|})$ group elements. Finally, our approach neither requires a trusted setup nor FFTs, so it can be instantiated efficiently with any cycles of elliptic curves where DLOG is hard.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
HyperNova: Recursive arguments for customizable constraint systems
Abhiram Kothapalli and Srinath Setty
We introduce HyperNova, a new recursive argument for proving incremental computations whose steps are expressed with CCS (Setty et al. ePrint 2023/552), a customizable constraint system that simultaneously generalizes Plonkish, R1CS, and AIR without overheads. HyperNova makes four contributions, each resolving a major problem in the area of recursive arguments. First, it provides a folding scheme for CCS where the prover’s cryptographic cost is a single multi-scalar multiplication (MSM) of size equal to the number of variables in the constraint system, which is optimal when using an MSM-based commitment scheme. The folding scheme can fold multiple instances at once, making it easier to build generalizations of IVC such as PCD. Second, when proving program executions on stateful machines (e.g., EVM, RISC-V), the cost of proving a step of a program is proportional only to the size of the circuit representing the instruction invoked by the program step ("a la carte" cost profile). Third, we show how to achieve zero-knowledge for "free" and without the need to employ zero-knowledge SNARKs: we use a folding scheme to "randomize" IVC proofs. This highlights a new application of folding schemes. Fourth, we show how to efficiently instantiate HyperNova over a cycle of elliptic curves. For this, we provide a general technique, which we refer to as CycleFold, that applies to all modern folding-scheme-based recursive arguments.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Abuse-Resistant Location Tracking: Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Offline Finding Ecosystem
Harry Eldridge, Gabrielle Beck, Matthew Green, Nadia Heninger, and Abhishek Jain
Location tracking accessories (or "tracking tags") such as those sold by Apple, Samsung, and Tile, allow owners to track the location of their property via offline finding networks. The tracking protocols were designed to ensure that no entity (including the vendor) can use a tag's broadcasts to surveil its owner. These privacy guarantees, however, seem to be at odds with the phenomenon of $\textit{tracker-based stalking}$, where attackers use these very tags to monitor a target's movements. Numerous such criminal incidents have been reported, and in response, manufacturers have chosen to substantially weaken privacy guarantees in order to allow users to detect stalker tags. This compromise has been adopted in a recent IETF draft jointly proposed by Apple and Google. We put forth the notion of $\textit{abuse-resistant offline finding protocols}$ that aim to achieve a better balance between user privacy and stalker detection. We present an efficient protocol that achieves stalker detection under realistic conditions without sacrificing honest user privacy. At the heart of our result, and of independent interest, is a new notion of $\textit{multi-dealer secret sharing}$ which strengthens standard secret sharing with novel privacy and correctness guarantees. We show that this primitive can be instantiated efficiently on edge devices using variants of Interleaved Reed-Solomon codes combined with new lattice-based decoding algorithms.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Generalized class group actions on oriented elliptic curves with level structure
Sarah Arpin, Wouter Castryck, Jonathan Komada Eriksen, Gioella Lorenzon, and Frederik Vercauteren
We study a large family of generalized class groups of imaginary quadratic orders $O$ and prove that they act freely and (essentially) transitively on the set of primitively $O$-oriented elliptic curves over a field $k$ (assuming this set is non-empty) equipped with appropriate level structure. This extends, in several ways, a recent observation due to Galbraith, Perrin and Voloch for the ray class group. We show that this leads to a reinterpretation of the action of the class group of a suborder $O' \subseteq O$ on the set of $O'$-oriented elliptic curves, discuss several other examples, and briefly comment on the hardness of the corresponding vectorization problems.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Tight Time-Space Tradeoffs for the Decisional Diffie-Hellman Problem
Akshima, Tyler Besselman, Siyao Guo, Zhiye Xie, and Yuping Ye
In the (preprocessing) Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem, we are given a cyclic group $G$ with a generator $g$ and a prime order $N$, and we want to prepare some advice of size $S$, such that we can efficiently distinguish $(g^{x},g^{y},g^{xy})$ from $(g^{x},g^{y},g^{z})$ in time $T$ for uniformly and independently chosen $x,y,z$ from $\mathbb{Z}_N$. This is a central cryptographic problem whose computational hardness underpins many widely deployed schemes, such as the Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol. We prove that any generic preprocessing DDH algorithm (operating in any cyclic group) achieves advantage at most $O(ST^2 / N)$. This bound matches the best known attack up to poly-log factors, and confirms that DDH is as secure as the (seemingly harder) discrete logarithm problem against preprocessing attacks. Our result resolves an open question by Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan (EUROCRYPT 2018), who proved optimal bounds for many variants of discrete logarithm problems except DDH (with an $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{ST^2/N})$ bound). We obtain our results by adopting and refining the approach by Gravin, Guo, Kwok, Lu (SODA 2021) and by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). Along the way, we significantly simplified and extended the above techniques which may be of independent interest. The highlights of our techniques are as follows: (1) We obtain a simpler reduction from decisional problems against $S$-bit advice to their $S$-wise XOR lemmas against zero-advice, recovering the reduction by Gravin, Guo, Kwok and Lu (SODA 2021). (2) We show how to reduce generic hardness of decisional problems to their variants in the simpler hyperplane query model proposed by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). This is the first work analyzing a decisional problem in Yun's model, answering an open problem proposed by Auerbach, Hoffman, and Pascual-Perez (TCC 2023). (3) We prove an $S$-wise XOR lemma of DDH in Yun's model. As a corollary, we obtain the generic hardness of the $S$-XOR DDH problem.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Rudraksh: A compact and lightweight post-quantum key-encapsulation mechanism
Suparna Kundu, Archisman Ghosh, Angshuman Karmakar, Shreyas Sen, and Ingrid Verbauwhede
Resource-constrained devices such as wireless sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) devices have become ubiquitous in our digital ecosystem. These devices generate and handle a major part of our digital data. In the face of the impending threat of quantum computers on our public-key infrastructure, it is impossible to imagine the security and privacy of our digital world without integrating post-quantum cryptography (PQC) into these devices. Usually, due to the resource constraints of these devices, the cryptographic schemes in these devices have to operate with very small memory and consume very little power. Therefore, we must provide a lightweight implementation of existing PQC schemes by possibly trading off the efficiency. The other option that can potentially provide the most optimal result is by designing PQC schemes suitable for lightweight and low-power-consuming implementation. Unfortunately, the latter method has been largely ignored in PQC research. In this work, we first provide a lightweight CCA-secure PQ key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) design based on hard lattice problems. We have done a scrupulous and extensive analysis and evaluation of different design elements, such as polynomial size, field modulus structure, reduction algorithm, secret and error distribution, etc., of a lattice-based KEM. We have optimized each of them to obtain a lightweight design. Our design provides a $100$ bit of PQ security and shows $\sim3$x improvement in terms of area with respect to the state-of-the-art Kyber KEM, a PQ standard.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Attacking Tropical Stickel Protocol by MILP and Heuristic Optimization Techniques
Sulaiman Alhussaini and Serge˘ı Sergeev
Known attacks on the tropical implementation of Stickel protocol involve solving a minimal covering problem, and this leads to an exponential growth in the time required to recover the secret key as the used polynomial degree increases. Consequently, it can be argued that Alice and Bob can still securely execute the protocol by utilizing very high polynomial degrees, a feasible approach due to the efficiency of tropical operations. The same is true for the implementation of Stickel protocol over some other semirings with idempotent addition (such as the max-min or fuzzy semiring). In this paper, we propose alternative methods to attacking Stickel protocol that avoid this minimal covering problem and the associated exponential time complexity. These methods involve framing the attacks as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem or applying certain global optimization techniques.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Shared-Custodial Password-Authenticated Deterministic Wallets
Poulami Das, Andreas Erwig, and Sebastian Faust
Cryptographic wallets are an essential tool in Blockchain networks to ensure the secure storage and maintenance of an user's cryptographic keys. Broadly, wallets can be divided into three categories, namely custodial, non-custodial, and shared-custodial wallets. The first two are centralized solutions, i.e., the wallet is operated by a single entity, which inherently introduces a single point of failure. Shared-custodial wallets, on the other hand, are maintained by two independent parties, e.g., the wallet user and a service provider, and hence avoid the single point of failure centralized solutions. Unfortunately, current shared-custodial wallets suffer from significant privacy issues. In our work, we introduce password-authenticated deterministic wallets (PADW), a novel and efficient shared-custodial wallet solution, which exhibits strong security and privacy guarantees. In a nutshell, in a PADW scheme, the secret key of the user is shared between the user and the server. In order to generate a signature, the user first authenticates itself to the server by providing a password and afterwards engages in an interactive signing protocol with the server. Security is guaranteed as long as at most one of the two parties is corrupted. Privacy, on the other hand, guarantees that a corrupted server cannot link a transaction to a particular user. We formally model the notion of PADW schemes and we give an instantiation from blind Schnorr signatures. Our construction allows for deterministic key derivation, a feature that is widely used in practice by existing wallet schemes, and it does not rely on any heavy cryptographic primitives. We prove our scheme secure against adaptive adversaries in the random oracle model and under standard assumptions. That is, our security proof only relies on the assumption that the Schnorr signature scheme is unforgeable and that a public key encryption scheme is CCA-secure.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
PathGES: An Efficient and Secure Graph Encryption Scheme for Shortest Path Queries
Francesca Falzon, Esha Ghosh, Kenneth G. Paterson, and Roberto Tamassia
The increasing importance of graph databases and cloud storage services prompts the study of private queries on graphs. We propose PathGES, a graph encryption scheme (GES) for single-pair shortest path queries. PathGES is efficient and mitigates the state-of-the-art attack by Falzon and Paterson (2022) on the GES by Ghosh, Kamara, and Tamassia (2021), while only incurring an additional logarithmic factor in storage overhead. PathGES leverages a novel data structure that minimizes leakage and server computation. We generalize what it means for one leakage function to leak less than another by defining a relation with respect to a family of query sequences and show that our scheme provably leaks less than the GKT scheme when all queries have been issued. We complement our security proof with a cryptanalysis that demonstrates an information-theoretic gap in the size of the query reconstruction space of our scheme as compared to the GKT scheme and provide concrete examples of the gap for several graph families. Our prototype implementation of PathGES is efficient in practice for real-world social network and geographic data sets. In comparison with the GKT scheme, PathGES has on average the same response size and up to 1.5$\times$ faster round-trip query time.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Time is not enough: Timing Leakage Analysis on Cryptographic Chips via Plaintext-Ciphertext Correlation in Non-timing Channel
Congming Wei, Guangze Hong, An Wang, Jing Wang, Shaofei Sun, Yaoling Ding, Liehuang Zhu, and Wenrui Ma
In side-channel testing, the standard timing analysis works when the vendor can provide a measurement to indicate the execution time of cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, we find that there exists timing leakage in power/electromagnetic channels, which is often ignored in traditional timing analysis. Hence a new method of timing analysis is proposed to deal with the case where execution time is not available. Different execution time leads to different execution intervals, affecting the locations of plaintext and ciphertext transmission. Our method detects timing leakage by studying changes in plaintext-ciphertext correlation when traces are aligned forward and backward. Experiments are then carried out on different cryptographic devices. Furthermore, we propose an improved timing analysis framework which gives appropriate methods for different scenarios.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Expanding the Toolbox: Coercion and Vote-Selling at Vote-Casting Revisited
Tamara Finogina, Javier Herranz, and Peter B. Roenne
Coercion is a challenging and multi-faceted threat that prevents people from expressing their will freely. Similarly, vote-buying does to undermine the foundation of free democratic elections. These threats are especially dire for remote electronic voting, which relies on voters to express their political will freely but happens in an uncontrolled environment outside the polling station and the protection of the ballot booth. However, electronic voting in general, both in-booth and remote, faces a major challenge, namely to ensure that voters can verify that their intent is captured correctly without providing a receipt of the cast vote to the coercer or vote buyer. Even though there are known techniques to resist or partially mitigate coercion and vote-buying, we explicitly demonstrate that they generally underestimate the power of malicious actors by not accounting for current technological tools that could support coercion and vote-selling. In this paper, we give several examples of how a coercer can force voters to comply with his demands or how voters can prove how they voted. To do so, we use tools like blockchains, delay encryption, privacy-preserving smart contracts, or trusted hardware. Since some of the successful coercion attacks occur on voting schemes that were supposed/claimed/proven to be coercion-resistant or receipt-free, the main conclusion of this work is that the coercion models should be re-evaluated, and new definitions of coercion and receipt-freeness are necessary. We propose such new definitions as part of this paper and investigate their implications.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
On the Relationship between FuncCPA and FuncCPA+
Takumi Shinozaki, Keisuke Tanaka, Masayuki Tezuka, and Yusuke Yoshida
Akavia, Gentry, Halevi, and Vald introduced the security notion of function-chosen-plaintext-attack (FuncCPA security) for public-key encryption schemes. FuncCPA is defined by adding a functional re-encryption oracle to the IND-CPA game. This notion is crucial for secure computation applications where the server is allowed to delegate a part of the computation to the client. Dodis, Halevi, and Wichs introduced a stronger variant called FuncCPA$^+$. They showed FuncCPA$^+$ implies FuncCPA and conjectured that FuncCPA$^+$ is strictly stronger than FuncCPA. They left an open problem to clarify the relationship between these variants. Contrary to their conjecture, we show that FuncCPA is equivalent to FuncCPA$^+$. We show it by two proofs with a trade-off between the number of queries and the number of function inputs. Furthermore, we show these parameters determine the security levels of FuncCPA and FuncCPA$^+$.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
Respire: High-Rate PIR for Databases with Small Records
Alexander Burton, Samir Jordan Menon, and David J. Wu
Private information retrieval (PIR) is a key building block in many privacy-preserving systems, and recent works have made significant progress on reducing the concrete computational costs of single-server PIR. However, existing constructions have high communication overhead, especially for databases with small records. In this work, we introduce Respire, a lattice-based PIR scheme tailored for databases of small records. To retrieve a single record from a database with over a million 256-byte records, the Respire protocol requires just 6.1 KB of online communication; this is a 5.9x reduction compared to the best previous lattice-based scheme. Moreover, Respire naturally extends to support batch queries. Compared to previous communication-efficient batch PIR schemes, Respire achieves a 3.4-7.1x reduction in total communication while maintaining comparable throughput (200-400 MB/s). The design of Respire relies on new query compression and response packing techniques based on ring switching in homomorphic encryption.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
A Crack in the Firmament: Restoring Soundness of the Orion Proof System and More
Thomas den Hollander and Daniel Slamanig
Orion (Xie et al. CRYPTO'22) is a recent plausibly post-quantum zero-knowledge argument system with a linear time prover. It improves over Brakedown (Golovnev et al. ePrint'21 and CRYPTO'23) by reducing proof size and verifier complexity to be polylogarithmic and additionally adds the zero-knowledge property. The argument system is demonstrated to be concretely efficient with a prover time being the fastest among all existing succinct proof systems and a proof size that is an order of magnitude smaller than Brakedown. Since its publication in CRYPTO 2022, two revisions have been made to the zk-SNARK. First, there was an issue with how zero-knowledge was handled. Second, Orion was discovered to be unsound, which was then repaired through the use of a commit-and-prove SNARK as an ``outer'' SNARK. As we will show in this paper, unfortunately, Orion in its current revision is still unsound (with and without the zero-knowledge property) and we will demonstrate practical attacks on it. We then show how to repair Orion without additional assumptions, which requies non-trivial fixes when aiming to preserve the linear time prover complexity. The proposed fixes lead to an even improved efficiency, i.e., smaller proof size and verifier time, over the claimed efficiency of the initial version of Orion. Moreover, we provide the first rigorous security proofs and explicitly consider multi-point openings and non-interactivity. While revisiting Orion we make some additional contributions which might be of independent interest, most notable an improved code randomization technique that retains the minimum relative distance.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
Efficient Threshold FHE for Privacy-Preserving Applications
Siddhartha Chowdhury, Sayani Sinha, Animesh Singh, Shubham Mishra, Chandan Chaudhary, Sikhar Patranabis, Pratyay Mukherjee, Ayantika Chatterjee, and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Threshold Fully Homomorphic Encryption (ThFHE) enables arbitrary computation over encrypted data while keeping the decryption key distributed across multiple parties at all times. ThFHE is a key enabler for threshold cryptography and, more generally, secure distributed computing. Existing ThFHE schemes relying on standard hardness assumptions, inherently require highly inefficient parameters and are unsuitable for practical deployment. In this paper, we take a novel approach towards making ThFHE practically usable by (i) proposing an efficient ThFHE scheme with a new analysis resulting in significantly improved parameters; (ii) and providing the first practical ThFHE implementation benchmark based on Torus FHE. • We propose the first practical ThFHE scheme with a polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio that supports practically efficient parameters while retaining provable security based on standard quantum-safe assumptions. We achieve this via R ́enyi divergence-based security analysis of our proposed threshold decryption mechanism. • We present a prototype software implementation of our proposed ThFHE scheme that builds upon the existing Torus-FHE library and supports (distributed) decryption on highly resource-constrained ARM-based handheld devices. Along the way, we implement several extensions to the Torus FHE library, including a Torus-based linear integer secret sharing subroutine to support ThFHE key sharing and distributed decryption for any threshold access structure. We illustrate the efficacy of our proposal via an end-to-end use case involving encrypted computations over a real medical database and distributed decryptions of the computed result on resource-constrained ARM-based handheld devices.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
On the Number of Restricted Solutions to Constrained Systems and their Applications
Benoît Cogliati, Jordan Ethan, Ashwin Jha, Mridul Nandi, and Abishanka Saha
In this paper, we formulate a special class of systems of linear equations over finite fields and derive lower bounds on the number of solutions adhering to some predefined restrictions. We then demonstrate the applications of these lower bounds to derive tight PRF security (up to $2^{3n/4}$ queries) for single-keyed variants of the Double-block Hash-then-Sum (DBHtS) paradigm, specifically PMAC+ and LightMAC+. Additionally, we show that the sum of $r$ independent copies of the Even-Mansour cipher is a secure PRF up to $2^{\frac{r}{r+1}n}$ queries.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
Quantum One-Wayness of the Single-Round Sponge with Invertible Permutations
Joseph Carolan and Alexander Poremba
Sponge hashing is a widely used class of cryptographic hash algorithms which underlies the current international hash function standard SHA-3. In a nutshell, a sponge function takes as input a bit-stream of any length and processes it via a simple iterative procedure: it repeatedly feeds each block of the input into a so-called block function, and then produces a digest by once again iterating the block function on the final output bits. While much is known about the post-quantum security of the sponge construction when the block function is modeled as a random function or one-way permutation, the case of invertible permutations, which more accurately models the construction underlying SHA-3, has so far remained a fundamental open problem. In this work, we make new progress towards overcoming this barrier and show several results. First, we prove the ``double-sided zero-search'' conjecture proposed by Unruh (eprint' 2021) and show that finding zero-pairs in a random $2n$-bit permutation requires at least $\Omega(2^{n/2})$ many queries---and this is tight due to Grover's algorithm. At the core of our proof lies a novel ``symmetrization argument'' which uses insights from the theory of Young subgroups. Second, we consider more general variants of the double-sided search problem and show similar query lower bounds for them. As an application, we prove the quantum one-wayness of the single-round sponge with invertible permutations in the quantum random oracle model.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Practical Traceable Receipt-Free Encryption
Henri Devillez, Olivier Pereira, and Thomas Peters
Traceable Receipt-free Encryption (TREnc) is a verifiable public-key encryption primitive introduced at Asiacrypt 2022. A TREnc allows randomizing ciphertexts in transit in order to remove any subliminal information up to a public trace that ensures the non-malleability of the underlying plaintext. A remarkable property of TREnc is the indistinguishability of the randomization of chosen ciphertexts against traceable chosen-ciphertext attacks (TCCA). This property can support applications like voting, and it was shown that receipt-free non-interactive voting, where voters are unable to convince any third party of the content of their vote, can be generically built from a TREnc. While being a very promising primitive, the few existing TREnc mechanisms either require a secret coin CRS or are fairly demanding in time and space requirements. Their security proofs also come with a linear security degradation in the number of challenge ciphertexts. We address these limitations and offer two efficient public coin TREnc mechanisms tailored for the two common tallying approaches in elections: homomorphic and mixnet-based. The TCCA security of our mechanisms also enjoys an almost-tight reduction to SXDH, based on a new randomizable technique of independent interest in the random oracle model. A Rust implementation of our TREnc mechanisms demonstrates that we can verifiably encrypt 64 bits in less than a second, and full group elements in around 30 ms., which is sufficient for most real-world applications. While comparing with other solutions, we show that our approaches lead to the most efficient non-interactive receipt-free voting system to date.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Application of Mordell-Weil lattices with large kissing numbers to acceleration of multi-scalar multiplication on elliptic curves
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article aims to speed up (the precomputation stage of) multi-scalar multiplication (MSM) on ordinary elliptic curves of $j$-invariant $0$ with respect to specific ''independent'' (a.k.a. ''basis'') points. For this purpose, so-called Mordell--Weil lattices (up to rank $8$) with large kissing numbers (up to $240$) are employed. In a nutshell, the new approach consists in obtaining more efficiently a considerable number (up to $240$) of certain elementary linear combinations of the ``independent'' points. By scaling the point (re)generation process, it is thus possible to get a significant performance gain. As usual, the resulting curve points can be then regularly used in the main stage of an MSM algorithm to avoid repeating computations. Seemingly, this is the first usage of lattices with large kissing numbers in cryptography, while such lattices have already found numerous applications in other mathematical domains. Without exaggeration, the article results can strongly affect performance of today's real-world elliptic curve cryptography, since MSM is a widespread primitive (often the unique bottleneck) in modern protocols. Moreover, the new (re)generation technique is prone to further improvements by considering Mordell--Weil lattices with even greater kissing numbers.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Polylogarithmic Proofs for Multilinears over Binary Towers
Benjamin E. Diamond and Jim Posen
We present a succinct polynomial commitment scheme for multilinears over tiny binary fields, including that with just 2 elements. To achieve this, we develop two main ideas. Our first adapts Zeilberger, Chen and Fisch's BaseFold ('23) PCS to the binary setting; it uses FRI (ICALP '18)'s lesser-known binary variant, and reveals a new connection between that work and Lin, Chung and Han (FOCS '14)'s additive NTT. We moreover present a novel large-field-to-small-field compiler for polynomial commitment schemes. Using a technique we call "ring-switching", our compiler generically bootstraps any multilinear PCS over a large, power-of-two degree extension field into a further PCS over that field's ground field. The resulting small-field PCS lacks "embedding overhead", in that its commitment cost is identical to that of the large-field scheme on each input size (measured in bits). We attain concretely small proofs for enormous binary multilinears, shrinking the proofs of Diamond and Posen ('23) by an order of magnitude.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
On the Concrete Security of Non-interactive FRI
Alexander R. Block and Pratyush Ranjan Tiwari
FRI is a cryptographic protocol widely deployed today as a building block of many efficient SNARKs that help secure transactions of hundreds of millions of dollars per day. The Fiat-Shamir security of FRI—vital for understanding the security of FRI-based SNARKs—has only recently been formalized and established by Block et al. (ASIACRYPT ’23). In this work, we complement the result of Block et al. by providing a thorough concrete security analysis of non-interactive FRI under various parameter settings from protocols deploying (or soon to be deploying) FRI today. We find that these parameters nearly achieve their desired security targets (being at most 1-bit less secure than their targets) for non-interactive FRI with respect to a certain security conjecture about the FRI Protocol. However, in all but one set of parameters, we find that the provable security of non-interactive FRI under these parameters is severely lacking, being anywhere between 21- and 63-bits less secure than the conjectured security. The conjectured security of FRI assumes that known attacks are optimal, the security of these systems would be severely compromised should a better attack be discovered. In light of this, we present parameter guidelines for achieving 100-bits of provable security for non-interactive FRI along with a methodology for tuning these parameters to suit the needs of protocol designers.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Faster Private Decision Tree Evaluation for Batched Input from Homomorphic Encryption
Kelong Cong, Jiayi Kang, Georgio Nicolas, and Jeongeun Park
Privacy-preserving decision tree evaluation (PDTE) allows a client that holds feature vectors to perform inferences against a decision tree model on the server side without revealing feature vectors to the server. Our work focuses on the non-interactive batched setting where the client sends a batch of encrypted feature vectors and then obtains classifications, without any additional interaction. This is useful in privacy-preserving credit scoring, biometric authentication, and many more applications. In this paper, we propose two novel non-interactive batched PDTE protocols, OursRCC and OursCW, based on two batched ciphertext-plaintext comparison algorithms, our batched range cover comparison (RCC) comparator and the constant-weight (CW) piece-wise comparator, respectively. When comparing 16-bit batched encrypted values to a single plaintext value, our comparison algorithms show a speedup of up to $72\times$ compared to the state-of-the-art Level Up (CCS'23). Moreover, we introduced a new tree traversal method called adapted SumPath, to achieve $\mathcal{O}(1)$ complexity of the server's response, whereas Level Up has $\mathcal{O}(2^d)$ complexity for a depth-$d$ tree and the client needs to look up classification values in a table. Overall, our PDTE protocols attain the optimal server-to-client communication complexity and are up to $17\times$ faster than Level Up in batch size 16384.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Post-Quantum Access Control with Application to Secure Data Retrieval
Behzad Abdolmaleki, Hannes Blümel, Giacomo Fenzi, Homa Khajeh, Stefan Köpsell, and Maryam Zarezadeh
Servan-Schreiber et al. (S&P 2023) presented a new notion called private access control lists (PACL) for function secret sharing (FSS), where the FSS evaluators can ensure that the FSS dealer is authorized to share the given function. Their construction relies on costly non-interactive secret-shared proofs and is not secure in post-quantum setting. We give a construction of PACL from publicly verifiable secret sharing (PVSS) under short integer solution (SIS). Our construction adapts the Gentry et al’s scheme (Eurocrypt 2022) for post-quantum setting based on learning with error assumption (LWE). The implementation of our PACL with different files showed that it is feasible even at different sizes, and should remain so even with large secret vectors. This construction has many applications for access control by applying FSS. We show how to apply the proposed PACL construction to secure data retrieval. We also present a scheme for secure data retrieval with access control, which might be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
LaPSuS – A Lattice-Based Private Stream Aggregation Scheme under Scrutiny
Johannes Ottenhues and Alexander Koch
Private Stream Aggregation (PSA) allows clients to send encryptions of their private values to an aggregator that is then able to learn the sum of these values but nothing else. It has since found many applications in practice, e.g. for smart metering or federated learning. In 2018, Becker et al. proposed the first lattice-based PSA scheme LaPS (NDSS 2018), with putative post-quantum security, which has subsequently been patented. In this paper, we describe two attacks on LaPS that break the claimed aggregator obliviousness security notion, where the second attack even allows to recover the secret keys of the clients, given enough encryptions. Moreover, we review the PSA literature for other occurrences of the responsible flawed proof steps. By explicitly tracking down and discussing these flaws, we clarify and hope to contribute to the literature on PSA schemes, in order to prevent further insecure schemes in practice. Finally, we point out that a Real-or-Random variant of the security notion that is often used as a substitute to make proofs easier, is not well-defined and potentially weaker than the standard PSA security notion. We propose a well defined variant and show that it is equivalent to the standard security notion of PSA under mild assumptions.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Fast Parallelizable Misuse-Resistant Authenticated Encryption: Low Latency (Decryption-Fast) SIV
Mustafa Khairallah
MRAE security is an important goal for many AEAD applications where the nonce uniqueness cannot be maintained and security risks are significant. However, MRAE schemes can be quite expensive. Two of the SoTA MRAE-secure schemes; Deoxys-II and AES-GCM-SIV rely on internal parallelism and special instructions to achieve competitive performance. However, they both suffer from the same bottleneck, they have at least one call to the underlying primitive that cannot be parallelized to any other call. Romulus-M and LMDAE are two other more recent MRAE secure schemes based on TBCs that target low area hardware. However, they are unparallelizable so they are slower than their counterparts. In this paper, we present two new AEAD modes and four instantiations based on Tweakable Block Ciphers. These new modes target equipping high-speed applications on parallel platforms with nonce misuse resistant AEAD (MRAE). The first mode, LLSIV, targets similar performance on single-core platforms to SCT-2, while eliminating the bottlenecks that make SCT-2 not fully parallelizable. The enhanced parallelism allows LLSIV to encrypt significantly more blocks on parallel platforms, compared to SCT-2, in the same amount of time. LLSIV is based on the NaT MAC, where each ciphertext block can itself be viewed as an instance of NaT when the plaintext is prepended with . The trade-off is that LLSIV requires the inverse function of the TBC. However, the inverse function is used only once per message and we demonstrate that for parallel implementations it represents a very small overhead. We give an instantiation of LLSIV based on the SKINNY-128-384 TBC, and a pruned scheme, dubbed pLLSIV, which targets enhanced performance compared both SCT-2 and LLSIV on all platforms, while having reduced security claims. It relies on the recently popularized prove-then-prune methodology to take full advantage of the properties of LLSIV. This leads to a significant performance improvement, making pLLSIV even faster than online TBC-based schemes that are not MRAE-secure. Last but not least, we give an instantiation that uses the primitives used in AES-GCM-SIV: the PolyVal hash function and AES. Our instantiation is faster than AES-GCM-SIV on all platforms and have better bounds. On the other hand, it relies on the ideal cipher model as it uses the ICE TBC proposed as part of the Remus AEAD design. The second mode we describe is LLDFV. It uses ideas from LLSIV combined the Decryption-Fast SIV (DFV) framework proposed recently by Minematsu. The goal is to reduce the number of calls to the TBC by one, while making the scheme as parallelizable as LLSIV. This makes the scheme faster that DFV on all platforms.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
Scalable Agreement Protocols with Optimal Optimistic Efficiency
Yuval Gelles and Ilan Komargodski
Designing efficient distributed protocols for various agreement tasks such as Byzantine Agreement, Broadcast, and Committee Election is a fundamental problem. We are interested in $scalable$ protocols for these tasks, where each (honest) party communicates a number of bits which is sublinear in $n$, the number of parties. The first major step towards this goal is due to King et al. (SODA 2006) who showed a protocol where each party sends only $\tilde O(1)$ bits throughout $\tilde O(1)$ rounds, but guarantees only that $1-o(1)$ fraction of honest parties end up agreeing on a consistent output, assuming constant $<1/3$ fraction of static corruptions. Few years later, King et al. (ICDCN 2011) managed to get a full agreement protocol in the same model but where each party sends $\tilde O(\sqrt{n})$ bits throughout $\tilde O(1)$ rounds. Getting a full agreement protocol with $o(\sqrt{n})$ communication per party has been a major challenge ever since. In light of this barrier, we propose a new framework for designing efficient agreement protocols. Specifically, we design $\tilde O(1)$-round protocols for all of the above tasks (assuming constant $<1/3$ fraction of static corruptions) with optimistic and pessimistic guarantees: $\bullet$ $Optimistic$ $complexity$: In an honest execution, (honest) parties send only $\tilde O(1)$ bits. $\bullet$ $Pessimistic$ $complexity$: In any other case, (honest) parties send $\tilde O(\sqrt{n})$ bits. Thus, all an adversary can gain from deviating from the honest execution is that honest parties will need to work harder (i.e., transmit more bits) to reach agreement and terminate. Besides the above agreement tasks, we also use our new framework to get a scalable secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocol with optimistic and pessimistic complexities. Technically, we identify a relaxation of Byzantine Agreement (of independent interest) that allows us to fall-back to a pessimistic execution in a coordinated way by all parties. We implement this relaxation with $\tilde O(1)$ communication bits per party and within $\tilde O(1)$ rounds.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
An analysis of the Crossbred Algorithm for the MQ Problem
Damien Vidal, Sorina Ionica, and Claire Delaplace
The Crossbred algorithm is currently the state-of-the-art method for solving overdetermined multivariate polynomial systems over $\mathbb{F}_2$. Since its publication in 2015, several record breaking implementations have been proposed and demonstrate the power of this hybrid approach. Despite these practical results, the complexity of this algorithm and the choice of optimal parameters for it are difficult open questions. In this paper, we prove a bivariate generating series for potentially admissible parameters of the Crossbred algorithm.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
CoGNN: Towards Secure and Efficient Collaborative Graph Learning
Zhenhua Zou, Zhuotao Liu, Jinyong Shan, Qi Li, Ke Xu, and Mingwei Xu
Collaborative graph learning represents a learning paradigm where multiple parties jointly train a graph neural network (GNN) using their own proprietary graph data. To honor the data privacy of all parties, existing solutions for collaborative graph learning are either based on federated learning (FL) or secure machine learning (SML). Although promising in terms of efficiency and scalability due to their distributed training scheme, FL-based approaches fall short in providing provable security guarantees and achieving good model performance. Conversely, SML-based solutions, while offering provable privacy guarantees, are hindered by their high computational and communication overhead, as well as poor scalability as more parties participate. To address the above problem, we propose CoGNN, a novel framework that simultaneously reaps the benefits of both FL-based and SML-based approaches. At a high level, CoGNN is enabled by (i) a novel message passing mechanism that can obliviously and efficiently express the vertex data propagation/aggregation required in GNN training and inference and (ii) a two-stage Dispatch-Collect execution scheme to securely decompose and distribute the GNN computation workload for concurrent and scalable executions. We further instantiate the CoGNN framework, together with customized optimizations, to train Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) models. Extensive evaluations on three graph datasets demonstrate that compared with the state-of-the-art (SOTA) SML-based approach, CoGNN reduces up to $123$x running time and up to $522$x communication cost per party. Meanwhile, the GCN models trained using CoGNN have nearly identical accuracies as the plaintext global-graph training, yielding up to $11.06\%$ accuracy improvement over the GCN models trained via federated learning.
Last updated:  2024-07-17
A Note on `` Provably Secure and Lightweight Authentication Key Agreement Scheme for Smart Meters''
Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu
We show that the authentication key agreement scheme [IEEE Trans. Smart Grid, 2023, 14(5), 3816-3827] is flawed due to its inconsistent computations. We also show that the scheme fails to keep anonymity, not as claimed.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
QuietOT: Lightweight Oblivious Transfer with a Public-Key Setup
Geoffroy Couteau, Lalita Devadas, Srinivas Devadas, Alexander Koch, and Sacha Servan-Schreiber
Oblivious Transfer (OT) is at the heart of secure computation and is a foundation for many applications in cryptography. Over two decades of work have led to extremely efficient protocols for evaluating OT instances in the preprocessing model, through a paradigm called OT extension. A few OT instances generated in an offline phase can be used to perform many OTs in an online phase efficiently, i.e., with very low communication and computational overheads. Specifically, traditional OT extension protocols use a small number of “base” OTs, generated using any black-box OT protocol, and convert them into many OT instances using only lightweight symmetric-key primitives. Recently, a new paradigm of OT with a *public-key setup* has emerged, which replaces the base OTs with a non-interactive setup: Using only the public key of the other party, two parties can efficiently compute a virtually unbounded number of OT instances on-the-fly. In this paper, we put forth a novel framework for OT extension with a public-key setup and concretely efficient instantiations. An implementation of our framework is 30-100 times faster when compared to the previous state-of-the-art public-key OT protocols, and remains competitive even when compared to OT protocols that *do not* offer a public-key setup. Additionally, our instantiations result in the first public-key schemes with plausible post-quantum security. In summary, this paper contributes: - QuietOT: A framework for OT extension with a public-key setup that uses fast, symmetric-key primitives to generate OT instances following a one-time public-key setup, and offering additional features such as precomputability. - A public-key setup for QuietOT from the RingLWE assumption, resulting in the first post-quantum construction of OT extension with a public-key setup. - An optimized, open-source implementation of our construction that can generate up to 1M OT extensions per second on commodity hardware. In contrast, the state-of-the-art public-key OT protocol is limited to approximately 20K OTs per second. - The first formal treatment of the security of OT with a public-key setup in a multi-party setting, which addresses several subtleties that were overlooked in prior work.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Shift-invariant functions and almost liftings
Jan Kristian Haugland and Tron Omland
We investigate shift-invariant vectorial Boolean functions on $n$ bits that are lifted from Boolean functions on $k$ bits, for $k\leq n$. We consider vectorial functions that are not necessarily permutations, but are, in some sense, almost bijective. In this context, we define an almost lifting as a Boolean function for which there is an upper bound on the number of collisions of its lifted functions that does not depend on $n$. We show that if a Boolean function with diameter $k$ is an almost lifting, then the maximum number of collisions of its lifted functions is $2^{k-1}$ for any $n$. Moreover, we search for functions in the class of almost liftings that have good cryptographic properties and for which the non-bijectivity does not cause major security weaknesses. These functions generalize the well-known map $\chi$ used in the Keccak hash function.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
On affine forestry over integral domains and families of deep Jordan-Gauss graphs
Tymoteusz Chojecki, Grahame Erskine, James Tuite, and Vasyl Ustimenko
Let K be a commutative ring. We refer to a connected bipartite graph G = G_n(K) with partition sets P = K^n (points) and L = K^n (lines) as an affine graph over K of dimension dim(G) = n if the neighbourhood of each vertex is isomorphic to K. We refer to G as an algebraic affine graph over K if the incidence between a point (x_1, x_2, . . . , x_n) and line [y_1, y_2, . . . , y_n] is defined via a system of polynomial equations of the kind f_i = 0 where f_i ∈ K[x_1, x_2, . . . , x_n, y_1, y_2, . . . , y_n]. We say that an affine algebraic graph is a Jordan-Gauss graph over K if the incidences between points and lines are given by a quadratic system of polynomial equations, and the neighbourhood of each vertex is given as a solution set of the system of linear equations in row-echelon form. For each integral domain K we consider the known explicit construction of the family of Jordan-Gauss graphs A(n, K), n = 2, 3, . . . with cycle indicator ≥ 2n + 2. Additionally several constructions of families of edge intransitive Jordan-Gauss graphs over K of increasing girth with well defined projective limit will be presented. This projective limit is a forest defined by the system of algebraic equations. In the case K = F_q, q ≥ 3 we present results of computer experiments for the evaluation of girth, cycle indicator, diameter and the second largest eigenvalue of the constructed graphs, and we formulate several conjectures on their properties. One of the conjectures is that the girth of A(n, F_q) is 2[(n+ 5)/2]. We discuss briefly some applications of Jordan-Gauss graphs of large girth to Graph Theory, Algebraic Geometry and the theory of LDPC codes; and we consider ideas to use groups related to these graphs in Noncommutative Cryptography and Stream Ciphers Design.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
A Central Limit Framework for Ring-LWE Noise Analysis
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Sean Murphy and Rachel Player
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Uncategorized
This paper develops Central Limit arguments for analysing the noise in ciphertexts in two homomorphic encryption schemes that are based on Ring-LWE. The first main contribution of this paper is to present and evaluate an average-case noise analysis for the BGV scheme. Our approach relies on the recent work of Costache et al. (SAC 2023) that gives the approximation of a polynomial product as a multivariate Normal distribution. We show how this result can be applied in the BGV context and evaluate its efficacy. We find this average-case approach can much more closely model the noise growth in BGV implementations than prior approaches, but in some cases it can also underestimate the practical noise growth. Our second main contribution is to develop a Central Limit framework to analyse the noise growth in the homomorphic Ring-LWE cryptosystem of Lyubashevsky, Peikert and Regev (Eurocrypt 2013, full version). Our approach is very general: apart from finite variance, no assumption on the distribution of the noise is required (in particular, the noise need not be subgaussian). We show that our approach leads to tighter bounds for the probability of decryption failure than those of prior work.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Simple Threshold (Fully Homomorphic) Encryption From LWE With Polynomial Modulus
Katharina Boudgoust and Peter Scholl
The learning with errors (LWE) assumption is a powerful tool for building encryption schemes with useful properties, such as plausible resistance to quantum computers, or support for homomorphic computations. Despite this, essentially the only method of achieving threshold decryption in schemes based on LWE requires a modulus that is superpolynomial in the security parameter, leading to a large overhead in ciphertext sizes and computation time. In this work, we propose a (fully homomorphic) encryption scheme that supports a simple $t$-out-of-$n$ threshold decryption protocol while allowing for a polynomial modulus. The main idea is to use the Rényi divergence (as opposed to the statistical distance as in previous works) as a measure of distribution closeness. This comes with some technical obstacles, due to the difficulty of using the Rényi divergence in decisional security notions such as standard semantic security. We overcome this by constructing a threshold scheme with a weaker notion of one-way security and then showing how to transform any one-way (fully homomorphic) threshold scheme into one guaranteeing (selective) indistinguishability-based security.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
On the Semidirect Discrete Logarithm Problem in Finite Groups
Christopher Battarbee, Giacomo Borin, Ryann Cartor, Nadia Heninger, David Jao, Delaram Kahrobaei, Laura Maddison, Edoardo Persichetti, Angela Robinson, Daniel Smith-Tone, and Rainer Steinwandt
We present an efficient quantum algorithm for solving the semidirect discrete logarithm problem (SDLP) in any finite group. The believed hardness of the semidirect discrete logarithm problem underlies more than a decade of works constructing candidate post-quantum cryptographic algorithms from nonabelian groups. We use a series of reduction results to show that it suffices to consider SDLP in finite simple groups. We then apply the celebrated Classification of Finite Simple Groups to consider each family. The infinite families of finite simple groups admit, in a fairly general setting, linear algebraic attacks providing a reduction to the classical discrete logarithm problem. For the sporadic simple groups, we show that their inherent properties render them unsuitable for cryptographically hard SDLP instances, which we illustrate via a Baby-Step Giant-Step style attack against SDLP in the Monster Group. Our quantum SDLP algorithm is fully constructive for all but three remaining cases that appear to be gaps in the literature on constructive recognition of groups; for these cases SDLP is no harder than finding a linear representation. We conclude that SDLP is not a suitable post-quantum hardness assumption for any choice of finite group.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Cross Ledger Transaction Consistency for Financial Auditing
Vlasis Koutsos, Xiangan Tian, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, and Dimitris Chatzopoulos
Auditing throughout a fiscal year is integral to organizations with transactional activity. Organizations transact with each other and record the details for all their economical activities so that a regulatory committee can verify the lawfulness and legitimacy of their activity. However, it is computationally infeasible for the committee to perform all necessary checks for each organization. To overcome this, auditors assist in this process: organizations give access to all their internal data to their auditors, who then produce reports regarding the consistency of the organization's data, alerting the committee to any inconsistencies. Despite this, numerous issues that result in fines annually revolve around such inconsistencies in bookkeeping across organizations. Notably, committees wishing to verify the correctness of auditor-provided reports need to redo all their calculations; a process which is computationally proportional to the number of organizations. In fact, it becomes prohibitive when considering real-world settings with thousands of organizations. In this work, we propose two protocols, CLOSC and CLOLC, whose goals are to enable auditors and a committee to verify the consistency of transactions across different ledgers. Both protocols ensure that for every transaction recorded in an organization's ledger, there exists a dual one in the ledger of another organization while safeguarding against other potential attacks. Importantly, we minimize the information leakage to auditors and other organizations and guarantee three crucial security and privacy properties that we propose: (i) transaction amount privacy, (ii) organization-auditor unlinkability, and (iii) transacting organizations unlinkability. At the core of our protocols lies a two-tier ledger architecture alongside a suite of cryptographic tools. To demonstrate the practicality and scalability of our designs, we provide extensive performance evaluation for both CLOSC and CLOLC. Our numbers are promising, i.e., all computation and verification times lie in the range of seconds, even for millions of transactions, while the on-chain storage costs for an auditing epoch are encouraging i.e. in the range of GB for millions of transactions and thousands of organizations.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Anonymous Broadcast Authentication with Logarithmic-Order Ciphertexts from DLP or LWE
Yoshinori Aono and Junji Shikata
We propose an anonymous broadcast authentication (ABA) scheme to simultaneously control massive numbers of devices in practical resources. As a theoretical foundation, we find a barrier in constructing an ABA scheme that can control numerous devices: a trilemma between (i) security, (ii) ciphertext length, and (iii) freedom of target device selection. Therefore, we propose ABAs with ciphertext sizes of $O(\log N)$, where $N$ is the number of target devices and impose a certain restriction on (iii). We provide an ABA template and instantiate it into specific schemes from the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem or the learning with errors problem. Further, we provide example parameters and resource consumption of space and time.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Blockchain Space Tokenization
Aggelos Kiayias, Elias Koutsoupias, Philip Lazos, and Giorgos Panagiotakos
Handling congestion in blockchain systems is a fundamental problem given that the security and decentralization objectives of such systems lead to designs that compromise on (horizontal) scalability (what sometimes is referred to as the ``blockchain trilemma''). Motivated by this, we focus on the question whether it is possible to design a transaction inclusion policy for block producers that facilitates fee and delay predictability while being incentive compatible at the same time. Reconciling these three properties is seemingly paradoxical given that the dominant approach to transaction processing is based on first-price auctions (e.g., as in Bitcoin) or dynamic adjustment of the minimum admissible fee (e.g. as in Ethereum EIP-1559) something that breaks fee predictability. At the same time, in fixed fee mechanisms (e.g., as in Cardano), fees are trivially predictable but are subject to relatively inexpensive bribing or denial of service attacks where transactions may be delayed indefinitely by a well funded attacker, hence breaking delay predictability. In this work, we set out to address this problem by putting forward blockchain space tokenization (BST), namely a new capability of a blockchain system to tokenize its capacity for transactions and allocate it to interested users who are willing to pay ahead of time for the ability to post transactions regularly for a period of time. We analyze our system in the face of worst-case transaction-processing attacks by introducing a security game played between the mempool mechanism and an adversary. Leveraging this framework, we prove that BST offers predictable and asymptotically optimal delays, predictable fees, and is incentive compatible, thus answering the question posed in the affirmative.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Exploiting the Central Reduction in Lattice-Based Cryptography
Tolun Tosun, Amir Moradi, and Erkay Savas
This paper questions the side-channel security of central reduction technique, which is widely adapted in efficient implementations of Lattice-Based Cryptography (LBC). We show that the central reduction leads to a vulnerability by creating a strong dependency between the power consumption and the sign of sensitive intermediate values. We exploit this dependency by introducing the novel absolute value prediction function, which can be employed in higher-order non-profiled multi-query Side-Channel Analysis (SCA) attacks. Our results reveal that – compared to classical reduction algorithms – employing the central reduction scheme leads to a two-orders-of-magnitude decrease in the number of required SCA measurements to exploit secrets of masked implementations. We particularly show that our approach is valid for the prime moduli employed by Kyber and Dilithium, the lattice-based post-quantum algorithms selected by NIST. We practically evaluate our introduced approach by performing second-order non-profiled attacks against an open-source masked implementation of Kyber on an ARM Cortex-M4 micro-processor. In our experiments, we revealed the full secret key of the aforementioned masked implementation with only 250 power traces without any forms of profiling or choosing the ciphertexts.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Elliptic Curve Cryptography for the masses: Simple and fast finite field arithmetic
Michael Scott
Shaped prime moduli are often considered for use in elliptic curve and isogeny-based cryptography to allow for faster modular reduction. Here we focus on the most common choices for shaped primes that have been suggested, that is pseudo-Mersenne, generalized Mersenne and Montgomery-friendly primes. We consider how best to to exploit these shapes for maximum efficiency, and provide an open source tool to automatically generate, test and time working high-level language finite-field code. Next we consider the advantage to be gained from implementations that are written in assembly language and which exploit special instructions, SIMD hardware if present, and the particularities of the algorithm being implemented.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Designated-Verifier zk-SNARKs Made Easy
Chen Li and Fangguo Zhang
Zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (zk-SNARK) is a kind of proof system that enables a prover to convince a verifier that an NP statement is true efficiently. In the last decade, various studies made a lot of progress in constructing more efficient and secure zk-SNARKs. Our research focuses on designated-verifier zk-SNARKs, where only the verifier knowing some secret verification state can be convinced by the proof. A natural idea of getting a designated-verifier zk-SNARK is encrypting a publicly-verifiable zk-SNARK's proof via public-key encryption. This is also the core idea behind the well-known transformation proposed by Bitansky et al. in TCC 2013 to obtain designated-verifier zk-SNARKs. However, the transformation only applies to zk-SNARKs which requires the complicated trusted setup phase and sticks on storage-expensive common reference strings. The loss of the secret verification state also makes the proof immediately lose the designated-verifier property. To address these issues, we first define "strong designated-verifier" considering the case where the adversary has access to the secret verification state, then propose a construction of strong designated-verifier zk-SNARKs. The construction inspired by designated verifier signatures based on two-party ring signatures does not use encryption and can be applied on any public-verifiable zk-SNARKs to yield a designated-verifiable variant. We introduce our construction under the circuit satisfiability problem and implement it in Circom, then test it on different zk-SNARKs, showing the validity of our construction.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Universal Vector Commitments
Ojaswi Acharya, Foteini Baldimtsi, Samuel Dov Gordon, Daniel McVicker, and Aayush Yadav
We propose a new notion of vector commitment schemes with proofs of (non-)membership that we call universal vector commitments. We show how to build them directly from (i) Merkle commitments, and (ii) a universal accumulator and a plain vector commitment scheme. We also present a generic construction for universal accumulators over large domains from any vector commitment scheme, using cuckoo hashing. Leveraging the aforementioned generic constructions, we show that universal vector commitment schemes are implied by plain vector commitments and cuckoo hashing.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Identity-Based Matchmaking Encryption, Revisited: Improved Constructions with Strong Security
Sohto Chiku, Keitaro Hashimoto, Keisuke Hara, and Junji Shikata
Identity-based matchmaking encryption (IB-ME) [Ateniese et al. Crypto 2019] allows users to communicate privately in an anonymous and authenticated manner. After the seminal paper by Ateniese et al., a lot of work has been done on the security and construction of IB-ME. In this work, we revisit the security definitions of IB-ME and provide improved constructions of it. First, we classify the existing security notions of IB-ME, systematically categorizing privacy into three categories (CPA, CCA, and privacy in the case of mismatch) and authenticity into four categories (NMA and CMA both against insiders and outsiders).In particular, we reconsider the privacy when the sender's identity is mismatched during decryption, and provide a new simple security game, called mismatch security, capturing the essence of it. Second, we propose efficient and strongly secure IB-ME schemes from the bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model and from anonymous identity-based encryption, identity-based signature, and reusable extractors in the standard model. The first scheme is based on Boneh-Franklin IBE similar to the Ateniese et al. scheme, but ours achieves a more compact decryption key and ciphertext and stronger CCA-privacy, CMA-authenticity, and mismatch security. The second scheme is an improved generic construction, which active not only stronger security but also the shortest ciphertext among existing generic constructions. Through this construction, we obtain, for example, a more efficient scheme from the symmetric external Diffie-Hellman assumption in the standard model, and a practical scheme from lattices in the quantum random oracle model.
Last updated:  2024-07-16
Secure Multiparty Computation of Symmetric Functions with Polylogarithmic Bottleneck Complexity and Correlated Randomness
Reo Eriguchi
Bottleneck complexity is an efficiency measure of secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols introduced to achieve load-balancing in large-scale networks, which is defined as the maximum communication complexity required by any one player within the protocol execution. Towards the goal of achieving low bottleneck complexity, prior works proposed MPC protocols for computing symmetric functions in the correlated randomness model, where players are given input-independent correlated randomness in advance. However, the previous protocols with polylogarithmic bottleneck complexity in the number of players $n$ require a large amount of correlated randomness that is linear in $n$, which limits the per-party efficiency as receiving and storing correlated randomness are the bottleneck for efficiency. In this work, we present for the first time MPC protocols for symmetric functions such that bottleneck complexity and the amount of correlated randomness are both polylogarithmic in $n$, assuming collusion of size at most $n-o(n)$ players. Furthermore, one of our protocols is even computationally efficient in that each player performs only $\mathrm{polylog}(n)$ arithmetic operations while the computational complexity of the previous protocols is $O(n)$. Technically, our efficiency improvements come from novel protocols based on ramp secret sharing to realize basic functionalities with low bottleneck complexity, which we believe may be of interest beyond their applications to secure computation of symmetric functions.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Privacy-Preserving Data Deduplication for Enhancing Federated Learning of Language Models
Aydin Abadi, Vishnu Asutosh Dasu, and Sumanta Sarkar
Deduplication is a vital preprocessing step that enhances machine learning model performance and saves training time and energy. However, enhancing federated learning through deduplication poses challenges, especially regarding scalability and potential privacy violations if deduplication involves sharing all clients’ data. In this paper, we address the problem of deduplication in a federated setup by introducing a pioneering protocol, Efficient Privacy-Preserving Multi-Party Deduplication (EP-MPD). It efficiently removes duplicates from multiple clients’ datasets without compromising data privacy. EP-MPD is constructed in a modular fashion, utilizing two novel variants of the Private Set Intersection protocol. Our extensive experiments demonstrate the significant benefits of deduplication in federated learning of large language models. For instance, we observe up to 19.61% improvement in perplexity and up to 27.95% reduction in running time. EP-MPD effectively balances privacy and performance in federated learning, making it a valuable solution for large-scale applications.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Finding Practical Parameters for Isogeny-based Cryptography
Maria Corte-Real Santos, Jonathan Komada Eriksen, Michael Meyer, and Francisco Rodríguez-Henríquez
Isogeny-based schemes often come with special requirements on the field of definition of the involved elliptic curves. For instance, the efficiency of SQIsign, a promising candidate in the NIST signature standardisation process, requires a large power of two and a large smooth integer $T$ to divide $p^2-1$ for its prime parameter $p$. We present two new methods that combine previous techniques for finding suitable primes: sieve-and-boost and XGCD-and-boost. We use these methods to find primes for the NIST submission of SQIsign. Furthermore, we show that our methods are flexible and can be adapted to find suitable parameters for other isogeny-based schemes such as AprèsSQI or POKE. For all three schemes, the parameters we present offer the best performance among all parameters proposed in the literature.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Improved High-Order Masked Generation of Masking Vector and Rejection Sampling in Dilithium
Jean-Sébastien Coron, François Gérard, Tancrède Lepoint, Matthias Trannoy, and Rina Zeitoun
In this work, we introduce enhanced high-order masking techniques tailored for Dilithium, the post-quantum signature scheme recently standardized by NIST. We improve the masked generation of the masking vector $\vec{y}$, based on a fast Boolean-to-arithmetic conversion modulo $q$. We also describe an optimized gadget for the high-order masked rejection sampling, with a complexity independent from the size of the modulus $q$. We prove the security of our gadgets in the classical ISW $t$-probing model. Finally, we detail our open-source C implementation of these gadgets integrated into a fully masked Dilithium implementation, and provide an efficiency comparison with previous works.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
A Univariate Attack against the Limited-Data Instance of Ciminion
Augustin Bariant
With the increasing interest for advanced protocols for Multi Party Computation, Fully-Homomorphic Encryption or Zero Knowledge proofs, a need for cryptographic algorithms with new constraints has emerged. These algorithms, called Arithmetization-Oriented ciphers, seek to minimize the number of field multiplications in large finite fields $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}$ or $\mathbb{F}_{p}$. Among them, Ciminion is an encryption algorithm proposed by Dobraunig et al. in Eurocrypt 2021. In this paper, we show a new univariate modelization on a variant of Ciminion proposed by the designers. This instance restricts the attacker to at most $2^{s/2}$ data, where $s$ is the security level. Because the designers chose to reduce the number of rounds in that specific attacker model, we are able to attack the cipher for large security levels. We also propose some slight modifications of Ciminion that would overcome this vulnerability.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Crypto Dark Matter on the Torus: Oblivious PRFs from shallow PRFs and FHE
Martin R. Albrecht, Alex Davidson, Amit Deo, and Daniel Gardham
Partially Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (POPRFs) are 2-party protocols that allow a client to learn pseudorandom function (PRF) evaluations on inputs of its choice from a server. The client submits two inputs, one public and one private. The security properties ensure that the server cannot learn the private input, and the client cannot learn more than one evaluation per POPRF query. POPRFs have many applications including password-based key exchange and privacy-preserving authentication mechanisms. However, most constructions are based on classical assumptions, and those with post quantum security suffer from large efficiency drawbacks. In this work, we construct a novel POPRF from lattice assumptions and the “Crypto Dark Matter” PRF candidate (TCC’18) in the random oracle model. At a conceptual level, our scheme exploits the alignment of this family of PRF candidates, relying on mixed modulus computations, and programmable bootstrapping in the torus fully homomorphic encryption scheme (TFHE). We show that our construction achieves malicious client security based on circuit-private FHE, and client privacy from the semantic security of the FHE scheme. We further explore a heuristic approach to extend our scheme to support verifiability, based on the difficulty of computing cheating circuits in low depth. This would yield a verifiable (P)OPRF. We provide a proof-of-concept implementation and preliminary benchmarks of our construction. For the core online OPRF functionality, we require amortised 10.0KB communication per evaluation and a one-time per-client setup communication of 2.5MB.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
On hermitian decomposition lattices and the module-LIP problem in rank 2
Thomas Espitau and Heorhii Pliatsok
In this short note, we introduce a specific class of rank two lattices over CM fields endowed with additional symmetries, which are involved in the decomposition of algebraic integers in Hermitian squares. As an application, we show an elementary reduction from the module-LIP problem in rank 2 over a CM or totally real number field to the finding of a square basis in such lattices.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
A reduction from Hawk to the principal ideal problem in a quaternion algebra
Clémence Chevignard, Pierre-Alain Fouque, Guilhem Mureau, Alice Pellet-Mary, and Alexandre Wallet
In this article we present a non-uniform reduction from rank-2 module-LIP over Complex Multiplication fields, to a variant of the Principal Ideal Problem, in some fitting quaternion algebra. This reduction is classical deterministic polynomial-time in the size of the inputs. The quaternion algebra in which we need to solve the variant of the principal ideal problem depends on the parameters of the module-LIP problem, but not on the problem’s instance. Our reduction requires the knowledge of some special elements of this quaternion algebras, which is why it is non-uniform. In some particular cases, these elements can be computed in polynomial time, making the reduction uniform. This is in particular the case for the Hawk signature scheme: we show that breaking Hawk is no harder than solving a variant of the principal ideal problem in a fixed quaternion algebra (and this reduction is uniform).
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Phase Modulation Side Channels: Jittery JTAG for On-Chip Voltage Measurements
Colin O'Flynn
Measuring the fluctuations of the clock phase of a target was identified as a leakage source on early electromagnetic side-channel investigations. Despite this, only recently was directly measuring the clock phase (or jitter) of digital signals from a target connected to being a source of exploitable leakage. As the phase of a clock output will be related to signal propagation delay through the target, and this propagation delay is related to voltage, this means that most digital devices perform an unintended phase modulation (PM) of their internal voltage onto clock output phases. This paper first demonstrates an unprofiled CPA attack against a Cortex-M microcontroller using the phase of a clock output, observing the signal on both optically isolated and capacitively isolated paths. The unprofiled attack takes only 2-4x more traces than an attack using a classic shunt-resistor measurement. It is then demonstrated how the JTAG bypass mode can be used to force a clock through a digital device. This forced clock signal can then be used as a highly effective oscilloscope that is located on the target device. As the attack does not require modifications to the device (such as capacitor removal or heat spreader removal) it is difficult to detect using existing countermeasures. The example attack over JTAG uses an unprofiled CPA attack, requiring only about 5x more traces than an ideal shunt-resistor based measurement. In addition, a version of this attack using a fault correlation analysis attack is also demonstrated. Countermeasures are discussed, and a simple resampling countermeasure is tested. All tools both offensive and defensive presented in the paper have been released under open-source licenses.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Improved Universal Thresholdizer from Iterative Shamir Secret Sharing
Jung Hee Cheon, Wonhee Cho, and Jiseung Kim
The universal thresholdizer, introduced at CRYPTO'18, is a cryptographic scheme that transforms any cryptosystem into a threshold variant, thereby enhancing its applicability in threshold cryptography. It enables black-box construction of one-round threshold signature schemes based on the Learning with Errors problem, and similarly, facilitates one-round threshold ciphertext-attack secure public key encryption when integrated with non-threshold schemes. Current constructions of universal thresholdizer are fundamentally built upon linear secret sharing schemes. One approach employs Shamir's secret sharing, which lacks compactness and results in ciphertext sizes of $O(N \log N)$, and another approach uses $\{0,1\}$-linear secret sharing scheme ($\{0,1\}$-LSSS), which is compact but induces high communication costs due to requiring $O(N^{5.3})$ secret shares. In this work, we introduce a communication-efficient universal thresholdizer by revising the linear secret sharing scheme. We propose a specialized linear secret sharing scheme, called TreeSSS, which reduces the number of required secret shares $O(N^{3+o(1)})$ while maintaining the compactness of the universal thresholdizer. TreeSSS can also serve as a subroutine for constructing lattice based $t$-out-of-$N$ threshold cryptographic primitives such as threshold fully homomorphic encryptions and threshold signatures. In this context, TreeSSS offers the advantage of lower communication overhead due to the reduced number of secret shares involved.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Round Efficient Byzantine Agreement from VDFs
Poulami Das, Lisa Eckey, Sebastian Faust, Julian Loss, and Monosij Maitra
Byzantine agreement (BA) is a fundamental primitive in distributed systems and has received huge interest as an important building block for blockchain systems. Classical byzantine agreement considers a setting where $n$ parties with fixed, known identities want to agree on an output in the presence of an adversary. Motivated by blockchain systems, the assumption of fixed identities is weakened by using a \emph{resource-based model}. In such models, parties do not have fixed known identities but instead have to invest some expensive resources to participate in the protocol. Prominent examples for such resources are computation (measured by, e.g., proofs-of-work) or money (measured by proofs-of-stake). Unlike in the classical setting where BA without trusted setup (e.g., a PKI or an unpredictable beacon) is impossible for $t \geq n/3$ corruptions, in such resource-based models, BA can be constructed for the optimal threshold of $t <n/2$. In this work, we investigate BA without a PKI in the model where parties have restricted computational resources. Concretely, we consider sequential computation modeled via computing a verifiable delay function (VDF) and establish the following results: Positive Result: We present the first protocol for BA with expected constant round complexity and termination under adaptive corruption, honest majority and without a PKI. Earlier work achieved round complexity $O(n\kappa^2)$ (CRYPTO'15) or $O(\kappa)$ (PKC'18), where $\kappa$ is the security parameter. Negative Result: We give the first lower bound on the communication complexity of BA in a model where parties have restricted computational resources. Concretely, we show that a multicast complexity of $O(\sqrt{n})$ is necessary even if the parties have access to a VDF oracle.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
SIGMA: Secure GPT Inference with Function Secret Sharing
Kanav Gupta, Neha Jawalkar, Ananta Mukherjee, Nishanth Chandran, Divya Gupta, Ashish Panwar, and Rahul Sharma
Secure 2-party computation (2PC) enables secure inference that offers protection for both proprietary machine learning (ML) models and sensitive inputs to them. However, the existing secure inference solutions suffer from high latency and communication overheads, particularly for transformers. Function secret sharing (FSS) is a recent paradigm for obtaining efficient 2PC protocols with a preprocessing phase. We provide SIGMA, the first end-to-end system for secure transformer inference based on FSS. By constructing new FSS-based protocols for complex machine learning functionalities, such as Softmax, GeLU and SiLU, and also accelerating their computation on GPUs, SIGMA improves the latency of secure inference of transformers by $11-19\times$ over the state-of-the-art that uses preprocessing and GPUs. We present the first secure inference of generative pre-trained transformer (GPT) models. In particular, SIGMA executes Meta's LLaMA2 (available on HuggingFace) with 13 billion parameters in 44 seconds and GPT2 in 1.6 seconds.
Last updated:  2024-07-15
Breaking Free: Efficient Multi-Party Private Set Union Without Non-Collusion Assumptions
Minglang Dong, Yu Chen, Cong Zhang, and Yujie Bai
Multi-party private set union (MPSU) protocol enables $m$ $(m > 2)$ parties, each holding a set, to collectively compute the union of their sets without revealing any additional information to other parties. There are two main categories of MPSU protocols: The first builds on public-key techniques. All existing works in this category involve a super-linear number of public-key operations, resulting in poor practical efficiency. The second builds on oblivious transfer and symmetric-key techniques. The only existing work in this category is proposed by Liu and Gao (ASIACRYPT 2023), which features the best concrete performance among all existing protocols, despite its super-linear computation and communication. Unfortunately, it does not achieve the standard semi-honest security, as it inherently relies on a non-collusion assumption, which is unlikely to hold in practice. Therefore, the problem of constructing a practical MPSU protocol based on oblivious transfer and symmetric-key techniques in standard semi-honest model remains open. Furthermore, there is no MPSU protocol achieving both linear computation and linear communication complexity, which leaves another unresolved problem. In this work, we resolve these two open problems. - We propose the first MPSU protocol based on oblivious transfer and symmetric-key techniques in the standard semi-honest model. This protocol is $4.9-9.3 \times$ faster than Liu and Gao in the LAN setting. Concretely, our protocol requires only $3.6$ seconds in online phase for 3 parties with sets of $2^{20}$ items each. - We propose the first MPSU protocol achieving both linear computation and linear communication complexity, based on public-key operations. This protocol has the lowest overall communication costs and shows a factor of $3.0-36.5\times$ improvement in terms of overall communication compared to Liu and Gao. We implement our protocols and conduct an extensive experiment to compare the performance of our protocols and the state-of-the-art. To the best of our knowledge, our implementation is the first correct and secure implementation of MPSU that reports on large-size experiments.
Last updated:  2024-07-14
On the Security of KOS
Benjamin E. Diamond
We study the security of the random oblivious transfer extension protocol of Keller, Orsini, and Scholl (CRYPTO '15), whose security proof was recently invalidated by Roy (CRYPTO '22). We show that KOS is asymptotically secure. Our proof involves a subtle analysis of the protocol's "correlation check", and introduces several new techniques. We also study the protocol's concrete security. We establish concrete security for security parameter values on the order of 5,000. We present evidence that a stronger result than ours—if possible—is likely to require radically new ideas.
Last updated:  2024-07-14
STIR: Reed–Solomon Proximity Testing with Fewer Queries
Gal Arnon, Alessandro Chiesa, Giacomo Fenzi, and Eylon Yogev
We present STIR (Shift To Improve Rate), an interactive oracle proof of proximity (IOPP) for Reed-Solomon codes that achieves the best known query complexity of any concretely efficient IOPP for this problem. For $\lambda$ bits of security, STIR has query complexity $O(\log d + \lambda \cdot \log \log d )$, while FRI, a popular protocol, has query complexity $O(\lambda \cdot \log d )$ (including variants of FRI based on conjectured security assumptions). STIR relies on a new technique for recursively improving the rate of the tested Reed-Solomon code. We provide an implementation of STIR compiled to a SNARK. Compared to a highly-optimized implementation of FRI, STIR achieves an improvement in argument size that ranges from $1.25\times$ to $2.46\times$ depending on the chosen parameters, with similar prover and verifier running times. For example, in order to achieve 128 bits of security for degree $2^{26}$ and rate $1/4$, STIR has argument size $114$ KiB, compared to $211$ KiB for FRI.
Last updated:  2024-07-14
A Practical and Scalable Implementation of the Vernam Cipher, under Shannon Conditions, using Quantum Noise
Adrian Neal
The one-time pad cipher is renowned for its theoretical perfect security, yet its practical deployment is primarily hindered by the key-size and distribution challenge. This paper introduces a novel approach to key distribution called q-stream, designed to make symmetric-key cryptography, and the one-time pad cipher in particular, a viable option for contemporary secure communications, and specifically, post-quantum cryptography, leveraging quantum noise and combinatorics to ensure secure and efficient key-distribution between communicating parties. We demonstrate that our key-distribution mechanism has a variable, yet quantifiable hardness of at least 504 bits, established from immutable mathematical laws, rather than conjectured-intractability, and how we overcome the one-time pad key-size issue with a localised quantum-noise seeded key-generation function, having a system hardness of at least 2304 bits, while introducing sender authentication and message integrity. Whilst the proposed solution has potential applications in fields requiring very high levels of security, such as military communications and large financial transactions, we show from our research with a prototype of q-stream, that it is sufficiently practical and scaleable for use in common browser-based web-applications, without any modification to the browser (i.e. plug-ins), running above SSL/TLS at the application level, where in tests, it achieved a key-distribution rate of around 7 million keys over a 5 minute surge-window, in a single (multi-threaded) instance of q-stream.
Last updated:  2024-07-14
A Note on ``Secure and Distributed IoT Data Storage in Clouds Based on Secret Sharing and Collaborative Blockchain''
Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu
We show that the data storage scheme [IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., 2023, 31(4), 1550-1565] is flawed due to the false secret sharing protocol, which requires that some random $4\times 4$ matrixes over the finite field $F_p$ (a prime $p$) are invertible. But we find its mathematical proof for invertibility is incorrect. To fix this flaw, one needs to check the invertibility of all 35 matrixes so as to generate the proper 7 secret shares.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
LR-OT: Leakage-Resilient Oblivious Transfer
Francesco Berti, Carmit Hazay, and Itamar Levi
Oblivious Transfer (OT) is a fundamental cryptographic primitive, becoming a crucial component of a practical secure protocol. OT is typically implemented in software, and one way to accelerate its running time is by using hardware implementations. However, such implementations are vulnerable to side-channel attacks (SCAs). On the other hand, protecting interactive protocols against SCA is highly challenging because of their longer secrets (which include inputs and randomness), more complicated design, and running multiple instances. Consequently, there are no truly practical leakage-resistant OT protocols yet. In this paper, we introduce two tailored indistinguishability-based security definitions for leakage-resilient OT, focusing on protecting the sender's state. Second, we propose a practical semi-honest secure OT protocol that achieves these security levels while minimizing the assumptions on the protocol's building blocks and the use of a secret state. Finally, we extend our protocol to support sequential composition and explore efficiency-security tradeoffs.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
Predicting one class of truncated matrix congruential generators with unknown parameters
Changcun Wang and Zhaopeng Dai
Matrix congruential generators is an important class of pseudorandom number generators. In this paper we show how to predict a class of Matrix congruential generators matrix congruential generators with unknown parameters. Given a few truncated digits of high-order bits output by a matrix congruential generator, we give a method based on lattice reduction to recover the parameters and the initial state of the generator.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
Optimized Privacy-Preserving Clustering with Fully Homomorphic Encryption
Chen Yang, Jingwei Chen, Wenyuan Wu, and Yong Feng
Clustering is a crucial unsupervised learning method extensively used in the field of data analysis. For analyzing big data, outsourced computation is an effective solution but privacy concerns arise when involving sensitive information. Fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) enables computations on encrypted data, making it ideal for such scenarios. However, existing privacy-preserving clustering based on FHE are often constrained by the high computational overhead incurred from FHE, typically requiring decryption and interactions after only one iteration of the clustering algorithm. In this work, we propose a more efficient approach to evaluate the one-hot vector for the index of the minimum in an array with FHE, which fully exploits the parallelism of single-instruction-multiple-data of FHE schemes. By combining this with FHE bootstrapping, we present a practical FHE-based k-means clustering protocol whose required round of interactions between the data owner and the server is optimal, i.e., accomplishing the entire clustering process on encrypted data in a single round. We implement this protocol using the CKKS FHE scheme. Experiments show that our protocol significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art FHE-based k-means clustering protocols on various public datasets and achieves comparable accuracy to plaintext result. Additionally, We adapt our protocol to support mini-batch k-means for large-scale datasets and report its performance.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
Fault-Resistant Partitioning of Secure CPUs for System Co-Verification against Faults
Simon Tollec, Vedad Hadžić, Pascal Nasahl, Mihail Asavoae, Roderick Bloem, Damien Couroussé, Karine Heydemann, Mathieu Jan, and Stefan Mangard
Fault injection attacks are a serious threat to system security, enabling attackers to bypass protection mechanisms or access sensitive information. To evaluate the robustness of CPU-based systems against these attacks, it is essential to analyze the consequences of the fault propagation resulting from the complex interplay between the software and the processor. However, current formal methodologies combining hardware and software face scalability issues due to the monolithic approach used. To address this challenge, this work formalizes the $k$-fault resistant partitioning notion to solve the fault propagation problem when assessing redundancy-based hardware countermeasures in a first step. Proven security guarantees can then reduce the remaining hardware attack surface when introducing the software in a second step. First, we validate our approach against previous work by reproducing known results on cryptographic circuits. In particular, we outperform state-of-the-art tools for evaluating AES under a three-fault-injection attack. Then, we apply our methodology to the OpenTitan secure element and formally prove the security of its CPU's hardware countermeasure to single bit-flip injections. Besides that, we demonstrate that previously intractable problems, such as analyzing the robustness of OpenTitan running a secure boot process, can now be solved by a co-verification methodology that leverages a $k$-fault resistant partitioning. We also report a potential exploitation of the register file vulnerability in two other software use cases. Finally, we provide a security fix for the register file, prove its robustness, and integrate it into the OpenTitan project.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
Prime Masking vs. Faults - Exponential Security Amplification against Selected Classes of Attacks
Thorben Moos, Sayandeep Saha, and François-Xavier Standaert
Fault injection attacks are a serious concern for cryptographic hardware. Adversaries may extract sensitive information from the faulty output that is produced by a cryptographic circuit after actively disturbing its computation. Alternatively, the information whether an output would have been faulty, even if it is withheld from being released, may be exploited. The former class of attacks, which requires the collection of faulty outputs, such as Differential Fault Analysis (DFA), then either exploits some knowledge about the position of the injected fault or about its value. The latter class of attacks, which can be applied without ever obtaining faulty outputs, such as Statistical Ineffective Fault Attacks (SIFA), then either exploits a dependency between the effectiveness of the fault injection and the value to be faulted (e.g., an LSB stuck-at-0 only affecting odd numbers), denoted as SIFA-1, or a conditional propagation of a faulted value based on a sensitive intermediate (e.g., multiplication of a faulted value by 0 prevents propagation), denoted as SIFA-2. The aptitude of additive masking schemes, which were designed to prevent side-channel analysis, to also thwart fault attacks is typically assumed to be limited. Common fault models, such as toggle/bit-flip, stuck-at-0 or stuck-at-1 survive the recombination of Boolean shares well enough for generic attacks to succeed. More precisely, injecting a fault into one or multiple Boolean shares often results in the same, or at least a predictable, error appearing in the sensitive variable after recombination. In this work, we show that additive masking in prime-order fields breaks such relationships, causing frequently exploited biases to decrease exponentially in the number of shares. As a result, prime masking offers surprisingly strong protection against generic statistical attacks, which require a dependency between the effectiveness of an injected fault and the secret variable that is manipulated, such as SIFA-1. Operation-dependent statistical attacks, such as SIFA-2 and Fault Template Attacks (FTA), may still be performed against certain prime-field structures, even if they are masked with many shares. Yet, we analyze the corresponding cases and are able to provide specific guidelines on how to avoid vulnerabilities either at the cipher design or implementation level by making informed decisions about the primes, non-linear mappings and masked gadgets used. Since prime-field masking appears to be one of the rare instances of affordable countermeasures that naturally provide sound protection against sidechannel analysis and certain fault injection attacks, we believe there is a strong incentive for developing new ciphers to leverage these advantages.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
Permutation Superposition Oracles for Quantum Query Lower Bounds
Christian Majenz, Giulio Malavolta, and Michael Walter
We propose a generalization of Zhandry’s compressed oracle method to random permutations, where an algorithm can query both the permutation and its inverse. We show how to use the resulting oracle simulation to bound the success probability of an algorithm for any predicate on input-output pairs, a key feature of Zhandry’s technique that had hitherto resisted attempts at generalization to random permutations. One key technical ingredient is to use strictly monotone factorizations to represent the permutation in the oracle’s database. As an application of our framework, we show that the one-round sponge construction is unconditionally preimage resistant in the random permutation model. This proves a conjecture by Unruh.
Last updated:  2024-07-13
Bake It Till You Make It: Heat-induced Power Leakage from Masked Neural Networks
Dev M. Mehta, Mohammad Hashemi, David S. Koblah, Domenic Forte, and Fatemeh Ganji
Masking has become one of the most effective approaches for securing hardware designs against side-channel attacks. Regardless of the effort put into correctly implementing masking schemes on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), leakage can be unexpectedly observed. This is due to the fact that the assumption underlying all masked designs, i.e., the leakages of different shares are independent of each other, may no longer hold in practice. In this regard, extreme temperatures have been shown to be an important factor in inducing leakage, even in correctly masked designs. This has previously been verified using an external heat generator (i.e., a climate chamber). In this paper, we examine whether the leakage can be induced using the circuit components themselves without making any changes to the design. Specifically, we target masked neural networks (NNs) in FPGAs, one of the main building blocks of which is block random access memory (BRAM). In this respect, thanks to the inherent characteristics of NNs, our novel internal heat generators leverage solely the memories devoted to storing the user’s input, especially when frequently writing alternating patterns into BRAMs. The possibility of observing first-order leakage is evaluated by considering one of the most recent and successful first-order secure masked NNs, namely ModuloNET. ModuloNET is specifically designed for FPGAs, where BRAMs are used to store inputs and intermediate computations. Our experimental results demonstrate that undesirable first-order leakage can be observed and exploited by increasing the temperature when an alternating input is applied to the masked NN. To give a better understanding of the impact of extreme heat, we further perform a similar test on the design using an external heat generator, where a similar conclusion can be drawn.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Anonymous Outsourced Statekeeping with Reduced Server Storage
Dana Dachman-Soled, Esha Ghosh, Mingyu Liang, Ian Miers, and Michael Rosenberg
Strike-lists are a common technique for rollback and replay prevention in protocols that require that clients remain anonymous or that their current position in a state machine remain confidential. Strike-lists are heavily used in anonymous credentials, e-cash schemes, and trusted execution environments, and are widely deployed on the web in the form of Privacy Pass (PoPETS '18) and Google Private State Tokens. In such protocols, clients submit pseudorandom tokens associated with each action (e.g., a page view in Privacy Pass) or state transition, and the token is added to a server-side list to prevent reuse. Unfortunately, the size of a strike-list, and hence the storage required by the server, is proportional to the total number of issued tokens, $N \cdot t$, where $N$ is the number of clients and $t$ is the maximum number of tickets per client. In this work, we ask whether it is possible to realize a strike-list-like functionality, which we call the anonymous tickets functionality, with storage requirements proportional to $N \log(t)$. For the anonymous tickets functionality we construct a secure protocol from standard assumptions that achieves server storage of $O(N)$ ciphertexts, where each ciphertext encrypts a message of length $O(\log(t))$. We also consider an extension of the strike-list functionality where the server stores an arbitrary state for each client and clients advance their state with some function $s_i\gets f(s_{i-1},\mathsf{auxinput})$, which we call the anonymous outsourced state-keeping functionality. In this setting, malicious clients are prevented from rolling back their state, while honest clients are guaranteed anonymity and confidentiality against a malicious server. We achieve analogous results in this setting for two different classes of functions. Our results rely on a new technique to preserve client anonymity in the face of selective failure attacks by a malicious server. Specifically, our protocol guarantees that misbehavior of the server either (1) does not prevent the honest client from redeeming a ticket or (2) provides the honest client with an escape hatch that can be used to simulate a redeem in a way that is indistinguishable to the server.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Toward A Practical Multi-party Private Set Union
Jiahui Gao, Son Nguyen, and Ni Trieu
This paper studies a multi-party private set union (mPSU), a fundamental cryptographic problem that allows multiple parties to compute the union of their respective datasets without revealing any additional information. We propose an efficient mPSU protocol which is secure in the presence of any number of colluding semi-honest participants. Our protocol avoids computationally expensive homomorphic operations or generic multi-party computation, thus providing an efficient solution for mPSU. The crux of our protocol lies in the utilization of new cryptographic tool, namely, Membership Oblivious Transfer (mOT) . We believe that the mOT and cOPRF may be of independent interest. We implement our mPSU protocol and evaluate their performance. Our protocol shows an improvement of up to $80.84\times$ in terms of running time and $405.73\times$ bandwidth cost compared to the existing state-of-the-art protocols. *Note: June 2024 - Fixed a bug in the original version and simplified the protocol by removing the OPRF.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
A Two-Layer Blockchain Sharding Protocol Leveraging Safety and Liveness for Enhanced Performance
Yibin Xu, Jingyi Zheng, Boris Düdder, Tijs Slaats, and Yongluan Zhou
Sharding is a critical technique that enhances the scalability of blockchain technology. However, existing protocols often assume adversarial nodes in a general term without considering the different types of attacks, which limits transaction throughput at runtime because attacks on liveness could be mitigated. There have been attempts to increase transaction throughput by separately handling the attacks; however, they have security vulnerabilities. This paper introduces Reticulum, a novel sharding protocol that overcomes these limitations and achieves enhanced scalability in a blockchain network without security vulnerabilities. Reticulum employs a two-phase design that dynamically adjusts transaction throughput based on runtime adversarial attacks on either or both liveness and safety. It consists of `control' and `process' shards in two layers corresponding to the two phases. Process shards are subsets of control shards, with each process shard expected to contain at least one honest node with high confidence. Conversely, control shards are expected to have a majority of honest nodes with high confidence. Reticulum leverages unanimous voting in the first phase to involve fewer nodes in accepting/rejecting a block, allowing more parallel process shards. The control shard finalizes the decision made in the first phase and serves as a lifeline to resolve disputes when they surface. Experiments demonstrate that the unique design of Reticulum empowers high transaction throughput and robustness in the face of different types of attacks in the network, making it superior to existing sharding protocols for blockchain networks.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Dot-Product Proofs and Their Applications
Nir Bitansky, Prahladh Harsha, Yuval Ishai, Ron D. Rothblum, and David J. Wu
A dot-product proof (DPP) is a simple probabilistic proof system in which the input statement $\mathbf{x}$ and the proof $\boldsymbol{\pi}$ are vectors over a finite field $\mathbb{F}$, and the proof is verified by making a single dot-product query $\langle \mathbf{q},(\mathbf{x} \| \boldsymbol{\pi}) \rangle$ jointly to $\mathbf{x}$ and $\boldsymbol{\pi}$. A DPP can be viewed as a 1-query fully linear PCP. We study the feasibility and efficiency of DPPs, obtaining the following results: - Small-field DPP. For any finite field $\mathbb{F}$ and Boolean circuit $C$ of size $S$, there is a DPP for proving that there exists $\mathbf{w}$ such that $C(\mathbf{x}, \mathbf{w})=1$ with a proof $\boldsymbol{\pi}$ of length $S\cdot\mathsf{poly}(|\mathbb{F}|)$ and soundness error $\varepsilon=O(1 / \sqrt{|\mathbb{F}|})$. We show this error to be asymptotically optimal. In particular, and in contrast to the best known PCPs, there exist strictly linear-length DPPs over constant-size fields. - Large-field DPP. If $|\mathbb{F}|\ge\mathsf{poly}(S/\varepsilon)$, there is a similar DPP with soundness error $\varepsilon$ and proof length $O(S)$ (in field elements). The above results do not rely on the PCP theorem and their proofs are considerably simpler. We apply our DPP constructions toward two kinds of applications. - Hardness of approximation. We obtain a simple proof for the NP-hardness of approximating MAXLIN (with dense instances) over any finite field $\mathbb{F}$ up to some constant factor $c>1$, independent of $\mathbb{F}$. Unlike previous PCP-based proofs, our proof yields exponential-time hardness under the exponential time hypothesis (ETH). - Succinct arguments. We improve the concrete efficiency of succinct interactive arguments in the generic group model using input-independent preprocessing. In particular, the communication is comparable to sending two group elements and the verifier's computation is dominated by a single group exponentiation. We also show how to use DPPs together with linear-only encryption to construct succinct commit-and-prove arguments.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Secret Key Recovery in a Global-Scale End-to-End Encryption System
Graeme Connell, Vivian Fang, Rolfe Schmidt, Emma Dauterman, and Raluca Ada Popa
End-to-end encrypted messaging applications ensure that an attacker cannot read a user's message history without their decryption keys. While this provides strong privacy, it creates a usability problem: if a user loses their devices and cannot access their decryption keys, they can no longer access their account. To solve this usability problem, users should be able to back up their account information with the messaging provider. For privacy, this backup should be encrypted and the provider should not have access to users' decryption keys. To solve this problem, we present Secure Value Recovery 3 (SVR3), a secret key recovery system that distributes trust across different types of hardware enclaves run by different cloud providers in order to protect users' decryption keys. SVR3 is the first deployed secret key recovery system to split trust across heterogeneous enclaves managed by different cloud providers: this design ensures that a single type of enclave does not become a central point of attack. SVR3 protects decryption keys via rollback protection and fault tolerance techniques tailored to the enclaves' security guarantees. SVR3 costs \$0.0025/user/year and takes 365ms for a user to recover their key, which is a rare operation. A part of SVR3 has been rolled out to millions of real users in a deployment with capacity for over 500 million users, demonstrating the ability to operate at scale.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Cryptanalysis of EagleSign
Ludo N. Pulles and Mehdi Tibouchi
EagleSign is one of the 40 “Round 1 Additional Signatures” that is accepted for consideration in the supplementary round of the Post-Quantum Cryptography standardization process, organized by NIST. Its design is based on structured lattices, and it boasts greater simplicity and performance compared to the two lattice signatures already selected for standardization: Falcon and Dilithium. In this paper, we show that those claimed advantages come at the cost of security. More precisely, we show that the distribution of EagleSign signatures leaks information about the private key, to the point that only a few hundred signatures on arbitrary known messages suffice for a full key recovery, for all proposed parameters. A related vulnerability also affects EagleSign-V2, a subsequent version of the scheme specifically designed to thwart the initial attack. Although a larger number of signatures is required for key recovery, the idea of the attack remains largely similar. Both schemes come with proofs of security that we show are flawed.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Probabilistic Linearization: Internal Differential Collisions in up to 6 Rounds of SHA-3
Zhongyi Zhang, Chengan Hou, and Meicheng Liu
The SHA-3 standard consists of four cryptographic hash functions, called SHA3-224, SHA3-256, SHA3-384 and SHA3-512, and two extendable-output functions (XOFs), called SHAKE128 and SHAKE256. In this paper, we study the collision resistance of the SHA-3 instances. By analyzing the nonlinear layer, we introduce the concept of maximum difference density subspace, and develop a new target internal difference algorithm by probabilistic linearization. We also exploit new strategies for optimizing the internal differential characteristic. Further more, we figure out the expected size of collision subsets in internal differentials, by analyzing the collision probability of the digests rather than the intermediate states input to the last nonlinear layer. These techniques enhance the analysis of internal differentials, leading to the best collision attacks on four round-reduced variants of the SHA-3 instances. In particular, the number of attacked rounds is extended to 5 from 4 for SHA3-384, and to 6 from 5 for SHAKE256.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Counting Unpredictable Bits: A Simple PRG from One-way Functions
Noam Mazor and Rafael Pass
A central result in the theory of Cryptography, by Hastad, Imagliazzo, Luby and Levin [SICOMP’99], demonstrates that the existence one-way functions (OWF) implies the existence of pseudo-random generators (PRGs). Despite the fundamental importance of this result, and several elegant improvements/simplifications, analyses of constructions of PRGs from OWFs remain complex (both conceptually and technically). Our goal is to provide a construction of a PRG from OWFs with a simple proof of security; we thus focus on the setting of non-uniform security (i.e., we start off with a OWF secure against non-uniform PPT, and we aim to get a PRG secure against non-uniform PPT). Our main result is a construction of a PRG from OWFs with a self-contained, simple, proof of security, relying only on the Goldreich-Levin Theorem (and the Chernoff bound). Although our main goal is simplicity, the construction, and a variant there-of, also improves the efficiency—in terms of invocations and seed lengths—of the state-of-the-art constructions due to [Haitner-Reingold-Vadhan, STOC’10] and [Vadhan-Zheng, STOC’12], by a factor $O(\log^2 n)$. The key novelty in our analysis is a generalization of the Blum-Micali [FOCS’82] notion of unpredictabilty—rather than requiring that every bit in the output of a function is unpredictable, we count how many unpredictable bits a function has, and we show that any OWF on $n$ input bits (after hashing the input and the output) has $n + O(\log n)$ unpredictable output bits. Such unpredictable bits can next be “extracted” into a pseudorandom string using standard techniques.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Scalable and Lightweight State-Channel Audits
Christian Badertscher, Maxim Jourenko, Dimitris Karakostas, and Mario Larangeira
Payment channels are one of the most prominent off-chain scaling solutions for blockchain systems. However, regulatory institutions have difficulty embracing them, as the channels lack insights needed for Anti-Money Laundering (AML) auditing purposes. Our work tackles the problem of a formal reliable and controllable inspection of off-ledger payment channels, by offering a novel approach for maintaining and reliably auditing statistics of payment channels. We extend a typical trustless Layer 2 protocol and provide a lightweight and scalable protocol such that: - every state channel is provably auditable w.r.t. a configurable set of policy queries, such that a regulator can retrieve reliable insights about the channel; - no information beyond the answers to auditing queries is leaked; - the cryptographic operations are inexpensive, the setup is simple, and storage complexity is independent of the transaction graph's size. We present a concrete protocol, based on Hydra Isomorphic State Channels (FC'21), and tie the creation of a state channel to real-world identifiers, both in a plain and privacy-preserving manner. For this, we employ verifiable credentials for decentralized identifiers, specifically verifiable Legal Entity Identifiers (vLEI) that increasingly gain traction for financial service providers and regulated institutions.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Exploiting signature leakages: breaking Enhanced pqsigRM
Thomas Debris-Alazard, Pierre Loisel, and Valentin Vasseur
Enhanced pqsigRM is a code-based hash-and-sign scheme proposed to the second National Institute of Standards and Technology call for post-quantum signatures. The scheme is based on the $(U,U+V)$-construction and it enjoys remarkably small signature lengths, about $1$KBytes for a security level of $128$ bits. Unfortunately we show that signatures leak information about the underlying $(U,U+V)$-structure. It allows to retrieve the private-key with~$100, 000$ signatures.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
SQISignHD: New Dimensions in Cryptography
Pierrick Dartois, Antonin Leroux, Damien Robert, and Benjamin Wesolowski
We introduce SQIsignHD, a new post-quantum digital signature scheme inspired by SQIsign. SQIsignHD exploits the recent algorithmic breakthrough underlying the attack on SIDH, which allows to efficiently represent isogenies of arbitrary degrees as components of a higher dimensional isogeny. SQIsignHD overcomes the main drawbacks of SQIsign. First, it scales well to high security levels, since the public parameters for SQIsignHD are easy to generate: the characteristic of the underlying field needs only be of the form $2^{f}3^{f'}-1$. Second, the signing procedure is simpler and more efficient. Our signing procedure implemented in C runs in 28 ms, which is a significant improvement compared to SQISign. Third, the scheme is easier to analyse, allowing for a much more compelling security reduction. Finally, the signature sizes are even more compact than (the already record-breaking) SQIsign, with compressed signatures as small as 109 bytes for the post-quantum NIST-1 level of security. These advantages may come at the expense of the verification, which now requires the computation of an isogeny in dimension $4$, a task whose optimised cost is still uncertain, as it has been the focus of very little attention. Our experimental sagemath implementation of the verification runs in around 600 ms, indicating the potential cryptographic interest of dimension $4$ isogenies after optimisations and low level implementation.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Parameters of Algebraic Representation vs. Efficiency of Algebraic Cryptanalysis
Hossein Arabnezhad and Babak Sadeghiyan
The aim of an algebraic attack is to find the secret key by solving a collection of relations that describe the internal structure of a cipher for observations of plaintext/cipher-text pairs. Although algebraic attacks are addressed for cryptanalysis of block and stream ciphers, there is a limited understanding of the impact of algebraic representation of the cipher on the efficiency of solving the resulting collection of equations. In this paper, we investigate on how different S-box representations affect the complexity of algebraic attacks, in an empirical manner. In the literature some algebraic properties are intuitively proposed to evaluate optimality of an algebraic description of S-boxes for algebraic cryptanalysis. In this paper, we compare different S-box representation for algebraic cryptanalysis with doing experiments with SR family of block ciphers. We also show that the so-called \textit{Forward-Backward} representation which is in contrast with all mentioned criteria for optimal representations criteria, practically gives better results than the compliant representations. We also compare the representations for both $GF(2)$ and $GF(2^n)$ fields.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
KAIME : Central Bank Digital Currency with Realistic and Modular Privacy
Ali Dogan and Kemal Bicakci
Recently, with the increasing interest in Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC), many countries have been working on researching and developing digital currency. The most important reasons for this interest are that CBDC eliminates the disadvantages of traditional currencies and provides a safer, faster, and more efficient payment system. These benefits also come with challenges, such as safeguarding individuals’ privacy and ensuring regulatory mechanisms. While most researches address the privacy conflict between users and regulatory agencies, they miss an important detail. Important parts of a financial system are banks and financial institutions. Some studies ignore the need for privacy and include these institutions in the CBDC system, no system currently offers a solution to the privacy conflict between banks, financial institutions, and users. In this study, while we offer a solution to the privacy conflict between the user and the regulatory agencies, we also provide a solution to the privacy conflict between the user and the banks. Our solution, KAIME has also a modular structure. The privacy of the sender and receiver can be hidden if desired. Compared to previous related research, security analysis and implementation of KAIME is substantially simpler because simple and well-known cryptographic methods are used.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
BG: A Modular Treatment of BFT Consensus
Uncategorized
Xiao Sui, Sisi Duan, and Haibin Zhang
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Uncategorized
We provide an expressive framework that allows analyzing and generating provably secure, state-of-the-art Byzantine fault-tolerant (BFT) protocols. Our framework is hierarchical, including three layers. The top layer is used to model the message pattern and abstract key functions on which BFT algorithms can be built. The intermediate layer provides the core functions with high-level properties sufficient to prove the security of the top-layer algorithms. The bottom layer carefully defines predicates according to which we offer operational realizations for the core functions. All three layers in our framework are extensible and enable innovation. One may modify or extend any layer to theoretically cover all BFT protocols, known and unknown. Indeed, unlike prior BFT frameworks, our framework can analyze and recast BFT protocols in an exceedingly fine-grained manner. More importantly, our framework can readily generate new BFT protocols by simply enumerating the parameters in the framework. In this paper, we show that the framework allows us to fully specify and formally prove the security for 23 BFT protocols, including protocols matching HotStuff, Fast-HotStuff, Jolteon, and Marlin, and among these protocols, seven new protocols outperforming existing ones or achieving meaningful trade-offs among various performance metrics.
Last updated:  2024-07-12
Synchronous Distributed Key Generation without Broadcasts
Nibesh Shrestha, Adithya Bhat, Aniket Kate, and Kartik Nayak
Distributed key generation (DKG) is an important building block in designing many efficient distributed protocols. In this work, we initiate the study of communication complexity and latency of distributed key generation protocols under a synchronous network in a point-to-point network. Our key result is the first synchronous DKG protocol for discrete log-based cryptosystems with $O(\kappa n^3)$ communication complexity ($\kappa$ denotes a security parameter) that tolerates $t < n/2$ Byzantine faults among $n$ parties. We show two variants of the protocol: a deterministic protocol with $O(t\Delta)$ latency and randomized protocol with $O(\Delta)$ latency in expectation where $\Delta$ denotes the bounded synchronous delay. In the process of achieving our results, we design (1) a gradecast protocol with optimal communication complexity of $O(\kappa n^2)$ for linear-sized inputs and latency of $O(\Delta)$, (2) a primitive called ``recoverable set of shares'' for ensuring recovery of shared secrets, (3) an oblivious leader election protocol with $O(\kappa n^3)$ communication and $O(\Delta)$ latency, and (4) a multi-valued validated Byzantine agreement (MVBA) protocol with $O(\kappa n^3)$ communication complexity for linear-sized inputs and $O(\Delta)$ latency in expectation. Each of these primitives may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2024-07-11
Constraint-Packing and the Sum-Check Protocol over Binary Tower Fields
Quang Dao and Justin Thaler
SNARKs based on the sum-check protocol often invoke the ``zero-check PIOP''. This reduces the vanishing of many constraints to a single sum-check instance applied to an $n$-variate polynomial of the form $g(x) = \text{eq}(r,x) \cdot p(x)$, where $p$ is a product of multilinear polynomials, $r$ is a random vector, and $\text{eq}$ is the multilinear extension of the equality function. In recent SNARK designs, $p(x)$ is defined over a ``small'' base field, while $r$ is drawn from a large extension field $\mathbb{F}$ for security. Recent papers (Bagad, Domb, and Thaler 2024; Gruen 2024) have optimized the sum-check protocol prover for this setting. However, these works still require the prover to ``pre-compute'' all evaluations of $\text{eq}(r, x)$ as $x$ ranges over $\{0, 1\}^{n}$, and this computation involves about $n$ multiplications over the extension field $\mathbb{F}$. In this note, we describe a modification to the zero-check PIOP in the case of binary tower fields that reduces this pre-computation cost by a factor of close to $\log |\mathbb{F}|$, which is $128$ in important applications. We show that our modification is sound, and that it strictly generalizes a (possibly folklore) technique of constraint-packing over field extensions.
Last updated:  2024-07-11
Jolt-b: recursion friendly Jolt with basefold commitment
Hang Su, Qi Yang, and Zhenfei Zhang
The authors of Jolt [AST24] pioneered a unique method for creating zero-knowledge virtual machines, known as the lookup singularity. This technique extensively uses lookup tables to create virtual machine circuits. Despite Jolt’s performance being twice as efficient as the previous state-of-the-art1 , there is potential for further enhancement. The initial release of Jolt uses Spartan [Set20] and Hyrax [WTs+ 18] as their backend, leading to two constraints. First, Hyrax employs Pedersen commitment to build inner product arguments, which requires elliptic curve operations. Second, the verification of a Hyrax commitment takes square root time $O(\sqrt{N})$ relative to the circuit size $N$ . This makes the recursive verification of a Jolt proof impractical, as the verification circuit would need to execute all the Hyrax verification logic in-circuit. A later version of Jolt includes Zeromorph [KT23] and HyperKZG as their commitment backend, making the system recursion-friendly, as now the recursive verifier only needs to perform $O(\log N)$ operations, but at the expense of a need for a trusted setup. Our scheme, Jolt-b, addresses these issues by transitioning to the extension field of the Goldilocks and using the Basefold commitment scheme [ZCF23], which has an $O(\log^2 N)$ verifier time. This scheme mirrors the modifications of Plonky2 over the original Plonk [GWC19]: it transitions from EC fields to the Goldilocks field; it replaces the EC-based commitment scheme with an encoding-based commitment scheme. We implemented Jolt-b, along with an optimized version of the Basefold scheme. Our benchmarks show that at a cost of 2.47x slowdown for the prover, we achieve recursion friendliness for the original Jolt. In comparison with other recursion-friendly Jolt variants, our scheme is 1.24x and 1.52x faster in prover time than the Zeromorph and HyperKZG variants of Jolt, respectively.
Last updated:  2024-07-11
Distributed Verifiable Random Function With Compact Proof
Ahmet Ramazan Ağırtaş, Arda Buğra Özer, Zülfükar Saygı, and Oğuz Yayla
Verifiable Random Functions (VRFs) are cryptographic primitives that generate unpredictable randomness along with proofs that are verifiable, a critical requirement for blockchain applications in decentralized finance, online gaming, and more. Existing VRF constructions often rely on centralized entities, creating security vulnerabilities. Distributed VRFs (DVRFs) offer a decentralized alternative but face challenges like large proof sizes or dependence on computationally expensive bilinear pairings. In this research, a unique distributed VRF (DVRF) system called DVRFwCP with considerable improvements is proposed. DVRFwCP has constant-size proofs, which means that the size of the proof does not change based on the number of participants. This overcomes a significant drawback of earlier DVRF systems, which saw proof size increase with participant count. Furthermore, DVRFwCP produces more efficient verification than previous systems by eliminating the requirement for bilinear pairings throughout the verification process. These innovations contribute to a more secure and scalable solution for generating verifiable randomness in decentralized environments. We compare our construction to well-established DVRF instantiations such as DDH-DVRF and GLOW-DVRF while also pointing out the major improvement in the estimated gas cost of these algorithms.
Last updated:  2024-07-11
Proof-Carrying Data from Multi-folding Schemes
Zibo Zhou, Zongyang Zhang, Zhiyu Zhang, and Jin Dong
Proof-carrying data (PCD) is a cryptographic primitive enabling mutually distrustful parties to perform distributed computations on directed acyclic graphs with efficient and incremental verification. Key performance metrics include the prover cost at each step and the recursion overhead, which measures the additional cost beyond proving the original computation. Despite substantial advancements in constructing efficient PCD schemes, these metrics continue to be bottlenecks hindering their widespread application. In this paper, we advance the research by constructing a new PCD scheme based on a new generalized construction of multi-folding schemes. Compared with the state-of-the-art PCD scheme by Bünz et al. (CRYPTO'21), our scheme reduces the prover cost at each step from $4r+6$ multi-scalar multiplications (MSMs) of size $O(|C|)$ to $1$ MSM of the same size, and the recursion overhead from $6$ MSMs of size $2r-1$, $1$ MSM of size $6r-3$ to $1$ MSM of size $2r-1$, where $r$ is the number of incoming edges at certain step and $|C|$ is the proving computation size. Additionally, our PCD scheme supports a more expressive constraint system for encoding computations, namely the customizable constraint system, which supports high-degree constraints, in contrast to the rank-1 constraint system adopted by existing PCD schemes that only supports quadratic constraints. We implement our PCD scheme and report the concrete recursion overhead and practical efficiency for different values of $r$ and $|C|$. Compared with Bünz et al. (CRYPTO'21), our PCD scheme achieves a $2.5$ times lower recursion overhead when $r=2$ and $|C|=2^{20}$. Additionally, when $r=2$ and a proving computation size (excluding recursion overhead) of $2^{24}$, it takes $49$ seconds to generate a PCD proof at each step. Using a SNARK to compress the proof reduces the proof size from $1031$ MB to $13$ KB, with a tradeoff in the verifier time, which increases from $11$ seconds to $22$ seconds.
Last updated:  2024-07-11
PARScoin: A Privacy-preserving, Auditable, and Regulation-friendly Stablecoin
Amirreza Sarencheh, Aggelos Kiayias, and Markulf Kohlweiss
Stablecoins are digital assets designed to maintain a consistent value relative to a reference point, serving as a vital component in Blockchain, and Decentralized Finance (DeFi) ecosystem. Typical implementations of stablecoins via smart contracts come with important downsides such as a questionable level of privacy, potentially high fees, and lack of scalability. We put forth a new design, PARScoin, for a Privacy-preserving, Auditable, and Regulation-friendly Stablecoin that mitigates these issues while enabling high performance both in terms of speed of settlement and for scaling to large numbers of users as our performance analysis demonstrates. Our construction is blockchain-agnostic and is analyzed in the Universal Composition (UC) framework, offering a secure and modular approach for its integration into the broader blockchain ecosystem.
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