Papers updated in last 365 days (2681 results)

Last updated:  2024-02-25
Your Reputation's Safe with Me: Framing-Free Distributed Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Carmit Hazay, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam, and Mor Weiss
Distributed Zero-Knowledge (dZK) proofs, recently introduced by Boneh et al. (CYPTO`19), allow a prover $P$ to prove NP statements on an input $x$ which is distributed between $k$ verifiers $V_1,\ldots,V_k$, where each $V_i$ holds only a piece of $x$. As in standard ZK proofs, dZK proofs guarantee Completeness when all parties are honest; Soundness against a malicious prover colluding with $t$ verifiers; and Zero Knowledge against a subset of $t$ malicious verifiers, in the sense that they learn nothing about the NP witness and the input pieces of the honest verifiers. Unfortunately, dZK proofs provide no correctness guarantee for an honest prover against a subset of maliciously corrupted verifiers. In particular, such verifiers might be able to ``frame'' the prover, causing honest verifiers to reject a true claim. This is a significant limitation, since such scenarios arise naturally in dZK applications, e.g., for proving honest behavior, and such attacks are indeed possible in existing dZKs. We put forth and study the notion of strong completeness for dZKs, guaranteeing that true claims are accepted even when $t$ verifiers are maliciously corrupted. We then design strongly-complete dZK proofs using the ``MPC-in-the-head'' paradigm of Ishai et al. (STOC`07), providing a novel analysis that exploits the unique properties of the distributed setting. To demonstrate the usefulness of strong completeness, we present several applications in which it is instrumental in obtaining security. First, we construct a certifiable version of Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS), which is a VSS in which the dealer additionally proves that the shared secret satisfies a given NP relation. Our construction withstands a constant fraction of corruptions, whereas a previous construction of Ishai et al. (TCC`14) could only handle $k^{\varepsilon}$ corruptions for a small $\varepsilon<1$. We also design a reusable version of certifiable VSS that we introduce, in which the dealer can prove an unlimited number of predicates on the same shared secret. Finally, we extend a compiler of Boneh et al. (CRYPTO`19), who used dZKs to transform a class of ``natural'' semi-honest protocols in the honest-majority setting into maliciously secure ones with abort. Our compiler uses strongly-complete dZKs to obtain identifiable abort.
Last updated:  2024-02-25
Authentication Key Recovery on Galois Counter Mode (GCM)
John Mattsson and Magnus Westerlund
GCM is used in a vast amount of security protocols and is quickly becoming the de facto mode of operation for block ciphers due to its exceptional performance. In this paper we analyze the NIST stan- dardized version (SP 800-38D) of GCM, and in particular the use of short tag lengths. We show that feedback of successful or unsuccessful forgery attempt is almost always possible, contradicting the NIST assumptions for short tags. We also provide a complexity estimation of Ferguson’s authentication key recovery method on short tags, and suggest several novel improvements to Fergusons’s attacks that significantly reduce the security level for short tags. We show that for many truncated tag sizes; the security levels are far below, not only the current NIST requirement of 112-bit security, but also the old NIST requirement of 80-bit security. We therefore strongly recommend NIST to revise SP 800-38D.
Last updated:  2024-02-24
Lightweight Authentication of Web Data via Garble-Then-Prove
Xiang Xie, Kang Yang, Xiao Wang, and Yu Yu
Transport Layer Security (TLS) establishes an authenticated and confidential channel to deliver data for almost all Internet applications. A recent work (Zhang et al., CCS'20) proposed a protocol to prove the TLS payload to a third party, without any modification of TLS servers, while ensuring the privacy and originality of the data in the presence of malicious adversaries. However, it required maliciously secure Two-Party Computation (2PC) for generic circuits, leading to significant computational and communication overhead. This paper proposes the garble-then-prove technique to achieve the same security requirement without using any heavy mechanism like generic malicious 2PC. Our end-to-end implementation shows 14$\times$ improvement in communication and an order of magnitude improvement in computation over the state-of-the-art protocol. We also show worldwide performance when using our protocol to authenticate payload data from Coinbase and Twitter APIs. Finally, we propose an efficient gadget to privately convert the above authenticated TLS payload to additively homomorphic commitments so that the properties of the payload can be proven efficiently using zkSNARKs.
Last updated:  2024-02-24
Interactive Oracle Arguments in the QROM and Applications to Succinct Verification of Quantum Computation
Islam Faisal
This work is motivated by the following question: can an untrusted quantum server convince a classical verifier of the answer to an efficient quantum computation using only polylogarithmic communication? We show how to achieve this in the quantum random oracle model (QROM), after a non-succinct instance-independent setup phase. We introduce and formalize the notion of post-quantum interactive oracle arguments for languages in QMA, a generalization of interactive oracle proofs (Ben-Sasson-Chiesa-Spooner). We then show how to compile any non-adaptive public-coin interactive oracle argument (with private setup) into a succinct argument (with setup) in the QROM. To conditionally answer our motivating question via this framework under the post-quantum hardness assumption of LWE, we show that the ZX local Hamiltonian problem with at least inverse-polylogarithmic relative promise gap has an interactive oracle argument with instance-independent setup, which we can then compile. Assuming a variant of the quantum PCP conjecture that we introduce called the weak ZX quantum PCP conjecture, we obtain a succinct argument for QMA (and consequently the verification of quantum computation) in the QROM (with non-succinct instance-independent setup) which makes only black-box use of the underlying cryptographic primitives.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
Keeping Up with the KEMs: Stronger Security Notions for KEMs and automated analysis of KEM-based protocols
Cas Cremers, Alexander Dax, and Niklas Medinger
Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs) are a critical building block for hybrid encryption and modern security protocols, notably in the post-quantum setting. Given the asymmetric public key of a recipient, the primitive establishes a shared secret key between sender and recipient. In recent years, a large number of abstract designs and concrete implementations of KEMs have been proposed, e.g., in the context of the NIST process for post-quantum primitives. In this work, we (i) establish stronger security notions for KEMs, and (ii) develop a symbolic analysis method to analyze security protocols that use KEMs. First, we generalize existing security notions for KEMs in the computational setting, introduce several stronger security notions, and prove their relations. Our new properties formalize in which sense outputs of the KEM uniquely determine, i.e., bind, other values. Our new binding properties can be used, e.g., to prove the absence of attacks that were not captured by prior security notions, such as re-encapsulation attacks. Second, we develop a family of fine-grained symbolic models that correspond to our hierarchy of computational security notions, and are suitable for the automated analysis of KEM-based security protocols. We encode our models as a library in the framework of the Tamarin prover. Given a KEM-based protocol, our approach can automatically derive the minimal binding properties required from the KEM; or, if also given a concrete KEM, can analyze if the protocols meets its security goals. In case studies, Tamarin automatically discovers, e.g., that the key exchange protocol proposed in the original Kyber paper requires stronger properties from the KEM than were proven in the paper.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
Committing AE from Sponges: Security Analysis of the NIST LWC Finalists
Juliane Krämer, Patrick Struck, and Maximiliane Weishäupl
Committing security has gained considerable attention in the field of authenticated encryption (AE). This can be traced back to a line of recent attacks, which entail that AE schemes used in practice should not only provide confidentiality and authenticity, but also committing security. Roughly speaking, a committing AE scheme guarantees that ciphertexts will decrypt only for one key. Despite the recent research effort in this area, the finalists of the NIST lightweight cryptography standardization process have not been put under consideration yet. We close this gap by providing an analysis of these schemes with respect to their committing security. Despite the structural similarities the finalists exhibit, our results are of a quite heterogeneous nature: We break four of the schemes with effectively no costs, while for two schemes our attacks are costlier, yet still efficient. For the remaining three schemes ISAP, Ascon, and (a slightly modified version of) Schwaemm, we give formal security proofs. Our analysis reveals that sponges—due to their large states—are more favorable for committing security compared to block-ciphers.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
flookup: Fractional decomposition-based lookups in quasi-linear time independent of table size
Ariel Gabizon and Dmitry Khovratovich
We present a protocol for checking the values of a committed polynomial $\phi(X)$ over a multiplicative subgroup $H\subset \mathbb{F}$ of size $m$ are contained in a table $T\in \mathbb{F}^N$. After an $O(N \log^2 N)$ preprocessing step, the prover algorithm runs in *quasilinear* time $O(m\log ^2 m)$. We improve upon the recent breakthrough results Caulk[ZBK+22] and Caulk+[PK22], which were the first to achieve the complexity sublinear in the full table size $N$ with prover time being $O(m^2+m\log N)$ and $O(m^2)$, respectively. We pose further improving this complexity to $O(m\log m)$ as the next important milestone for efficient zk-SNARK lookups.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
PLONK: Permutations over Lagrange-bases for Oecumenical Noninteractive arguments of Knowledge
Uncategorized
Ariel Gabizon, Zachary J. Williamson, and Oana Ciobotaru
Show abstract
Uncategorized
zk-SNARK constructions that utilize an updatable universal structured reference string remove one of the main obstacles in deploying zk-SNARKs [GKMMM, Crypto 2018]. The important work of Maller et al. [MBKM, CCS 2019] presented $\mathsf{Sonic}$ - the first potentially practical zk-SNARK with fully succinct verification for general arithmetic circuits with such an SRS. However, the version of $\mathsf{Sonic}$ enabling fully succinct verification still requires relatively high proof construction overheads. We present a universal SNARK construction with fully succinct verification, and significantly lower prover running time (roughly 7.5-20 less group exponentiations than [MBKM] in the fully succinct verifier mode depending on circuit structure). Similarly to [MBKM], we rely on a permutation argument based on Bayer and Groth [Eurocrypt 2012]. However, we focus on ``Evaluations on a subgroup rather than coefficients of monomials''; which enables simplifying both the permutation argument and the artihmetization step.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
On Sigma-Protocols and (packed) Black-Box Secret Sharing Schemes
Claudia Bartoli and Ignacio Cascudo
$\Sigma$-protocols are a widely utilized, relatively simple and well understood type of zero-knowledge proofs. However, the well known Schnorr $\Sigma$-protocol for proving knowledge of discrete logarithm in a cyclic group of known prime order, and similar protocols working over this type of groups, are hard to generalize to dealing with other groups. In particular with hidden order groups, due to the inability of the knowledge extractor to invert elements modulo the order. In this paper, we introduce a universal construction of $\Sigma$-protocols designed to prove knowledge of preimages of group homomorphisms for any abelian finite group. In order to do this, we first establish a general construction of a $\Sigma$-protocol for $\mathfrak{R}$-module homomorphism given only a linear secret sharing scheme over the ring $\mathfrak{R}$, where zero knowledge and special soundness can be related to the privacy and reconstruction properties of the secret sharing scheme. Then, we introduce a new construction of 2-out-of-$n$ packed black-box secret sharing scheme capable of sharing $k$ elements of an arbitrary (abelian, finite) group where each share consists of $k+\log n-3$ group elements. From these two elements we obtain a generic ``batch'' $\Sigma$-protocol for proving knowledge of $k$ preimages of elements via the same group homomorphism, which communicates $k+\lambda-3$ elements of the group to achieve $2^{-\lambda}$ knowledge error. For the case of class groups, we show that our $\Sigma$-protocol improves in several aspects on existing proofs for knowledge of discrete logarithm and other related statements that have been used in a number of works. Finally, we extend our constructions from group homomorphisms to the case of ZK-ready functions, introduced by Cramer and Damg\aa rd in Crypto 09, which in particular include the case of proofs of knowledge of plaintext (and randomness) for some linearly homomorphic encryption schemes such as Joye-Libert encryption. However, in the case of Joye-Libert, we show an even better alternative, using Shamir secret sharing over Galois rings, which achieves $2^{-k}$ knowledge soundness by communicating $k$ ciphertexts to prove $k$ statements.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
HaMAYO: A Fault-Tolerant Reconfigurable Hardware Implementation of the MAYO Signature Scheme
Oussama Sayari, Soundes Marzougui, Thomas Aulbach, Juliane Krämer, and Jean-Pierre Seifert
MAYO is a topical modification of the established multivariate signature scheme UOV. Signer and Verifier locally enlarge the public key map, such that the dimension of the oil space and therefore, the parameter sizes in general, can be reduced. This significantly reduces the public key size while maintaining the appealing properties of UOV, like short signatures and fast verification. Therefore, MAYO is considered as an attractive candidate in the NIST call for additional digital signatures and might be an adequate solution for real-world deployment in resource-constrained devices. When emerging to hardware implementation of multivariate schemes and specifically MAYO, different challenges are faced, namely resource utilization, which scales up with higher parameter sets. To accommodate this, we introduce a configurable hardware implementation designed for integration across various FPGA architectures. Our approach features adaptable configurations aligned with NIST-defined security levels and incorporates resources optimization modules. Our implementation is specifically tested on the Zynq ZedBoard with the Zynq-7020 SoC, with performance evaluations and comparisons made against previous hardware implementations of multivariate schemes. Furthermore, we conducted a security analysis of the MAYO implementation highlighting potential physical attacks and implemented lightweight countermeasures.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
A generic algorithm for efficient key recovery in differential attacks – and its associated tool
Christina Boura, Nicolas David, Patrick Derbez, Rachelle Heim Boissier, and María Naya-Plasencia
Differential cryptanalysis is an old and powerful attack against block ciphers. While different techniques have been introduced throughout the years to improve the complexity of this attack, the key recovery phase remains a tedious and error-prone procedure. In this work, we propose a new algorithm and its associated tool that permits, given a distinguisher, to output an efficient key guessing strategy. Our tool can be applied to SPN ciphers whose linear layer consists of a bit-permutation and whose key schedule is linear or almost linear. It can be used not only to help cryptanalysts find the best differential attack on a given cipher but also to assist designers in their security analysis. We applied our tool to four targets: RECTANGLE, PRESENT-80, SPEEDY-7-192 and GIFT-64. We extend the previous best attack on RECTANGLE-128 by one round and the previous best differential attack against PRESENT-80 by 2 rounds. We improve a previous key recovery step in an attack against SPEEDY and present more efficient key recovery strategies for RECTANGLE-80 and GIFT. Our tool outputs the results in only a second for most targets.
Last updated:  2024-02-23
A Two-Layer Blockchain Sharding Protocol Leveraging Safety and Liveness for Enhanced Performance
Yibin Xu, Jingyi Zheng, Boris Düdder, Tijs Slaats, and Yongluan Zhou
Sharding is a critical technique that enhances the scalability of blockchain technology. However, existing protocols often assume adversarial nodes in a general term without considering the different types of attacks, which limits transaction throughput at runtime because attacks on liveness could be mitigated. There have been attempts to increase transaction throughput by separately handling the attacks; however, they have security vulnerabilities. This paper introduces Reticulum, a novel sharding protocol that overcomes these limitations and achieves enhanced scalability in a blockchain network without security vulnerabilities. Reticulum employs a two-phase design that dynamically adjusts transaction throughput based on runtime adversarial attacks on either or both liveness and safety. It consists of `control' and `process' shards in two layers corresponding to the two phases. Process shards are subsets of control shards, with each process shard expected to contain at least one honest node with high confidence. Conversely, control shards are expected to have a majority of honest nodes with high confidence. Reticulum leverages unanimous voting in the first phase to involve fewer nodes in accepting/rejecting a block, allowing more parallel process shards. The control shard finalizes the decision made in the first phase and serves as a lifeline to resolve disputes when they surface. Experiments demonstrate that the unique design of Reticulum empowers high transaction throughput and robustness in the face of different types of attacks in the network, making it superior to existing sharding protocols for blockchain networks.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Single Pass Client-Preprocessing Private Information Retrieval
Arthur Lazzaretti and Charalampos Papamanthou
Recently, many works have considered Private Information Retrieval (PIR) with client-preprocessing: In this model a client and a server jointly run a preprocessing phase, after which client queries can run in time sublinear in the size of the database. In addition, such approaches store no additional bits per client at the server, allowing us to scale PIR to a large number of clients. In this work, we propose the first client-preprocessing PIR scheme with ``single pass'' client-preprocessing. In particular, our scheme is concretely optimal with respect to preprocessing, in the sense that it requires exactly one linear pass over the database. This is in stark contrast with existing works, whose preprocessing is proportional to $\lambda \cdot N$, where $\lambda$ is the security parameter (e.g., $\lambda=128$). Our approach yields a preprocessing speedup of 45-100$\times$ and a query speedup of up to 20$\times$ when compared to previous state-of-the-art schemes (e.g., Checklist, USENIX 2021), making preprocessing PIR more attractive for a myriad of use cases that are ``session-based''. In addition to fast preprocessing, our scheme features extremely fast updates (additions and edits)---in constant time. Previously, the best known approach for handling updates in client-preprocessing PIR had time complexity $O(\log N)$, while also adding a $\log N$ factor to the bandwidth. We implement our update algorithm and show concrete speedups of about 20$\times$ in update time when compared to the previous state-of-the-art updatable scheme (e.g., Checklist, USENIX 2021).
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Pseudorandom unitaries with non-adaptive security
Tony Metger, Alexander Poremba, Makrand Sinha, and Henry Yuen
Pseudorandom unitaries (PRUs) are ensembles of efficiently implementable unitary operators that cannot be distinguished from Haar random unitaries by any quantum polynomial-time algorithm with query access to the unitary. We present a simple PRU construction that is a concatenation of a random Clifford unitary, a pseudorandom binary phase operator, and a pseudorandom permutation operator. We prove that this PRU construction is secure against non-adaptive distinguishers assuming the existence of quantum-secure one-way functions. This means that no efficient quantum query algorithm that is allowed a single application of $U^{\otimes \mathrm{poly}(n)}$ can distinguish whether an $n$-qubit unitary $U$ was drawn from the Haar measure or our PRU ensemble. We conjecture that our PRU construction remains secure against adaptive distinguishers, i.e., secure against distinguishers that can query the unitary polynomially many times in sequence, not just in parallel.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
BaseFold: Efficient Field-Agnostic Polynomial Commitment Schemes from Foldable Codes
Hadas Zeilberger, Binyi Chen, and Ben Fisch
This works introduces Basefold, a new $\textit{field-agnostic}$ Polynomial Commitment Scheme (PCS) for multilinear polynomials that has $O(\log^{2}(n))$ verifier costs and $O(n \log n)$ prover time. An important application of a multilinear PCS is constructing Succinct Non-interactive Arguments (SNARKs) from multilinear polynomial interactive oracle proofs (PIOPs). Furthermore, field-agnosticism is a major boon to SNARK efficiency in applications that require (or benefit from) a certain field choice. Our inspiration for Basefold is the Fast Reed-Solomon Interactive-Oracle Proof of Proximity (FRI IOPP), which leverages two properties of Reed-Solomon (RS) codes defined over "FFT-friendly'' fields: $O(n \log n)$ encoding time, and a second property that we call foldability. We first introduce a generalization of the FRI IOPP that works over any foldable linear code in linear time. Second, we construct a new family of linear codes which we call $\textit{random foldable codes}$, that are a special type of punctured Reed-Muller codes, and prove tight bounds on their minimum distance. Unlike RS codes, our new codes are foldable and have $O(n \log n)$ encoding time over ${any}$ sufficiently large field. Finally, we construct a new multilinear PCS by carefully interleaving our IOPP with the classical sumcheck protocol, which also gives a new multilinear PCS from FRI. Basefold is 2-3 times faster than prior multilinear PCS constructions from FRI when defined over the same finite field. More significantly, using Hyperplonk (Eurocrypt, 2022) as a multilinear PIOP backend for apples-to-apples comparison, we show that Basefold results in a SNARK that has better concrete efficiency across a range of field choices than with any prior multilinear PCS in the literature. Hyperplonk with Basefold has a proof size that is more than $10$ times smaller than Hyperplonk with Brakedown and its verifier is over $30$ times faster for circuits with more than $2^{20}$ gates. Compared to FRI, Hyperplonk with Basefold retains efficiency over any sufficiently large field. For illustration, with Basefold we can prove ECDSA signature verification over the secp256k1 curve more than $20$ times faster than Hyperplonk with FRI and the verifier is also twice as fast. Proofs of signature verification have many useful applications, including offloading blockchain transactions and enabling anonymous credentials over the web.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Symmetric and Dual PRFs from Standard Assumptions: A Generic Validation of a Prevailing Assumption
Mihir Bellare and Anna Lysyanskaya
A two-input function is a dual PRF if it is a PRF when keyed by either of its inputs. Dual PRFs are assumed in the design and analysis of numerous primitives and protocols including HMAC, AMAC, TLS 1.3 and MLS. But, not only do we not know whether particular functions on which the assumption is made really are dual PRFs; we do not know if dual PRFs even exist. What if the goal is impossible? This paper addresses this with a foundational treatment of dual PRFs, giving constructions based on standard assumptions. This provides what we call a generic validation of the dual PRF assumption. Our approach is to introduce and construct symmetric PRFs, which imply dual PRFs and may be of independent interest. We give a general construction of a symmetric PRF based on a function having a weak form of collision resistance coupled with a leakage hardcore function, a strengthening of the usual notion of hardcore functions we introduce. We instantiate this general construction in two ways to obtain two specific symmetric and dual PRFs, the first assuming any collision-resistant hash function, and the second assuming any one-way permutation. A construction based on any one-way function evades us and is left as an intriguing open problem.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Recommendations for the Design and Validation of a Physical True Random Number Generator Integrated in an Electronic Device
David Lubicz and Viktor FIscher
These Recommendations describe essential elements of the design of a secure physical true random number generator (PTRNG) integrated in an electronic device. Based on these elements, we describe and justify requirements for the design, validation and testing of PTRNGs, which are intended to guarantee the security of generators aimed at cryptographic applications.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Security of Symmetric Ratchets and Key Chains - Implications for Protocols like TLS 1.3, Signal, and PQ3
John Preuß Mattsson
Symmetric ratchets and one-way key chains play a vital role in numerous important security protocols such as TLS 1.3, DTLS 1.3, QUIC, Signal, MLS, EDHOC, OSCORE, and Apple PQ3. Despite the crucial role they play, very little is known about their security properties. This paper categorizes and examines different ratchet constructions, offering a comprehensive overview of their security. Our analysis reveals notable distinctions between different types of one-way key chains. Notably, the type of ratchet used by TLS 1.3, Signal, and PQ3 exhibit a significant number of weak keys, an unexpectedly high rate of key collisions surpassing birthday attack expectations, and a predictable shrinking key space susceptible to novel Time-Memory Trade-Off (TMTO) attacks with complexity $\approx N^{1/4}$. Consequently, the security level provided by e.g., TLS 1.3 is significantly lower than anticipated. To address these concerns, we analyze the aforementioned protocols and provide numerous concrete recommendations for enhancing their security, as well as guidance for future security protocol design.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Fork-Resilient Continuous Group Key Agreement
Joël Alwen, Marta Mularczyk, and Yiannis Tselekounis
Continuous Group Key Agreement (CGKA) lets a evolving group of clients agree on a sequence of group keys. An important application of CGKA is scalable asynchronous end-to-end (E2E) encrypted group messaging. A major problem preventing the use of CGKA over unreliable infrastructure are so-called forks. A fork occurs when group members have diverging views of the group's history (and thus its current state); e.g. due to network or server failures. Once communication channels are restored, members resolve a fork by agreeing on the state of the group again. Today's CGKA protocols make fork resolution challenging, as natural resolution strategies seem to conflict with the way the protocols enforce group state agreement and forward secrecy. Meanwhile, secure group messaging protocols which do support fork resolution do not scale nearly as well as CGKA does. In this work, we pave the way to practical scalable E2E messaging over unreliable infrastructure. To that end, we generalize CGKA to Fork Resilient-CGKA which allows clients to process significantly more types of out-of-order network traffic. This is important for many natural fork resolution procedures as they are based, in part, on replaying missed traffic. Next, we give two FR-CGKA constructions: a practical one based on the CGKA underlying the MLS messaging standard and an optimally secure one (albeit with only theoretical efficiency). To further assist with fork resolution, we introduce a simple new abstraction to describe a client's local protocol state. The abstraction describes all and only the information relevant to natural fork resolution, making it easier for higher-level fork resolution procedures to work with and reason about. We define a black-box extension of an FR-CGKA which maintains such a description of a client's internal state. Finally, as a proof of concept, we give a basic fork resolution protocol.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
Diving Deep into the Preimage Security of AES-like Hashing
Shiyao Chen, Jian Guo, Eik List, Danping Shi, and Tianyu Zhang
Since the seminal works by Sasaki and Aoki, Meet-in-the-Middle (MITM) attacks are recognized as an effective technique for preimage and collision attacks on hash functions. At Eurocrypt 2021, Bao et al. automated MITM attacks on AES-like hashing and improved upon the best manual result. The attack framework has been furnished by subsequent works, yet far from complete. This paper elucidates three key contributions dedicated in further generalizing the idea of MITM and refining the automatic model on AES-like hashing. (1) We introduce S-box linearization to MITM pseudo-preimage attacks on AES-like hashing. The technique suits perfectly with superposition states to preserve information after S-box with an affordable cost. (2) We propose distributed initial structures, an extension on the original concept of initial states, that selects initial degrees of freedom in a more versatile manner to enlarge the search space. (3) We exploit the structural similarities between encryption and key schedule in constructions (e.g. Whirlpool and Streebog) to model propagations more accurately and avoid repeated costs. Weaponed with these innovative techniques, we further empower the MITM framework and improve the attack results on AES-like designs for preimage and collision. We obtain the first preimage attacks on 10-round AES-192, 10-round Rijndael-192/256, and 7.75-round Whirlpool, reduced time and/or memory complexities for preimage attacks on 5-, 6-round Whirlpool and 7.5-, 8.5-round Streebog, as well as improved collision attacks on 6- and 6.5-round Whirlpool.
Last updated:  2024-02-22
The Multi-user Constrained PRF Security of Generalized GGM Trees for MPC and Hierarchical Wallets
Chun Guo, Xiao Wang, Xiang Xie, and Yu Yu
Multi-user (mu) security considers large-scale attackers that, given access to a number of cryptosystem instances, attempt to compromise at least one of them. We initiate the study of mu security of the so-called GGMtree that stems from the PRG-to-PRF transformation of Goldreich, Goldwasser, and Micali, with a goal to provide references for its recently popularized use in applied cryptography. We propose a generalized model for GGM trees and analyze its mu prefix-constrained PRF security in the random oracle model. Our model allows to derive concrete bounds and improvements for various protocols, and we showcase on the Bitcoin-Improvement-Proposal standard Bip32 hierarchical wallets and function secret sharing (FSS) protocols. In both scenarios, we propose improvements with better performance and concrete security bounds at the same time. Compared with the state-of-the-art designs, our SHACAL3- and KeccaK-𝑝-based Bip32 variants reduce the communication cost of MPC-based implementations by 73.3%∼93.8%, while our AES-based FSS substantially improves mu security while reducing computations by 50%.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Provable Dual Attacks on Learning with Errors
Amaury Pouly and Yixin Shen
Learning with Errors (LWE) is an important problem for post-quantum cryptography (PQC) that underlines the security of several NIST PQC selected algorithms. Several recent papers have claimed improvements on the complexity of so-called dual attacks on LWE. These improvements make dual attacks comparable to or even better than primal attacks in certain parameter regimes. Unfortunately, those improvements rely on a number of untested and hard-to-test statistical assumptions. Furthermore, a recent paper claims that the whole premise of those improvements might be incorrect. The goal of this paper is to improve the situation by proving the correctness of a dual attack without relying on any statistical assumption. Although our attack is greatly simplified compared to the recent ones, it shares many important technical elements with those attacks and can serve as a basis for the analysis of more advanced attacks. We provide some rough estimates on the complexity of our simplified attack on Kyber using a Monte Carlo Markov Chain discrete Gaussian sampler. Our main contribution is to clearly identify a set of parameters under which our attack (and presumably other recent dual attacks) can work. Furthermore, our analysis completely departs from the existing statistics-based analysis and is instead rooted in geometry. We also compare the regime in which our algorithm works to the ``contradictory regime'' of [Ducas and Pulles,2023]. We observe that those two regimes are essentially complementary. Finally, we give a quantum version of our algorithm to speed up the computation. The algorithm is inspired by [Albrecht, and Shen,2022] but is completely formal and does not rely on any heuristics.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
On Optimal Tightness for Key Exchange with Full Forward Secrecy via Key Confirmation
Kai Gellert, Kristian Gjøsteen, Håkon Jacobsen, and Tibor Jager
A standard paradigm for building key exchange protocols with full forward secrecy (and explicit authentication) is to add key confirmation messages to an underlying protocol having only weak forward secrecy (and implicit authentication). Somewhat surprisingly, we show through an impossibility result that this simple trick must nevertheless incur a linear tightness loss in the number of parties for many natural protocols. This includes Krawczyk's HMQV protocol (CRYPTO 2005) and the protocol of Cohn-Gordon et al. (CRYPTO 2019). Cohn-Gordon et al. gave a very efficient underlying protocol with weak forward secrecy having a linear security loss, and showed that this is optimal for certain reductions. However, they also claimed that full forward secrecy could be achieved by adding key confirmation messages, and without any additional loss. Our impossibility result disproves this claim, showing that their approach, in fact, has an overall quadratic loss. Motivated by this predicament we seek to restore the original linear loss claim of Cohn-Gordon et al. by using a different proof strategy. Specifically, we start by lowering the goal for the underlying protocol with weak forward secrecy, to a selective security notion where the adversary must commit to a long-term key it cannot reveal. This allows a tight reduction rather than a linear loss reduction. Next, we show that the protocol can be upgraded to full forward secrecy using key confirmation messages with a linear tightness loss, even when starting from the weaker selective security notion. Thus, our approach yields an overall tightness loss for the fully forward-secret protocol that is only linear, as originally claimed. Finally, we confirm that the underlying protocol of Cohn-Gordon et al. can indeed be proven selectively secure, tightly.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Divide and Surrender: Exploiting Variable Division Instruction Timing in HQC Key Recovery Attacks
Robin Leander Schröder, Stefan Gast, and Qian Guo
We uncover a critical side-channel vulnerability in the Hamming Quasi-Cyclic (HQC) round 4 optimized implementation arising due to the use of the modulo operator. In some cases, compilers optimize uses of the modulo operator with compile-time known divisors into constant-time Barrett reductions. However, this optimization is not guaranteed: for example, when a modulo operation is used in a loop the compiler may emit division (div) instructions which have variable execution time depending on the numerator. When the numerator depends on secret data, this may yield a timing side-channel. We name vulnerabilities of this kind Divide and Surrender (DaS) vulnerabilities. For processors supporting Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) we propose a new approach called DIV-SMT which enables precisely measuring small division timing variations using scheduler and/or execution unit contention. We show that using only 100 such side-channel traces we can build a Plaintext-Checking (PC) oracle with above 90% accuracy. Our approach may also prove applicable to other instances of the DaS vulnerability, such as KyberSlash. We stress that exploitation with DIV-SMT requires co-location of the attacker on the same physical core as the victim. We then apply our methodology to HQC and present a novel way to recover HQC secret keys faster, achieving an 8-fold decrease in the number of idealized oracle queries when compared to previous approaches. Our new PC oracle attack uses our newly developed Zero Tester method to quickly determine whether an entire block of bits contains only zero-bits. The Zero Tester method enables the DIV-SMT powered attack on HQC-128 to complete in under 2 minutes on our targeted AMD Zen2 machine.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
New Models for the Cryptanalysis of ASCON
Mathieu Degré, Patrick Derbez, Lucie Lahaye, and André Schrottenloher
This paper focuses on the cryptanalysis of the ASCON family using automatic tools. We analyze two different problems with the goal to obtain new modelings, both simpler and less computationally heavy than previous works (all our models require only a small amount of code and run on regular desktop computers). The first problem is the search for Meet-in-the-middle attacks on reduced-round ASCON-Hash. Starting from the MILP modeling of Qin et al. (EUROCRYPT 2023 & ePrint 2023), we rephrase the problem in SAT, which accelerates significantly the solving time and removes the need for the ``weak diffusion structure'' heuristic. This allows us to reduce the memory complexity of Qin et al.'s attacks and to prove some optimality results. The second problem is the search for lower bounds on the probability of differential characteristics for the ASCON permutation. We introduce a lossy MILP encoding of the propagation rules based on the Hamming weight, in order to find quickly lower bounds which are comparable to the state of the art. We find a small improvement over the existing bound on 7 rounds.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
MetaDORAM: Info-Theoretic Distributed ORAM with Less Communication
Brett Hemenway Falk, Daniel Noble, and Rafail Ostrovsky
This paper presents a Distributed Oblivious RAM (DORAM) protocol, MetaDORAM, that is information-theoretically secure and has lower communication cost than all previous info-theoretically secure DORAM protocols for small block sizes. Specifically, given a memory of $n$ locations, each of size $d$ bits, MetaDORAM requires only $O( (d+\log^2(n)) \log(n)/\log(\log(n)) )$ bits of communication per query. When $d = \Theta(\log^2(n))$, this is a $\Theta(\log(n)/\log \log(n))$ \emph{overhead}, compared to the cost of reading one memory location directly. By comparison, the only existing statistically secure DORAM with sub-logarithmic overhead has communication cost $O( \log_a(n) d + a \omega(1) \log^2(n) \log_a(n))$ (Abraham et al. PKC '17), where $\omega(1)$ is any super-constant function in $n$ and $a \geq 2$ is a free parameter. MetaDORAM obtains sub-logarithmic communication overhead for smaller block sizes than previously achieved (any $d = \omega(\log^2(n)/\log(\log(n)))$) while providing statistical security, i.e., no computational assumptions. We circumvent the Goldreich-Ostrovsky lower bound by allowing servers to perform poly(log(n)) work, but without computational assumptions. By a standard transformation, our protocol also implies a 3-server active ORAM, Meta3ORAM, with information-theoretic security and $O( (d+\log^2(n)) \log(n)/\log(\log(n)) )$ communication per query. For small $d$, this is lower than all previous statistically-secure multi-server ORAMs. MetaDORAM and Meta3ORAM also have low communication costs relative to DORAM and multi-server ORAM protocols which make use of computational assumptions. Even compared to several recent works that make use of $O(n)$ computation, our protocols have lower communication cost. Our protocols are secure in the semi-honest honest-majority setting. We also show that perfectly secure DORAM/multi-server ORAM with the same efficiency can be obtained using a computationally-expensive once-off setup phase.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Fiat-Shamir for Proofs Lacks a Proof Even in the Presence of Shared Entanglement
Frédéric Dupuis, Philippe Lamontagne, and Louis Salvail
We explore the cryptographic power of arbitrary shared physical resources. The most general such resource is access to a fresh entangled quantum state at the outset of each protocol execution. We call this the Common Reference Quantum State (CRQS) model, in analogy to the well-known Common Reference String (CRS). The CRQS model is a natural generalization of the CRS model but appears to be more powerful: in the two-party setting, a CRQS can sometimes exhibit properties associated with a Random Oracle queried once by measuring a maximally entangled state in one of many mutually unbiased bases. We formalize this notion as a Weak One-Time Random Oracle (WOTRO), where we only ask of the $m$-bit output to have some randomness when conditioned on the $n$-bit input. We show that when $n-m\in\omega(\lg n)$, any protocol for WOTRO in the CRQS model can be attacked by an (inefficient) adversary. Moreover, our adversary is efficiently simulatable, which rules out the possibility of proving the computational security of a scheme by a fully-black-box reduction to a cryptographic game assumption. On the other hand, we introduce a non-game quantum assumption for hash functions that implies WOTRO in the CRQ\$ model (where the CRQS consists only of EPR pairs). We first build a statistically secure WOTRO protocol where $m=n$, then hash the output. The impossibility of WOTRO has the following consequences. First, we show the fully-black-box impossibility of a quantum Fiat-Shamir transform, extending the impossibility result of Bitansky et al. (TCC '13) to the CRQS model. Second, we show a black-box impossibility result for a strenghtened version of quantum lightning (Zhandry, Eurocrypt '19) where quantum bolts have an additional parameter that cannot be changed without generating new bolts. Our results also apply to $2$-message protocols in the plain model.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Accelerating Training and Enhancing Security Through Message Size Optimization in Symmetric Cryptography
Uncategorized
ABHISAR, Madhav Yadav, and Girish Mishra
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Uncategorized
This research extends Abadi and Andersen's exploration of neural networks using secret keys for information protection in multiagent systems. Focusing on enhancing confidentiality properties, we employ end-to-end adversarial training with neural networks Alice, Bob, and Eve. Unlike prior work limited to 64-bit messages, our study spans message sizes from 4 to 1024 bits, varying batch sizes and training steps. An innovative aspect involves training model Bob to approach a minimal error value close to zero and examining its effect on the feasibility of the model. This research unveils the neural networks' adaptability and scalability in encryption and decryption across diverse scenarios, offering valuable insights into their optimization potential for secure communication.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Attacking ECDSA with Nonce Leakage by Lattice Sieving: Bridging the Gap with Fourier Analysis-based Attacks
Yiming Gao, Jinghui Wang, Honggang Hu, and Binang He
The Hidden Number Problem (HNP) has found extensive applications in side-channel attacks against cryptographic schemes, such as ECDSA and Diffie-Hellman. There are two primary algorithmic approaches to solving the HNP: lattice-based attacks and Fourier analysis-based attacks. Lattice-based attacks exhibit better efficiency and require fewer samples when sufficiently long substrings of the nonces are known. However, they face significant challenges when only a small fraction of the nonce is leaked, such as 1-bit leakage, and their performance degrades in the presence of errors. In this paper, we address an open question by introducing an algorithmic tradeoff that significantly bridges the gap between these two approaches. By introducing a parameter $x$ to modify Albrecht and Heninger's lattice, the lattice dimension is reduced by approximately $(\log_2{x})/ l$, where $l$ represents the number of leaked bits. We present a series of new methods, including the interval reduction algorithm, several predicates, and the pre-screening technique. Furthermore, we extend our algorithms to solve the HNP with erroneous input. Our attack outperforms existing state-of-the-art lattice-based attacks against ECDSA. We break several records including 1-bit and less than 1-bit leakage on a 160-bit curve, while the best previous lattice-based attack for 1-bit leakage was conducted only on a 112-bit curve.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
An Efficient Hash Function for Imaginary Class Groups
Kostas Kryptos Chalkias, Jonas Lindstrøm, and Arnab Roy
This paper presents a new efficient hash function for imaginary class groups. Many class group based protocols, such as verifiable delay functions, timed commitments and accumulators, rely on the existence of an efficient and secure hash function, but there are not many concrete constructions available in the literature, and existing constructions are too inefficient for practical use cases. Our novel approach, building on Wesolowski's initial scheme, achieves a staggering 500-fold increase in computation speed, making it exceptionally practical for real-world applications. This optimisation is achieved at the cost of a smaller image of the hash function, but we show that the image is still sufficiently large for the hash function to be secure. Additionally, our construction is almost linear in its ability to be parallelized, which significantly enhances its computational efficiency on multi-processor systems, making it highly suitable for modern computing environments.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Multiplex: TBC-based Authenticated Encryption with Sponge-Like Rate
Thomas Peters, Yaobin Shen, and François-Xavier Standaert
Authenticated Encryption (AE) modes of operation based on Tweakable Block Ciphers (TBC) usually measure efficiency in the number of calls to the underlying primitive per message block. On the one hand, many existing solutions reach a primitive-rate of 1, meaning that each n-bit block of message asymptotically needs a single call to the TBC with output length n. On the other hand, while these modes look optimal in a blackbox setting, they become less attractive when leakage comes into play, since all these calls must then be equally well protected to maintain security. Leakage-resistant modes improve this situation, by generating ephemeral keys every constant number of calls. However, rekeying is inherently suboptimal in primitive-rate, since a TBC call can only be used either to refresh a key or to encrypt a block. Even worse, existing solutions achieving almost n bits of security for n-bit secret keys have at most a primitive-rate 2/3. Hence the question: Can we design a highly-secure TBC-based rekeying mode with ``nearly optimal'' primitive-rate? We answer this question positively with Multiplex, a new mode that has primitive-rate d/(d+1) given a TBC with a dn-bit tweak. Multiplex achieves $n-\log_2(dn)$ bits of security for both (i) misuse-resilience CCA security in the blackbox setting and (ii) Ciphertext Integrity with Misuse-resistant and unbounded Leakage in encryption and decryption (CIML2). It also provides (iii) confidentiality with leakage up to the birthday bound. Furthermore, Multiplex can run d+1 calls in parallel in each iteration. The combination of these features gives a mode of operation that inherits most of the good implementation features and flexibility of a Duplex sponge -- therefore paving the way towards sound comparisons between TBC-based and permutation-based AE.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Reducing the Number of Qubits in Quantum Factoring
Clémence Chevignard, Pierre-Alain Fouque, and André Schrottenloher
This paper focuses on the optimization of the number of logical qubits in Shor's quantum factoring algorithm. As in previous works, we target the implementation of the modular exponentiation, which is the most costly component of the algorithm, both in qubits and operations. In this paper, we show that using only $o(n)$ work qubits, one can obtain the first bit of the modular exponentiation output. We combine this result with May and Schlieper's truncation technique (ToSC 2022) and the Ekerå-Håstad variant of Shor's algorithm (PQCrypto 2017) to obtain a quantum factoring algorithm requiring only $n/2 + o(n)$ qubits in the case of an $n$-bit RSA modulus, while current envisioned implementations require about $2n$ qubits. Our algorithm uses a Residue Number System and succeeds with a parametrizable probability. Being completely classical, we have implemented and tested it. Among possible trade-offs, we can reach a gate count $\mathcal{O}(n^3)$ for a depth $\mathcal{O}(n^2 \log^3 n)$, which then has to be multiplied by $\mathcal{O}(\log n)$ (the number of measurement results required by Ekerå-Håstad). Preliminary logical resource estimates suggest that this circuit could be engineered to use less than 1700 qubits and $2^{36}$ Toffoli gates, and require 60 independent runs to factor an RSA-2048 instance.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
On the (In)Security of the BUFF Transform
Jelle Don, Serge Fehr, Yu-Hsuan Huang, and Patrick Struck
The BUFF transform is a generic transformation for digital signature schemes, with the purpose of obtaining additional security properties beyond standard unforgeability, e.g., exclusive ownership and non-resignability. In the call for additional post-quantum signatures, these were explicitly mentioned by the NIST as ``additional desirable security properties'', and some of the submissions indeed refer to the BUFF transform with the purpose of achieving them, while some other submissions follow the design of the BUFF transform without mentioning it explicitly. In this work, we show the following negative results regarding the non-resignability property in general, and the BUFF transform in particular. In the plain model, we observe by means of a simple attack that any signature scheme for which the message has a high entropy given the signature does not satisfy the non-resignability property (while non-resignability is trivially not satisfied if the message can be efficiently computed from its signature). Given that the BUFF transform has high entropy in the message given the signature, it follows that the BUFF transform does not achieve non-resignability whenever the random oracle is instantiated with a hash function, no matter what hash function. When considering the random oracle model (ROM), the matter becomes slightly more delicate since prior works did not rigorously define the non-resignability property in the ROM. For the natural extension of the definition to the ROM, we observe that our impossibility result still holds, despite there having been positive claims about the non-resignability of the BUFF transform in the ROM. Indeed, prior claims of the non-resignability of the BUFF transform rely on faulty argumentation. On the positive side, we prove that a salted version of the BUFF transform satisfies a slightly weaker variant of non-resignability in the ROM, covering both classical and quantum attacks, if the entropy requirement in the (weakened) definition of non-resignability is statistical; for the computational variant, we show yet another negative result.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
Registered Attribute-Based Signature
Yijian Zhang, Jun Zhao, Ziqi Zhu, Junqing Gong, and Jie Chen
This paper introduces the notion of registered attribute-based signature (registered ABS). Distinctly different from classical attribute-based signature (ABS), registered ABS allows any user to generate their own public/secret key pair and register it with the system. The key curator is critical to keep the system flowing, which is a fully transparent entity that does not retain secrets. Our results can be summarized as follows. -This paper provides the first definition of registered ABS, which has never been defined. -This paper presents the first generic fully secure registered ABS over the prime-order group from $k$-Lin assumption under the standard model, which supports various classes of predicate. -This paper gives the first concrete registered ABS scheme for arithmetic branching program (ABP), which achieves full security in the standard model. Technically, our registered ABS is inspired by the blueprint of Okamoto and Takashima[PKC'11]. We convert the prime-order registered attribute-based encryption (registered ABE) scheme of Zhu et al.[ASIACRYPT'23] via predicate encoding to registered ABS by employing the technique of re-randomization with specialized delegation, while we employ the different dual-system method considering the property of registration. Prior to our work, the work of solving the key-escrow issue was presented by Okamoto and Takashima[PKC'13] while their work considered the weak adversary in the random oracle model.
Last updated:  2024-02-21
IDEA-DAC: Integrity-Driven Editing for Accountable Decentralized Anonymous Credentials via ZK-JSON
Shuhao Zheng, Zonglun Li, Junliang Luo, Ziyue Xin, and Xue Liu
Decentralized Anonymous Credential (DAC) systems are increasingly relevant, especially when enhancing revocation mechanisms in the face of complex traceability challenges. This paper introduces IDEA-DAC, a paradigm shift from the conventional revoke-and-reissue methods, promoting direct and Integrity-Driven Editing (IDE) for Accountable DACs, which results in better integrity accountability, traceability, and system simplicity. We further incorporate an Edit-bound Conformity Check that ensures tailored integrity standards during credential amendments using R1CS-based ZK-SNARKs. Delving deeper, we propose ZK-JSON, a unique R1CS circuit design tailored for IDE over generic JSON documents. This design imposes strictly $O(N)$ rank-1 constraints for variable-length JSON documents of up to $N$ bytes in length, encompassing serialization, encryption, and edit-bound conformity checks. Additionally, our circuits only necessitate a one-time compilation, setup, and smart contract deployment for homogeneous JSON documents up to a specified size. While preserving core DAC features such as selective disclosure, anonymity, and predicate provability, IDEA-DAC achieves precise data modification checks without revealing private content, ensuring only authorized edits are permitted. In summary, IDEA-DAC offers an enhanced methodology for large-scale JSON-formatted credential systems, setting a new standard in decentralized identity management efficiency and precision.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
The Price of Active Security in Cryptographic Protocols
Carmit Hazay, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam, and Mor Weiss
We construct the first actively-secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols with an arbitrary number of parties in the dishonest majority setting, for an arbitrary field F with constant communication overhead over the “passive-GMW” protocol (Goldreich, Micali and Wigderson, STOC ‘87). Our protocols rely on passive implementations of Oblivious Transfer (OT) in the boolean setting and Oblivious Linear function Evaluation (OLE) in the arithmetic setting. Previously, such protocols were only known over sufficiently large fields (Genkin et al. STOC ‘14) or a constant number of parties (Ishai et al. CRYPTO ‘08). Conceptually, our protocols are obtained via a new compiler from a passively-secure protocol for a distributed multiplication functionality $F_{mult}$ , to an actively-secure protocol for general functionalities. Roughly, $F_{mult}$ is parameterized by a linear-secret sharing scheme S, where it takes S-shares of two secrets and returns S-shares of their product. We show that our compilation is concretely efficient for sufficiently large fields, resulting in an over- head of 2 when securely computing natural circuits. Our compiler has two additional benefits: (1) it can rely on any passive implementation of $F_{mult}$, which, besides the standard implementation based on OT (for boolean) and OLE (for arithmetic) allows us to rely on implementations based on threshold cryptosystems (Cramer et al. Eurocrypt ‘01); and (2) it can rely on weaker-than-passive (i.e., imperfect/leaky) implementations, which in some parameter regimes yield actively-secure protocols with overhead less than 2. Instantiating this compiler with an “honest-majority” implementation of FMULT, we obtain the first honest-majority protocol with optimal corruption threshold for boolean circuits with constant communication overhead over the best passive protocol (Damga&#778;rd and Nielsen, CRYPTO ‘07).
Last updated:  2024-02-20
Quantum Pseudorandomness Cannot Be Shrunk In a Black-Box Way
Samuel Bouaziz--Ermann and Garazi Muguruza
Pseudorandom Quantum States (PRS) were introduced by Ji, Liu and Song as quantum analogous to Pseudorandom Generators. They are an ensemble of states efficiently computable but computationally indistinguishable from Haar random states. Subsequent works have shown that some cryptographic primitives can be constructed from PRSs. Moreover, recent classical and quantum oracle separations of PRS from One-Way Functions strengthen the interest in a purely quantum alternative building block for quantum cryptography, potentially weaker than OWFs. However, our lack of knowledge of extending or shrinking the number of qubits of the PRS output still makes it difficult to reproduce some of the classical proof techniques and results. Short-PRSs, that is PRSs with logarithmic size output, have been introduced in the literature along with cryptographic applications, but we still do not know how they relate to PRSs. Here we answer half of the question, by showing that it is not possible to shrink the output of a PRS from polynomial to logarithmic qubit length while still preserving the pseudorandomness property, in a relativized way. More precisely, we show that relative to Kretschmer's quantum oracle (TQC 2021) short-PRSs cannot exist (while PRSs exist, as shown by Kretschmer's work).
Last updated:  2024-02-20
Secure Integrated Sensing and Communication under Correlated Rayleigh Fading
Martin Mittelbach, Rafael F. Schaefer, Matthieu Bloch, Aylin Yener, and Onur Gunlu
We consider a secure integrated sensing and communication (ISAC) scenario, in which a signal is transmitted through a state-dependent wiretap channel with one legitimate receiver with which the transmitter communicates and one honest-but-curious target that the transmitter wants to sense. The secure ISAC channel is modeled as two state-dependent fast-fading channels with correlated Rayleigh fading coefficients and independent additive Gaussian noise components. Delayed channel outputs are fed back to the transmitter to improve the communication performance and to estimate the channel state sequence. We establish and illustrate an achievable secrecy-distortion region for degraded secure ISAC channels under correlated Rayleigh fading. We also evaluate the inner bound for a large set of parameters to derive practical design insights for secure ISAC methods. The presented results include in particular parameter ranges for which the secrecy capacity of a classical wiretap channel setup is surpassed and for which the channel capacity is approached.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
SoK: Parameterization of Fault Adversary Models - Connecting Theory and Practice
Dilara Toprakhisar, Svetla Nikova, and Ventzislav Nikov
Since the first fault attack by Boneh et al. in 1997, various physical fault injection mechanisms have been explored to induce errors in electronic systems. Subsequent fault analysis methods of these errors have been studied, and successfully used to attack many cryptographic implementations. This poses a significant challenge to the secure implementation of cryptographic algorithms. To address this, numerous countermeasures have been proposed. Nevertheless, these countermeasures are primarily designed to protect against the particular assumptions made by the fault analysis methods. These assumptions, however, encompass only a limited range of the capabilities inherent to physical fault injection mechanisms. In this paper, we narrow our focus to fault attacks and countermeasures specific to ASICs, and introduce a novel parameterized fault adversary model capturing an adversary's control over an ASIC. We systematically map (a) the physical fault injection mechanisms, (b) adversary models assumed in fault analysis, and (c) adversary models used to design countermeasures into our introduced model. This model forms the basis for our comprehensive exploration that covers a broad spectrum of fault attacks and countermeasures within symmetric key cryptography as a comprehensive survey. Furthermore, our investigation highlights a notable misalignment among the adversary models assumed in countermeasures, fault attacks, and the intrinsic capabilities of the physical fault injection mechanisms. Through this study, we emphasize the need to reevaluate existing fault adversary models, and advocate for the development of a unified model.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
CAPABARA: A Combined Attack on CAPA
Dilara Toprakhisar, Svetla Nikova, and Ventzislav Nikov
Physical attacks pose a substantial threat to the secure implementation of cryptographic algorithms. While considerable research efforts are dedicated to protecting against passive physical attacks (e.g., side-channel analysis (SCA)), the landscape of protection against other types of physical attacks remains a challenge. Fault attacks (FA), though attracting growing attention in research, still lack the prevalence of provably secure designs when compared to SCA. The realm of combined attacks, which leverage the capabilities of both SCA and FA adversaries, introduces powerful adversarial models, rendering protection against them challenging. This challenge has consequently led to a relatively unexplored area of research, resulting in a notable gap in understanding and efficiently protecting against combined attacks. The CAPA countermeasure, published at CRYPTO 2018, addresses this challenge with a robust adversarial model that goes beyond conventional SCA and FA adversarial models. Drawing inspiration from the principles of Multiparty Computation (MPC), CAPA claims security against higher-order SCA, higher-order fault attacks, and their combination. In this work, we present a combined attack that breaks CAPA within the constraints of its assumed adversarial model. In response, we propose potential fixes to the design of CAPA that increase the complexity of the proposed attack, although not provably thwarting it. With this presented combined attack, we highlight the difficulty of effectively protecting against combined attacks.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
Efficient Zero-Knowledge Arguments and Digital Signatures via Sharing Conversion in the Head
Jules Maire and Damien Vergnaud
We present a novel technique within the MPC-in-the-Head framework, aiming to design efficient zero-knowledge protocols and digital signature schemes. The technique allows for the simultaneous use of additive and multiplicative sharings of secret information, enabling efficient proofs of linear and multiplicative relations. The applications of our technique are manifold. It is first applied to construct zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge for Double Discrete Logarithms (DDLP). The resulting protocol achieves improved communication complexity without compromising efficiency. We also propose a new zero-knowledge argument of knowledge for the Permuted Kernel Problem. Eventually, we suggest a short (candidate) post-quantum digital signature scheme constructed from a new one-way function based on simple polynomials known as fewnomials. This scheme offers simplicity and ease of implementation. Finally, we present two additional results inspired by this work but using alternative approaches. We propose a zero-knowledge argument of knowledge of an RSA plaintext for a small public exponent that significantly improves the state-of-the-art communication complexity. We also detail a more efficient forward-backward construction for the DDLP.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
Mirrored Commitment: Fixing ``Randomized Partial Checking'' and Applications
Paweł Lorek, Moti Yung, and Filip Zagórski
Randomized Partial Checking (RPC} was proposed by Jakobsson, Juels, and Rivest and attracted attention as an efficient method of verifying the correctness of the mixing process in numerous applied scenarios. In fact, RPC is a building block for many electronic voting schemes, including Prêt à Voter, Civitas, Scantegrity II as well as voting-systems used in real-world elections (e.g., in Australia). Mixing is also used in anonymous transfers of cryptocurrencies. It turned out, however, that a series of works showed, however, subtle issues with analyses behind RPC. First, that the actual security level of the RPC protocol is way off the claimed bounds. The probability of successful manipulation of $k$ votes is $(\frac{3}{4})^k$ instead of the claimed $\frac{1}{2^k}$ (this difference, in turn, negatively affects actual implementations of the notion within existing election systems. This is so since concrete implemented procedures of a given length were directly based on this parameter). Further, privacy guarantees that a constant number of mix-servers is enough turned out to also not be correct. We can conclude from the above that these analyses of the processes of mixing are not trivial. In this paper, we review the relevant attacks, and we present Mirrored-RPC -- a fix to RPC based on ``mirrored commitment'' which makes it optimally secure; namely, having a probability of successful manipulation of $k$ votes $\frac{1}{2^k}$. Then, we present an analysis of the privacy level of both RPC and mRPC. We show that for $n$ messages, the number of mix-servers (rounds) needed to be $\varepsilon$-close to the uniform distribution in total variation distance is lower bounded by: \[ r(n, \varepsilon) \geq \log_{2}{n \choose 2}/\varepsilon. \] This proof of privacy, in turn, gives insights into the anonymity of various cryptocurrencies (e.g., Zerocash) using anonymizing pools. If a random fraction $q$ of $n$ existing coins is mixed (in each block), then to achieve full anonymity, the number of blocks one needs to run the protocol for, is: \[ rb(n, q, \varepsilon) \geq - \frac{\log n + \log (n-1) - \log (2\varepsilon)}{ {\log({1-q^2}})}. \]
Last updated:  2024-02-20
Practical Improvements to Statistical Ineffective Fault Attacks
Barış Ege, Bob Swinkels, Dilara Toprakhisar, and Praveen Kumar Vadnala
Statistical Fault Attacks (SFA), introduced by Fuhr et al., exploit the statistical bias resulting from injected faults. Unlike prior fault analysis attacks, which require both faulty and correct ciphertexts under the same key, SFA leverages only faulty ciphertexts. In CHES 2018, more powerful attacks called Statistical Ineffective Fault Attacks (SIFA) have been proposed. In contrast to the previous fault attacks that utilize faulty ciphertexts, SIFA exploits the distribution of the intermediate values leading to fault-free ciphertexts. As a result, the SIFA attacks were shown to be effective even in the presence of widely used fault injection countermeasures based on detection and infection. In this work, we build upon the core idea of SIFA, and provide two main practical improvements over the previously proposed analysis methods. Firstly, we show how to perform SIFA from the input side, which in contrast to the original SIFA, requires injecting faults in the earlier rounds of an encryption or decryption operation. If we consider the start of the operation as the trigger for fault injection, the cumulative jitter in the first few rounds of a cipher is much lower than the last rounds. Hence, performing the attack in the first or second round requires a narrower parameter range for fault injection and hence less fault injection attempts to recover the secret key. Secondly, in comparison to the straightforward SIFA approach of guessing 32-bits at a time, we propose a chosen input approach that reduces the guessing effort to 16-bits at a time. This decreases the key search space for full key recovery of an AES-128 implementation from $2^{34}$ to $2^{19}$.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
On Efficient and Secure Compression Modes for Arithmetization-Oriented Hashing
Elena Andreeva, Rishiraj Bhattacharyya, Arnab Roy, and Stefano Trevisani
ZK-SNARKs are advanced cryptographic protocols used in private verifiable computation: modern SNARKs allow to encode the invariants of an arithmetic circuit over some large prime field in an appropriate NP language, from which a zero-knowlege short non-interactive argument of knowledge is built. Due to the high cost of proof generation, ZK-SNARKs for large constraint systems are inpractical. ZK-SNARKs are used in privacy-oriented blockchains such as Filecoin, ZCash and Monero, to verify Merkle tree opening proofs, which in turn requires computing a fixed-input-length (FIL) cryptographic compression function. As classical, bit-oriented hash functions like SHA-2 require huge constraint systems, Arithmetization-Oriented (AO) compression functions have emerged to fill the gap. Usually, AO compression functions are obtained by applying the Sponge hashing mode on a fixed-key permutation: while this avoids the cost of dynamic key scheduling, AO schedulers are often cheap to compute, making the exploration of AO compression functions based directly on blockciphers a topic of practical interest. In this work, we first adapt notions related to classical hash functions and their security notions to the AO syntax, and inspired by the classical PGV modes, we propose AO PGV-LC and AO PGV-ELC, two blockcipher-based FIL compression modes with parametrizable input and output sizes. In the ideal cipher model, we prove the collision and preimage resistance of both our modes, and give bounds for collision and opening resistance over Merkle trees of arbitrary arity. We then experimentally compare the AO PGV-LC mode over the Hades-MiMC blockcipher with its popular Sponge instantiation, Poseidon. The resulting construction, called Poseidon-DM, is $2$-$5\times$ faster than Poseidon in native computations, and $15$-$35\%$ faster in generating Merkle tree proofs over the Groth16 SNARK framework, depending on the tree arity. In particular, proof generation for an $8$-ary tree over Poseidon-DM is $2.5\times$ faster than for a binary tree with the same capacity over Poseidon. Finally, in an effort to further exploit the benefits of wide trees, we propose a new strategy to obtain a compact R1CS constraint system for Merkle trees with arbitrary arity.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
On Generalizations of the Lai-Massey Scheme
Lorenzo Grassi
In this paper, we re-investigate the Lai-Massey scheme, originally proposed in the cipher IDEA. Due to the similarity with the Feistel networks, and due to the existence of invariant subspace attacks as originally pointed out by Vaudenay at FSE 1999, the Lai-Massey scheme has received only little attention by the community. As first contribution, we propose two new generalizations of such scheme that are not (extended) affine equivalent to any generalized Feistel network proposed in the literature so far. Then, inspired by the recent Horst construction, we propose the Amaryllises structure as a generalization of the Lai-Massey scheme, in which the linear combination in the Lai-Massey scheme can be replaced by a non-linear one. Besides proposing concrete examples of the Amaryllises construction, we analyze its cryptographic properties, and we compare them with the ones of other existing schemes/constructions published in the literature. Our results show that the Amaryllises construction could have concrete advantages especially in the context of MPC-/FHE-/ZK-friendly primitives.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
Toward Malicious Constant-Rate 2PC via Arithmetic Garbling
Carmit Hazay and Yibin Yang
A recent work by Ball, Li, Lin, and Liu [Eurocrypt'23] presented a new instantiation of the arithmetic garbling paradigm introduced by Applebaum, Ishai, and Kushilevitz [FOCS'11]. In particular, Ball et al.'s garbling scheme is the first constant-rate garbled circuit over large enough bounded integer computations, inferring the first constant-round constant-rate secure two-party computation (2PC) over bounded integer computations in the presence of semi-honest adversaries. The main source of difficulty in lifting the security of garbling schemes-based protocols to the malicious setting lies in proving the correctness of the underlying garbling scheme. In this work, we analyze the security of Ball et al.'s scheme in the presence of malicious attacks. - We demonstrate an overflow attack, which is inevitable in this computational model, even if the garbled circuit is fully correct. Our attack follows by defining an adversary, corrupting either the garbler or the evaluator, that chooses a bad input and causes the computation to overflow, thus leaking information about the honest party's input. By utilizing overflow attacks, we show that $1$-bit leakage is necessary for achieving security against a malicious garbler, discarding the possibility of achieving full malicious security in this model. We further demonstrate a wider range of overflow attacks against a malicious evaluator with more than $1$ bit of leakage. - We boost the security level of Ball et al.'s scheme by utilizing two variants of Vector Oblivious Linear Evaluation, denoted by VOLEc and aVOLE. We present the first constant-round constant-rate 2PC protocol over bounded integer computations, in the presence of a malicious garbler with $1$-bit leakage and a semi-honest evaluator, in the {VOLEc,aVOLE}-hybrid model and being black-box in the underlying group and ring. Compared to the semi-honest variant, our protocol incurs only a constant factor overhead, both in computation and communication. The constant-round and constant-rate properties hold even in the plain model.
Last updated:  2024-02-20
QFESTA: Efficient Algorithms and Parameters for FESTA using Quaternion Algebras
Kohei Nakagawa and Hiroshi Onuki
In 2023, Basso, Maino, and Pope proposed FESTA (Fast Encryption from Supersingular Torsion Attacks), an isogeny-based public-key encryption (PKE) protocol that uses the SIDH attack for decryption. In the same paper, they proposed a parameter for that protocol, but the parameter requires high-degree isogeny computations. In this paper, we introduce QFESTA (Quaternion Fast Encapsulation from Supersingular Torsion Attacks), a new variant of FESTA that works with better parameters using quaternion algebras and achieves IND-CCA security under QROM. To realize our protocol, we construct a new algorithm to compute an isogeny of non-smooth degree using quaternion algebra and the SIDH attack. Our protocol relies solely on $(2,2)$-isogeny and $3$-isogeny computations, promising a substantial reduction in computational costs. In addition, our protocol has significantly smaller data sizes for public keys and ciphertexts, approximately half size of the original FESTA.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Logstar: Efficient Linear* Time Secure Merge
Suvradip Chakraborty, Stanislav Peceny, Srinivasan Raghuraman, and Peter Rindal
Secure merge considers the problem of combining two sorted lists into a single sorted secret-shared list. Merge is a fundamental building block for many real-world applications. For example, secure merge can implement a large number of SQL-like database joins, which are essential for almost any data processing task such as privacy-preserving fraud detection, ad conversion rates, data deduplication, and many more. We present two constructions with communication bandwidth and rounds tradeoff. Logstar, our bandwidth-optimized construction, takes inspiration from Falk and Ostrovsky (ITC, 2021) and runs in $O(n\log^*n)$ time and communication with $O(\log n)$ rounds. In particular, for all conceivable $n$, the $\log^*n$ factor will be equal to the constant $2$, and therefore we achieve a near-linear running time. Median, our rounds-optimized construction, builds on the classic parallel medians-based insecure merge approach of Valiant (SIAM J. Comput., 1975), later explored in the secure setting by Blunk et al. (2022), and requires $O(n \log^c n)$, $1<c<2$, communication with $O(\log \log n)$ rounds. We introduce two additional constructions that merge input lists of different sizes. SquareRootMerge, merges lists of sizes $n^{\frac{1}{2}}$ and $n$, and runs in $O(n)$ time and communication with $O(\log n)$ rounds. CubeRootMerge is closely inspired by Blunk et al.'s (2022) construction and merges lists of sizes $n^{\frac{1}{3}}$ and $n$. It runs in $O(n)$ time and communication with $O(1)$ rounds. We optimize our constructions for concrete efficiency. Today, concretely efficient secure merge protocols rely on standard techniques such as GMW or generic sorting. These approaches require an $O(n \log n)$ size circuit of $O(\log n)$ depth. In contrast, our constructions are more efficient and also achieve superior asymptotics. We benchmark our constructions and obtain significant improvements. For example, Logstar reduces bandwidth costs $\approx 3.3\times$ and Median reduces rounds $\approx2.22\times$.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
A Concrete Analysis of Wagner's $k$-List Algorithm over $\mathbb{Z}_p$
Antoine Joux, Hunter Kippen, and Julian Loss
Since its introduction by Wagner (CRYPTO `02), the $k$-list algorithm has found significant utility in cryptanalysis. One important application thereof is in computing forgeries on several interactive signature schemes that implicitly rely on the hardness of the ROS problem formulated by Schnorr (ICICS `01). The current best attack strategy for these schemes relies the conjectured runtime of the $k$-list algorithm over $\mathbb{Z}_p$. The tightest known analysis of Wagner's algorithm over $\mathbb{Z}_p$ is due to Shallue (ANTS `08). However, it hides large polynomial factors and leaves a gap with respect to desirable concrete parameters for the attack. In this work, we develop a degraded version of the $k$-list algorithm which provably enforces the heuristic invariants in Wagner's original. In the process, we devise and analyze a new list merge procedure that we dub the interval merge. We give a thorough analysis of the runtime and success probability of our degraded algorithm, and show that it beats the projected runtime of the analysis by Shallue for parameters relevant to the generalized ROS attack of Benhamouda et al. (EUROCRYPT `21). For a $256$-bit prime $p$, and $k = 8$, our degraded $k$-list algorithm runs in time $\approx 2^{70.4}$, while Shallue's analysis states that the Wagner's original algorithm runs in time $\approx 2^{98.3}$.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Polynomial Commitments from Lattices: Post-Quantum Security, Fast Verification and Transparent Setup
Valerio Cini, Giulio Malavolta, Ngoc Khanh Nguyen, and Hoeteck Wee
Polynomial commitment scheme allows a prover to commit to a polynomial $f \in \mathcal{R}[X]$ of degree $L$, and later prove that the committed function was correctly evaluated at a specified point $x$; in other words $f(x)=u$ for public $x,u \in\mathcal{R}$. Most applications of polynomial commitments, e.g. succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs), require that (i) both the commitment and evaluation proof are succinct (i.e., polylogarithmic in the degree $L$) - with the latter being efficiently verifiable, and (ii) no pre-processing step is allowed. Surprisingly, as far as plausibly quantum-safe polynomial commitments are concerned, the currently most efficient constructions only rely on weak cryptographic assumptions, such as security of hash functions. Indeed, despite making use of the underlying algebraic structure, prior lattice-based polynomial commitments still seem to be much behind the hash-based ones. Moreover, security of the aforementioned lattice constructions against quantum adversaries was never formally discussed. In this work, we bridge the gap and propose the first (asymptotically and concretely) efficient lattice-based polynomial commitment with transparent setup and post-quantum security. Our interactive variant relies on the standard (Module-)SIS problem, and can be made non-interactive in the random oracle model using Fiat-Shamir transformation. In addition, we equip the scheme with a knowledge soundness proof against quantum adversaries which can be of independent interest. In terms of concrete efficiency, for $L=2^{20}$ our scheme yields proofs of size $2$X smaller than the hash-based \textsf{FRI} commitment (Block et al., Asiacrypt 2023), and $70$X smaller than the very recent lattice-based construction by Albrecht et al. (Eurocrypt 2024).
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Extractable Witness Encryption for KZG Commitments and Efficient Laconic OT
Nils Fleischhacker, Mathias Hall-Andersen, and Mark Simkin
We present a concretely efficient and simple extractable witness encryption scheme for KZG polynomial commitments. It allows to encrypt a message towards a triple $(\mathsf{com}, \alpha, \beta)$, where $\mathsf{com}$ is a KZG commitment for some polynomial $f$. Anyone with an opening for the commitment attesting $f(\alpha) = \beta$ can decrypt, but without knowledge of a valid opening the message is computationally hidden. Our construction is simple and highly efficient. The ciphertext is only a single group element. Encryption and decryption both require a single pairing evaluation and a constant number of group operations. Using our witness encryption scheme, we construct a simple and highly efficient laconic OT protocol, which significantly outperforms the state of the art in most important metrics.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
HARTS: High-Threshold, Adaptively Secure, and Robust Threshold Schnorr Signatures
Renas Bacho, Julian Loss, Gilad Stern, and Benedikt Wagner
Threshold variants of the Schnorr signature scheme have recently been at the center of attention due to their applications to Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies. However, existing constructions for threshold Schnorr signatures among a set of $n$ parties with corruption threshold $t_c$ suffer from at least one of the following drawbacks: (i) security only against static (i.e., non-adaptive) adversaries, (ii) cubic or higher communication cost to generate a single signature, (iii) strong synchrony assumptions on the network, or (iv) $t_c+1$ are sufficient to generate a signature, i.e., the corruption threshold of the scheme equals its reconstruction threshold. Especially (iv) turns out to be a severe limitation for many asynchronous real-world applications where $t_c < n/3$ is necessary to maintain liveness, but a higher signing threshold of $n-t_c$ is needed. A recent scheme, ROAST, proposed by Ruffing et al. (ACM CCS `22) addresses (iii) and (iv), but still falls short of obtaining subcubic complexity and adaptive security. In this work, we present HARTS, the first threshold Schnorr signature scheme to incorporate all these desiderata. More concretely: - HARTS is adaptively secure and remains fully secure and operational even under asynchronous network conditions in the presence of up to $t_c < n/3$ malicious parties. This is optimal. - HARTS outputs a Schnorr signature of size $\lambda$ with a near-optimal amortized communication cost of $O(\lambda n^2 \log{n})$ bits and $O(1)$ rounds per signature. - HARTS is a high-threshold scheme: no fewer than $t_r+1$ signature shares can be combined to yield a full signature, where $t_r\geq 2n/3 > 2t_c$. This is optimal. We prove our result in a modular fashion in the algebraic group model. At the core of our construction, we design a new simple, and adaptively secure high-threshold AVSS scheme which may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Polynomial-Time Key-Recovery Attack on the ${\tt NIST}$ Specification of ${\tt PROV}$
River Moreira Ferreira and Ludovic Perret
In this paper, we present an efficient attack against ${\tt PROV}$, a recent variant of the popular Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (${\tt UOV}$) multivariate signature scheme, that has been submitted to the ongoing ${\tt NIST}$ standardization process for additional post-quantum signature schemes. A notable feature of ${\tt PROV}$ is its proof of security, namely, existential unforgeability under a chosen-message attack (${\tt EUF-CMA}$), assuming the hardness of solving the system formed by the public-key non-linear equations. We present a polynomial-time key-recovery attack against the first specification of ${\tt PROV}$ (v$1.0$). To do so, we remark that a small fraction of the ${\tt PROV}$ secret-key is leaked during the signature process. Adapting and extending previous works on basic ${\tt UOV}$, we show that the entire secret-key can be then recovered from such a small fraction in polynomial-time. This leads to an efficient attack against ${\tt PROV}$ that we validated in practice. For all the security parameters suggested in by the authors of ${\tt PROV}$, our attack recovers the secret-key in at most $8$ seconds. We conclude the paper by discussing the apparent mismatch between such a practical attack and the theoretical security claimed by ${\tt PROV}$ designers. Our attack is not structural but exploits that the current specification of ${\tt PROV}$ differs from the required security model. A simple countermeasure makes ${\tt PROV}$ immune against the attack presented here and led the designers to update the specification of ${\tt PROV}$ (v$1.1$).
Last updated:  2024-02-19
XHash8 and XHash12: Efficient STARK-friendly Hash Functions
Tomer Ashur, Al Kindi, and Mohammad Mahzoun
Zero-Knowledge proof systems are widely used as building blocks of different protocols, e.g., such as those supporting blockchains. A core element in Zero-Knowledge proof systems is the underlying PRF, usually modeled as a hash function that needs to be efficient over finite fields of prime order. Such hash functions are part of a newly developed paradigm known as Arithmetization-Oriented designs. In this paper, we propose two new AO hash functions, XHash8 and XHash12 which are designed based on improving the bottlenecks in RPO [ePrint 2022/1577]. Based on our experiments, XHash8 performs $\approx2.75$ times faster than RPO, and XHash12 performs $\approx2$ times faster than RPO, while at the same time inheriting the security and robustness of the battle-tested Marvellous design strategy.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Non-Interactive Threshold BBS+ From Pseudorandom Correlations
Sebastian Faust, Carmit Hazay, David Kretzler, Leandro Rometsch, and Benjamin Schlosser
The BBS+ signature scheme is one of the most prominent solutions for realizing anonymous credentials. Its prominence is due to properties like selective disclosure and efficient protocols for creating and showing possession of credentials. Traditionally, a single credential issuer produces BBS+ signatures, which poses significant risks due to a single point of failure. In this work, we address this threat via a novel $t$-out-of-$n$ threshold BBS+ protocol. Our protocol supports an arbitrary security threshold $t \leq n$ and works in the so-called preprocessing setting. In this setting, we achieve non-interactive signing in the online phase and sublinear communication complexity in the number of signatures in the offline phase, which, as we show in this work, are important features from a practical point of view. As it stands today, none of the widely studied signature schemes, such as threshold ECDSA and threshold Schnorr, achieve both properties simultaneously. To this end, we design specifically tailored presignatures that can be directly computed from pseudorandom correlations and allow servers to create signature shares without additional cross-server communication. Both our offline and online protocols are actively secure in the Universal Composability model. Finally, we evaluate the concrete efficiency of our protocol, including an implementation of the online phase and the expansion algorithm of the pseudorandom correlation generator (PCG) used during the offline phase. The online protocol without network latency takes less than $15 ms$ for $t \leq 30$ and credentials sizes up to $10$. Further, our results indicate that the influence of $t$ on the online signing is insignificant, $< 6 \%$ for $t \leq 30$, and the overhead of the thresholdization occurs almost exclusively in the offline phase. Our implementation of the PCG expansion is the first considering correlations between more than $3$ parties and shows that even for a committee size of $10$ servers, each server can expand a correlation of up to $2^{16}$ presignatures in about $600$ ms per presignature.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Circle STARKs
Ulrich Haböck, David Levit, and Shahar Papini
Traditional STARKs require a cyclic group of a smooth order in the field. This allows efficient interpolation of points using the FFT algorithm, and writing constraints that involve neighboring rows. The Elliptic Curve FFT (ECFFT, Part I and II) introduced a way to make efficient STARKs for any finite field, by using a cyclic group of an elliptic curve. We show a simpler construction in the lines of ECFFT over the circle curve $x^2 + y^2 = 1$. When $p + 1$ is divisible by a large power of $2$, this construction is as efficient as traditional STARKs and ECFFT. Applied to the Mersenne prime $p = 2^{31} − 1$, which has been recently advertised in the IACR eprint 2023:824, our preliminary benchmarks indicate a speed-up by a factor of $1.4$ compared to a traditional STARK using the Babybear prime $p = 2^{31} − 2^{27} + 1$.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
LaKey: Efficient Lattice-Based Distributed PRFs Enable Scalable Distributed Key Management
Matthias Geihs and Hart Montgomery
Distributed key management (DKM) services are multi-party services that allow their users to outsource the generation, storage, and usage of cryptographic private keys, while guaranteeing that none of the involved service providers learn the private keys in the clear. This is typically achieved through distributed key generation (DKG) protocols, where the service providers generate the keys on behalf of the users in an interactive protocol, and each of the servers stores a share of each key as the result. However, with traditional DKM systems, the key material stored by each server grows linearly with the number of users. An alternative approach to DKM is via distributed key derivation (DKD) where the user key shares are derived on-demand from a constant-size (in the number of users) secret-shared master key and the corresponding user's identity, which is achieved by employing a suitable distributed pseudorandom function (dPRF). However, existing suitable dPRFs require on the order of 100 interaction rounds between the servers and are therefore insufficient for settings with high network latency and where users demand real-time interaction. To resolve the situation, we initiate the study of lattice-based distributed PRFs, with a particular focus on their application to DKD. Concretely, we show that the LWE-based PRF presented by Boneh et al. at CRYPTO'13 can be turned into a distributed PRF suitable for DKD that runs in only 8 online rounds, which is an improvement over the start-of-the-art by an order of magnitude. We further present optimizations of this basic construction. We show a new construction with improved communication efficiency proven secure under the same ``standard'' assumptions. Then, we present even more efficient constructions, running in as low as 5 online rounds, from non-standard, new lattice-based assumptions. We support our findings by implementing and evaluating our protocol using the MP-SPDZ framework (Keller, CCS '20). Finally, we give a formal definition of our DKD in the UC framework and prove a generic construction (for which our construction qualifies) secure in this model.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Fault Attacks on UOV and Rainbow
Juliane Krämer and Mirjam Loiero
Multivariate cryptography is one of the main candidates for creating post-quantum public key cryptosystems. Especially in the area of digital signatures, there exist many practical and secure multivariate schemes. The signature schemes UOV and Rainbow are two of the most promising and best studied multivariate schemes which have proven secure for more than a decade. However, so far the security of multivariate signature schemes towards physical attacks has not been appropriately assessed. Towards a better understanding of the physical security of multivariate signature schemes, this paper presents fault attacks against SingleField schemes, especially UOV and Rainbow. Our analysis shows that although promising attack vectors exist, multivariate signature schemes inherently offer a good protection against fault attacks.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Generic-Group Lower Bounds via Reductions Between Geometric-Search Problems: With and Without Preprocessing
Benedikt Auerbach, Charlotte Hoffmann, and Guillermo Pascual-Perez
The generic-group model (GGM) aims to capture algorithms working over groups of prime order that only rely on the group operation, but do not exploit any additional structure given by the concrete implementation of the group. In it, it is possible to prove information-theoretic lower bounds on the hardness of problems like the discrete logarithm (DL) or computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH). Thus, since its introduction, it has served as a valuable tool to assess the concrete security provided by cryptographic schemes based on such problems. A work on the related algebraic-group model (AGM) introduced a method, used by many subsequent works, to adapt GGM lower bounds for one problem to another, by means of conceptually simple reductions. In this work, we propose an alternative approach to extend GGM bounds from one problem to another. Following an idea by Yun (Eurocrypt '15), we show that, in the GGM, the security of a large class of problems can be reduced to that of geometric search-problems. By reducing the security of the resulting geometric-search problems to variants of the search-by-hypersurface problem, for which information theoretic lower bounds exist, we give alternative proofs of several results that used the AGM approach. The main advantage of our approach is that our reduction from geometric search-problems works, as well, for the GGM with preprocessing (more precisely the bit-fixing GGM introduced by Coretti, Dodis and Guo (Crypto '18)). As a consequence, this opens up the possibility of transferring preprocessing GGM bounds from one problem to another, also by means of simple reductions. Concretely, we prove novel preprocessing bounds on the hardness of the d-strong discrete logarithm, the d-strong Diffie-Hellman inversion, and multi-instance CDH problems, as well as a large class of Uber assumptions. Additionally, our approach applies to Shoup's GGM without additional restrictions on the query behavior of the adversary, while the recent works of Zhang, Zhou, and Katz (Asiacrypt '22) and Zhandry (Crypto '22) highlight that this is not the case for the AGM approach.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Zombies and Ghosts: Optimal Byzantine Agreement in the Presence of Omission Faults
Julian Loss and Gilad Stern
Studying the feasibility of Byzantine Agreement (BA) in realistic fault models is an important question in the area of distributed computing and cryptography. In this work, we revisit the mixed fault model with Byzantine (malicious) faults and omission faults put forth by Hauser, Maurer, and Zikas (TCC 2009), who showed that BA (and MPC) is possible with $t$ Byzantine faults, $s$ send faults (whose outgoing messages may be dropped) and $r$ receive faults (whose incoming messages may be lost) if $n>3t+r+s$. We generalize their techniques and results by showing that BA is possible if $n>2t+r+s$, given the availability of a cryptographic setup. Our protocol is the first to match the recent lower bound of Eldefrawy, Loss, and Terner (ACNS 2022) for this setting.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Reduce and Prange: Revisiting Prange's Information Set Decoding for LPN and RSD
Jiseung Kim and Changmin Lee
The learning parity with noise (LPN) problem has been widely utilized in classical cryptography to construct cryptographic primitives. Various variants of LPN have been proposed, including LPN over large fields and LPN with regular noise, depending on the underlying space and the noise regularity. These LPN variants have proven to be useful in constructing cryptographic primitives. We propose an improvement to the Gaussian elimination attack, which is also known as Prange's information set decoding algorithm, for solving the LPN problem. Contrary to prevailing knowledge, we find that the Gaussian elimination attack is highly competitive and currently the best method for solving LPN over large fields. Our improvement involves applying partial Gaussian elimination repeatedly, rather than the whole Gaussian algorithm, which we have named the ``Reduce and Prange's algorithm". Moreover, we provide two applications of Reduce and Prange algorithms: One is the hybrid algorithm of ours and Berstein, Lange and Peters's algorithm at PQCrypto'08, and the other one is Reduce and Prange algorithm for LPN with regular noise. Last, we provide a concrete estimation of the bit-security of LPN variants using our Reduce and Prange's frameworks. Our results show that the bit-security of LPN over $\mathbb{F}_q$ is reduced by 5-11 bits when $\log q = 128$ compared to previous analysis by Liu et al. (will appear at Eurocrypt'24). Furthermore, we show that our algorithm outperforms recent work by Briaud and Øygard (Eurocrypt'23) and Liu et al. for certain parameters. It reduces the bit-security of LPN with regular noise by 5-28 bits.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
On the Untapped Potential of the Quantum FLT-based Inversion
Ren Taguchi and Atsushi Takayasu
Thus far, several papers estimated concrete quantum resources of Shor’s algorithm for solving a binary elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem. In particular, the complexity of computing quantum inversions over a binary field F2n is dominant when running the algorithm, where n is a degree of a binary elliptic curve. There are two major methods for quantum inversion, i.e., the quantum GCD-based inversion and the quantum FLT-based inversion. Among them, the latter method is known to require more qubits; however, the latter one is valuable since it requires much fewer Toffoli gates and less depth. When n = 571, Kim-Hong’s quantum GCD-based inversion algorithm (Quantum Information Processing 2023) and Taguchi-Takayasu’s quantum FLT-based inversion algorithm (CT-RSA 2023) require 3, 473 qubits and 8, 566 qubits, respectively. In contrast, for the same n = 571, the latter algorithm requires only 2.3% of Toffoli gates and 84% of depth compared to the former one. In this paper, we modify Taguchi-Takayasu’s quantum FLT-based inversion algorithm to reduce the required qubits. While Taguchi-Takayasu’s FLT-based inversion algorithm takes an addition chain for n−1 as input and computes a sequence whose number is the same as the length of the chain, our proposed algorithm employs an uncomputation step and stores a shorter one. As a result, our proposed algorithm requires only 3, 998 qubits for n = 571, which is only 15% more than Kim-Hong’s GCD-based inversion algorithm. Furthermore, our proposed algorithm preserves the advantage of FLT-based inversion since it requires only 3.7% of Toffoli gates and 77% of depth compared to Kim-Hong’s GCD-based inversion algorithm for n = 571.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Understanding User-Perceived Security Risks and Mitigation Strategies in the Web3 Ecosystem
Janice Jianing Si, Tanusree Sharma, and Kanye Ye Wang
The advent of Web3 technologies promises unprecedented levels of user control and autonomy. However, this decentralization shifts the burden of security onto the users, making it crucial to understand their security behaviors and perceptions. To address this, our study introduces a comprehensive framework that identifies four core components of user interaction within the Web3 ecosystem: blockchain infrastructures, Web3-based Decentralized Applications (DApps), online communities, and off-chain cryptocurrency platforms. We delve into the security concerns perceived by users in each of these components and analyze the mitigation strategies they employ, ranging from risk assessment and aversion to diversification and acceptance. We further discuss the landscape of both technical and human-induced security risks in the Web3 ecosystem, identify the unique security differences between Web2 and Web3, and highlight key challenges that render users vulnerable, to provide implications for security design in Web3.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Phantom: A CUDA-Accelerated Word-Wise Homomorphic Encryption Library
Hao Yang, Shiyu Shen, Wangchen Dai, Lu Zhou, Zhe Liu, and Yunlei Zhao
Homomorphic encryption (HE) is a promising technique for privacy-preserving computations, especially the word-wise HE schemes that allow batching. However, the high computational overhead hinders the deployment of HE in real-word applications. GPUs are often used to accelerate execution, but a comprehensive performance comparison of different schemes on the same platform is still missing. In this work, we fill this gap by implementing three word-wise HE schemes BGV, BFV, and CKKS on GPU, with both theoretical and engineering optimizations. We enhance the hybrid key-switching technique, significantly reducing the computational and memory overhead. We explore several kernel fusing strategies to reuse data, resulting in reduced memory access and IO latency, and enhancing the overall performance. By comparing with the state-of-the-art works, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our implementation. Meanwhile, we introduce a unified framework that finely integrates our implementation of the three schemes, covering almost all scheme functions and homomorphic operations. We optimize the management of pre-computation, RNS bases, and memory in the framework, to provide efficient and lowlatency data access and transfer. Based on this framework, we provide a thorough benchmark of the three schemes, which can serve as a reference for scheme selection and implementation in constructing privacy-preserving applications. Our library is available for access at https://github.com/encryptorion-lab/phantom-fhe. It is released under the GPLv3 license.
Last updated:  2024-02-19
Amortized Large Look-up Table Evaluation with Multivariate Polynomials for Homomorphic Encryption
Heewon Chung, Hyojun Kim, Young-Sik Kim, and Yongwoo Lee
We present a new method for efficient look-up table (LUT) evaluation in homomorphic encryption (HE), based on Ring-LWE-based HE schemes, including both integer-message schemes such as Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan (BGV) and Brakerski/Fan-Vercauteren (BFV), and complex-number-message schemes like the Cheon-Kim-Kim-Song (CKKS) scheme. Our approach encodes bit streams into codewords and translates LUTs into low-degree multivariate polynomials, allowing for the simultaneous evaluation of multiple independent LUTs with minimal overhead. To mitigate noise accumulation in the CKKS scheme, we propose a novel noise-reduction technique, accompanied by proof demonstrating its effectiveness in asymptotically decreasing noise levels. We demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness through a proof-of-concept implementation, showcasing significant efficiency gains, including a 0.029ms per slot evaluation for 8-input, 8-output LUTs and a 280ms amortized decryption time for AES-128 using CKKS on a single GPU. This work not only advances LUT evaluation in HE but also introduces a transciphering method for the CKKS scheme utilizing standard symmetric-key encryption, bridging the gap between discrete bit strings and numerical data.
Last updated:  2024-02-18
Information-Theoretic Homomorphic Encryption and 2-Party Computation
Jonathan Trostle
Homomorphic encryption has been an active area of research since Gentry's breakthrough results on fully homomorphic encryption. We present secret key somewhat homomorphic schemes where client privacy is information-theoretic (server can be computationally unbounded). As the group order in our schemes gets larger, entropy approaches max- imal entropy (perfect security). Our basic scheme is additive somewhat homomorphic. In one scheme, the server handles circuit multiplication gates by returning the mulitiplicands to the client which does the multiplication and sends back the encrypted product. We give a 2-party protocol that also incorporates server inputs where the client privacy is information-theoretic. Server privacy is not information-theoretic, but rather depends on hardness of the subset sum problem. Correctness for the server in the malicious model can be verified by a 3rd party where the client and server privacy are information-theoretically protected from the verifier. Scaling the 2PC protocol via separate encryption parameters for smaller subcircuits allows the ciphertext size to grow logarithmically as circuit size grows.
Last updated:  2024-02-18
A New Algebraic Approach to the Regular Syndrome Decoding Problem and Implications for PCG Constructions
Pierre Briaud and Morten Øygarden
The Regular Syndrome Decoding (RSD) problem, a variant of the Syndrome Decoding problem with a particular error distribution, was introduced almost 20 years ago by Augot et al. . In this problem, the error vector is divided into equally sized blocks, each containing a single noisy coordinate. More recently, the last five years have seen increased interest in this assumption due to its use in MPC and ZK applications. Generally referred to as "LPN with regular noise" in this context, the assumption allows to achieve better efficiency when compared to plain LPN. We present the first attack on RSD relying on Gröbner bases techniques. After a careful theoretical analysis of the underlying polynomial system, we propose concrete attacks that are able to take advantage of the regular noise distribution. In particular, we can identify several examples of concrete parameters where our techniques outperform other algorithms.
Last updated:  2024-02-18
Deep Learning Based Analysis of Key Scheduling Algorithm of Advanced Ciphers
Narendra Kumar Patel and Hemraj Shobharam Lamkuche
The advancements in information technology have made the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) and the PRESENT cipher indispensable in ensuring data security and facilitating private transactions. AES is renowned for its flexibility and widespread use in various fields, while the PRESENT cipher excels in lightweight cryptographic situations. This paper delves into a dual examination of the Key Scheduling Algorithms (KSAs) of AES and the PRESENT cipher, which play a crucial role in generating round keys for their respective encryption techniques. By implementing deep learning methods, particularly a Neural Network model, our study aims to unravel the complexities of these KSAs and shed light on their inner workings.
Last updated:  2024-02-18
Beyond MPC-in-the-Head: Black-Box Constructions of Short Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Carmit Hazay, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam, and Mor Weiss
In their seminal work, Ishai, Kushilevitz, Ostrovsky, and Sahai (STOC`07) presented the MPC-in-the-Head paradigm, which shows how to design Zero-Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) from secure Multi-Party Computation (MPC) protocols. This paradigm has since then revolutionized and modularized the design of efficient ZKP systems, with far-reaching applications beyond ZKPs. However, to the best of our knowledge, all previous instantiations relied on fully-secure MPC protocols, and have not been able to leverage the fact that the paradigm only imposes relatively weak privacy and correctness requirements on the underlying MPC. In this work, we extend the MPC-in-the-Head paradigm to game-based cryptographic primitives supporting homomorphic computations (e.g., fully-homomorphic encryption, functional encryption, randomized encodings, homomorphic secret sharing, and more). Specifically, we present a simple yet generic compiler from these primitives to ZKPs which use the underlying primitive as a black box. We also generalize our paradigm to capture commit-and-prove protocols, and use it to devise tight black-box compilers from Interactive (Oracle) Proofs to ZKPs, assuming One-Way Functions (OWFs). We use our paradigm to obtain several new ZKP constructions: 1. The first ZKPs for NP relations $\mathcal{R}$ computable in (polynomial-time uniform) $NC^1$, whose round complexity is bounded by a fixed constant (independent of the depth of $\mathcal{R}$'s verification circuit), with communication approaching witness length (specifically, $n\cdot poly\left(\kappa\right)$, where $n$ is the witness length, and $\kappa$ is a security parameter), assuming DCR. Alternatively, if we allow the round complexity to scale with the depth of the verification circuit, our ZKPs can make black-box use of OWFs. 2. Constant-round ZKPs for NP relations computable in bounded polynomial space, with $O\left(n\right)+o\left(m\right)\cdot poly\left(\kappa\right)$ communication assuming OWFs, where $m$ is the instance length. This gives a black-box alternative to a recent non-black-box construction of Nassar and Rothblum (CRYPTO`22). 3. ZKPs for NP relations computable by a logspace-uniform family of depth-$d\left(m\right)$ circuits, with $n\cdot poly\left(\kappa,d\left(m\right)\right)$ communication assuming OWFs. This gives a black-box alternative to a result of Goldwasser, Kalai and Rothblum (JACM).
Last updated:  2024-02-18
Accountable Multi-Signatures with Constant Size Public Keys
Dan Boneh, Aditi Partap, and Brent Waters
A multisignature scheme is used to aggregate signatures by multiple parties on a common message $m$ into a single short signature on $m$. Multisignatures are used widely in practice, most notably, in proof-of-stake consensus protocols. In existing multisignature schemes, the verifier needs the public keys of all the signers in order to verify a multisignature issued by some subset of signers. We construct new practical multisignature schemes with three properties: (i) the verifier only needs to store a constant size public key in order to verify a multisignature by an arbitrary subset of parties, (ii) signature size is constant beyond the description of the signing set, and (iii) signers generate their secret signing keys locally, that is, without a distributed key generation protocol. Existing schemes satisfy properties (ii) and (iii). The new capability is property (i) which dramatically reduces the verifier's memory requirements from linear in the number of signers to constant. We give two pairing-based constructions: one in the random oracle model and one in the plain model. We also show that by relaxing property (iii), that is, allowing for a simple distributed key generation protocol, we can further improve efficiency while continuing to satisfy properties (i) and (ii). We give a pairing-based scheme and a lattice-based scheme in this relaxed model.
Last updated:  2024-02-18
YPIR: High-Throughput Single-Server PIR with Silent Preprocessing
Samir Jordan Menon and David J. Wu
We introduce YPIR, a single-server private information retrieval (PIR) protocol that achieves high throughput (up to 75% of the memory bandwidth of the machine) without any offline communication. For retrieving a 1-bit (or 1-byte) record from a 32-GB database, YPIR achieves 10.9 GB/s/core server throughput and requires 2.5 MB of total communication. On the same setup, the state-of-the-art SimplePIR protocol achieves a 12.6 GB/s/core server throughput, requires 1.5 MB total communication, but additionally requires downloading a 724 MB hint in an offline phase. YPIR leverages a new lightweight technique to remove the hint from high-throughput single-server PIR schemes with small overhead. We also show how to reduce the server preprocessing time in the SimplePIR family of protocols by a factor of $10$-$15\times$. By removing the need for offline communication, YPIR significantly reduces the server-side costs for private auditing of Certificate Transparency logs. Compared to the best previous PIR-based approach, YPIR reduces the server-side costs by a factor of $5.6\times$. Note that to reduce communication costs, the previous approach assumed that updates to the Certificate Transparency log servers occurred in weekly batches. Since there is no offline communication in YPIR, our approach allows clients to always audit the most recent Certificate Transparency logs (e.g., updating once a day). Supporting daily updates using the prior scheme would cost $30\times$ more than YPIR (based on current AWS compute costs).
Last updated:  2024-02-17
Some remarks on how to hash faster onto elliptic curves
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article proposes four optimizations of indifferentiable hashing onto (prime-order subgroups of) ordinary elliptic curves over finite fields $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$. One of them is dedicated to elliptic curves $E$ without non-trivial automorphisms provided that $q \equiv 2 \ (\mathrm{mod} \ 3)$. The second deals with $q \equiv 2, 4 \ (\mathrm{mod} \ 7)$ and an elliptic curve $E_7$ of $j$-invariant $-3^3 5^3$. The corresponding section plays a rather theoretical role, because (the quadratic twist of) $E_7$ is not used in real-world cryptography. The other two optimizations take place for the subgroups $\mathbb{G}_1$, $\mathbb{G}_2$ of pairing-friendly curves. The performance gain comes from the smaller number of required exponentiations in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ for hashing to $E(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$, $E_7(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$, and $\mathbb{G}_2$ as well as from the absence of necessity to hash directly onto $\mathbb{G}_1$ in certain settings. In particular, the last insight allows to drastically speed up verification of the aggregate BLS signature incorporated in many blockchain technologies. The new results affect, for example, the pairing-friendly curve BLS12-381 (the most popular in practice at the moment) and a few plain curves from the American standard NIST SP 800-186. Among other things, a taxonomy of state-of-the-art hash functions to elliptic curves is presented. Finally, the article discusses how to hash over highly $2$-adic fields $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
A note on PUF-Based Robust and Anonymous Authentication and Key Establishment Scheme for V2G Networks
Milad Seddigh and Seyed Hamid Baghestani
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) provides effective charging services, allows bidirectional energy communication between the power grid and electric vehicle (EV), and reduces environmental pollution and energy crises. Recently, Sungjin Yu et al. proposed a PUF-based, robust, and anonymous authentication and key establishment scheme for V2G networks. In this paper, we show that the proposed protocol does not provide user anonymity and is vulnerable to tracing attack. We also found their scheme is vulnerable to ephemeral secret leakage attacks.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
On the practical CPAD security of “exact” and threshold FHE schemes and libraries
Marina Checri, Renaud Sirdey, Aymen Boudguiga, and Jean-Paul Bultel
In their 2021 seminal paper, Li and Micciancio presented a passive attack against the CKKS approximate FHE scheme and introduced the notion of CPAD security. The current status quo is that this line of attacks does not apply to ``exact'' FHE. In this paper, we challenge this status quo by exhibiting a CPAD key recovery attack on the linearly homomorphic Regev cryptosystem which easily generalizes to other xHE schemes such as BFV, BGV and TFHE showing that these cryptosystems are not CPAD secure in their basic form. We also show that existing threshold variants of BFV, BGV and CKKS are particularily exposed to CPAD attackers and would be CPAD-insecure without smudging noise addition after partial decryption. Finally we successfully implement our attack against several mainstream FHE libraries and discuss a number of natural countermeasures as well as their consequences in terms of FHE practice, security and efficiency. The attack itself is quite practical as it typically takes less than an hour on an average laptop PC, requiring a few thousand ciphertexts as well as up to around a million evaluations/decryptions, to perform a full key recovery.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
Cheater Identification on a Budget: MPC with Identifiable Abort from Pairwise MACs
Carsten Baum, Nikolas Melissaris, Rahul Rachuri, and Peter Scholl
Cheater identification in secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows the honest parties to agree upon the identity of a cheating party, in case the protocol aborts. In the context of a dishonest majority, this becomes especially critical, as it serves to thwart denial-of-service attacks and mitigate known impossibility results on ensuring fairness and guaranteed output delivery. In this work, we present a new, lightweight approach to achieving identifiable abort in dishonest majority MPC. We avoid all of the heavy machinery used in previous works, instead relying on a careful combination of lightweight detection mechanisms and techniques from state-of-the-art protocols secure with (non-identifiable) abort. At the core of our construction is a homomorphic, multi-receiver commitment scheme secure with identifiable abort. This commitment scheme can be constructed from cheap vector oblivious linear evaluation protocols based on learning parity with noise. To support cheater identification, we design a general compilation technique, similar to a compiler of Ishai et al. (Crypto 2014), but avoid its requirement for adaptive security of the underlying protocol. Instead, we rely on a different (and seemingly easier to achieve) property we call online extractability, which may be of independent interest. Our MPC protocol can be viewed as a version of the BDOZ MPC scheme (Bendlin et al., Eurocrypt 2011) based on pairwise information-theoretic MACs, enhanced to support cheater identification and a highly efficient preprocessing phase, essentially as efficient as the non-identifiable protocol of Le Mans (Rachuri & Scholl, Crypto 2022).
Last updated:  2024-02-17
Speculative Denial-of-Service Attacks in Ethereum
Aviv Yaish, Kaihua Qin, Liyi Zhou, Aviv Zohar, and Arthur Gervais
Transaction fees compensate actors for resources expended on transactions and can only be charged from transactions included in blocks. But, the expressiveness of Turing-complete contracts implies that verifying if transactions can be included requires executing them on the current blockchain state. In this work, we show that adversaries can craft malicious transactions that decouple the work imposed on blockchain actors from the compensation offered in return. We introduce three attacks: (i) ConditionalExhaust, a conditional resource-exhaustion attack against blockchain actors. (ii) MemPurge, an attack for evicting transactions from actors' mempools. (iii) GhostTX, an attack on the reputation system used in Ethereum's proposer-builder separation ecosystem. We evaluate our attacks on an Ethereum testnet and find that by combining ConditionalExhaust and MemPurge, adversaries can simultaneously burden victims' computational resources and clog their mempools to the point where victims are unable to include transactions in blocks. Thus, victims create empty blocks, thereby hurting the system's liveness. The attack's expected cost is $376, but becomes cheaper if adversaries are validators. For other attackers, costs decrease if censorship is prevalent in the network. ConditionalExhaust and MemPurge are made possible by inherent features of Turing-complete blockchains, and potential mitigations may result in reducing a ledger's scalability.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
Tiresias: Large Scale, Maliciously Secure Threshold Paillier
Offir Friedman, Avichai Marmor, Dolev Mutzari, Yehonatan C. Scaly, Yuval Spiizer, and Avishay Yanai
In the threshold version of Paillier's encryption scheme, a set of parties collectively holds the secret decryption key through a secret sharing scheme. Whenever a ciphertext is to be decrypted, the parties send their decryption shares, which are then verified for correctness and combined into the plaintext. The scheme has been widely adopted in various applications, from secure voting to general purpose MPC protocols. However, among the handful existing proposals for a maliciously secure scheme, one must choose between an efficient implementation that relies on non-standard assumptions or a computationally expensive implementation that relies on widely acceptable assumptions. In this work, we show that one can enjoy the benefits of both worlds. Specifically, we adjust a scheme by Damgard et al. (Int. J. Inf. Secur. 2010) to get a practical distributed key generation (DKG). While the original scheme was only known to be secure under ad-hoc non-standard assumptions, we prove that the adjusted scheme is in fact secure under the decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption alone, required for the semantic security of the Pallier encryption scheme itself. This is possible thanks to a novel reduction technique, from the soundness of a zero-knowledge proof of equality of discrete logs, to the factoring problem. Furthermore, we use similar ideas to prove that batching techniques by Aditya et al. (ACNS 2004), which allows a prover to batch several statements into a single proof, can be applied to our adjusted scheme. This enables a batched threshold Paillier decryption in the fully distributed setting for the first time. Until now, verifying that a decryption share is correct was the bottleneck of threshold Paillier schemes and hindered real world deployments (unless one is willing to rely on a trusted dealer). Our work accumulates to shifting the bottleneck back to the plaintext reconstruction, just like in the semi-honest setting, and render threshold Paillier practical for the first time, supporting large scale deployments. We exemplify this shift by implementing the scheme and report our evaluation with up to 1000 parties, in the dishonest majority setting. For instance, over an EC2 C6i machine, we get a throughput of about 50 and 3.6 decryptions per second, when run over a network of 100 and 1000 parties, respectively.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
2PC-MPC: Emulating Two Party ECDSA in Large-Scale MPC
Offir Friedman, Avichai Marmor, Dolev Mutzari, Omer Sadika, Yehonatan C. Scaly, Yuval Spiizer, and Avishay Yanai
Motivated by the need for a massively decentralized network concurrently servicing many clients, we present novel low-overhead UC-secure, publicly verifiable, threshold ECDSA protocols with identifiable abort. For the first time, we show how to reduce the message complexity from O(n^2) to O(n) and the computational complexity from O(n) to practically O(1) (per party, where n is the number of parties). We require only a broadcast channel for communication. Therefore, we natively support use-cases like permissionless bridges and decentralized custody, where P2P channels between every pair of parties are infeasible. Consequently, the message complexity is reduced and the protocol is publicly verifiable. We enable all communication to be public (over a broadcast channel), by using a threshold additively homomorphic encryption scheme and novel zero-knowledge proofs. To further reduce the computation and communication overheads, our protocols employ novel batching and amortization techniques, which may be of independent interest. Our second main contribution is the introduction of the notion of a 2PC-MPC protocol - a two-party ECDSA protocol where the second party is fully emulated by a network of n parties. This notion assures that both the first party (the client) and (a threshold) of the network are required to participate in signing, while abstracting away the internal structure of the network. In particular, the communication and computation complexities of the client remain independent of the network properties (e.g. size). This allows ultimate decentralization in distributed custody use-cases, as recent growing interest in the industry demands. We report that our implementation completes the signing phase in 1.23 and 12.703 seconds, for 256 and 1024 parties, respectively.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
Uncle Maker: (Time)Stamping Out The Competition in Ethereum
Aviv Yaish, Gilad Stern, and Aviv Zohar
We present an attack on Ethereum's consensus mechanism which can be used by miners to obtain consistently higher mining rewards compared to the honest protocol. This attack is novel in that it does not entail withholding blocks or any behavior which has a non-zero probability of earning less than mining honestly, in contrast with the existing literature. This risk-less attack relies instead on manipulating block timestamps, and carefully choosing whether and when to do so. We present this attack as an algorithm, which we then analyze to evaluate the revenue a miner obtains from it, and its effect on a miner's absolute and relative share of the main-chain blocks. The attack allows an attacker to replace competitors' main-chain blocks after the fact with a block of its own, thus causing the replaced block's miner to lose all transactions fees for the transactions contained within the block, which will be demoted from the main-chain. This block, although ``kicked-out'' of the main-chain, will still be eligible to be referred to by other main-chain blocks, thus becoming what is commonly called in Ethereum an uncle. We proceed by defining multiple variants of this attack, and assessing whether any of these attacks has been performed in the wild. Surprisingly, we find that this is indeed true, making this the first case of a confirmed consensus-level manipulation performed on a major cryptocurrency. Additionally, we implement a variant of this attack as a patch for geth, Ethereum's most popular client, making it the first consensus-level attack on Ethereum which is implemented as a patch. Finally, we suggest concrete fixes for Ethereum's protocol and implemented them as a patch for geth which can be adopted quickly and mitigate the attack and its variants.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
A New Approach to Generic Lower Bounds: Classical/Quantum MDL, Quantum Factoring, and More
Minki Hhan
This paper studies the limitations of the generic approaches to solving cryptographic problems in classical and quantum settings in various models. - In the classical generic group model (GGM), we find simple alternative proofs for the lower bounds of variants of the discrete logarithm (DL) problem: the multiple-instance DL and one-more DL problems (and their mixture). We also re-prove the unknown-order GGM lower bounds, such as the order finding, root extraction, and repeated squaring. - In the quantum generic group model (QGGM), we study the complexity of variants of the discrete logarithm. We prove the logarithm DL lower bound in the QGGM even for the composite order setting. We also prove an asymptotically tight lower bound for the multiple-instance DL problem. Both results resolve the open problems suggested in a recent work by Hhan, Yamakawa, and Yun. - In the quantum generic ring model we newly suggested, we give the logarithmic lower bound for the order-finding algorithms, an important step for Shor's algorithm. We also give a logarithmic lower bound for a certain generic factoring algorithm outputting relatively small integers, which includes a modified version of Regev's algorithm. - Finally, we prove a lower bound for the basic index calculus method for solving the DL problem in a new idealized group model regarding smooth numbers. The quantum lower bounds in both models allow certain (different) types of classical preprocessing. All of the proofs are significantly simpler than the previous proofs and are through a single tool, the so-called compression lemma, along with linear algebra tools. Our use of this lemma may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2024-02-17
LightDAG: A Low-latency DAG-based BFT Consensus through Lightweight Broadcast
Xiaohai Dai, Guanxiong Wang, Jiang Xiao, Zhengxuan Guo, Rui Hao, Xia Xie, and Hai Jin
To improve the throughput of Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) consensus protocols, the Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) topology has been introduced to parallel data processing, leading to the development of DAG-based BFT consensus. However, existing DAG-based works heavily rely on Reliable Broadcast (RBC) protocols for block broadcasting, which introduces significant latency due to the three communication steps involved in each RBC. For instance, DAGRider, a representative DAG-based protocol, exhibits a best latency of 12 steps, considerably higher than non-DAG protocols like PBFT, which only requires 3 steps. To tackle this issue, we propose LightDAG, which replaces RBC with lightweight broadcasting protocols such as Consistent Broadcast (CBC) and Plain Broadcast (PBC). Since CBC and PBC can be implemented in two and one communication steps, respectively, LightDAG achieves low latency. In our proposal, we present two variants of LightDAG, namely LightDAG1 and LightDAG2, each providing a trade-off between the best latency and the expected worst latency. In LightDAG1, every block is broadcast using CBC, which exhibits a best latency of 5 steps and an expected worst latency of 14 steps. Since CBC cannot guarantee the totality property, we design a block retrieval mechanism in LightDAG1 to assist replicas in retrieving missing blocks. LightDAG2 utilizes a combination of PBC and CBC for block broadcasting, resulting in a best latency of 4 steps and an expected worst latency of $12(t+1)$ steps, where $t$ represents the number of actual Byzantine replicas. Since a Byzantine replica may equivocate through PBC, LightDAG2 prohibits blocks from directly referencing contradictory blocks. To ensure liveness, we propose a mechanism to identify and exclude Byzantine replicas if they engage in equivocation attacks. Extensive experiments have been conducted to evaluate LightDAG, and the results demonstrate its feasibility and efficiency.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Asymmetric Cryptography from Number Theoretic Transformations
Samuel Lavery
In this work, we introduce a family of asymmetric cryptographic functions based on dynamic number theoretic transformations with multiple rounds of modular arithmetic to enhance diffusion and difficulty of inversion. This function acts as a basic cryptographic building block for a novel communication-efficient zero-knowledge crypto-system. The system as defined exhibits partial homomorphism and behaves as an additive positive accumulator. By using a novel technique to constructively embed lattice problems in a nested fashion, the dimensionality and overall complexity of the lattice structure is increased. This linked lattice framework obscures internal structure and mitigates cryptanalysis by applying a novel ’noisy roots’ technique. By relaxing the need for specifically correct nth ω roots in a given field, we apply offset values to create a framework of consisting of a set of uniquely transforming but arithmetically compatible NTTs. We provide specific parameters for conjectured NIST level V security. Communication costs are extremely low at 288-bytes per public key and 144-bytes per cipher-text or digital signature. Example protocols for key agreement, secure data exchange, additive accumulation, and digital signatures are provided. Peer review is in preliminary stages at time of dissemination. Claims within have not undergone rigorous validation and likely contain inaccuracies, errors, flaws or incomplete analysis. Contents may see significant modification through later iterations.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
zkPi: Proving Lean Theorems in Zero-Knowledge
Evan Laufer, Alex Ozdemir, and Dan Boneh
Interactive theorem provers (ITPs), such as Lean and Coq, can express formal proofs for a large category of theorems, from abstract math to software correctness. Consider Alice who has a Lean proof for some public statement $T$. Alice wants to convince the world that she has such a proof, without revealing the actual proof. Perhaps the proof shows that a secret program is correct or safe, but the proof itself might leak information about the program's source code. A natural way for Alice to proceed is to construct a succinct, zero-knowledge, non-interactive argument of knowledge (zkSNARK) to prove that she has a Lean proof for the statement $T$. In this work we build zkPi, the first zkSNARKfor proofs expressed in Lean, a state of the art interactive theorem prover. With zkPi, a prover can convince a verifier that a Lean theorem is true, while revealing little else. The core problem is building an efficient zkSNARKfor dependent typing. We evaluate zkPion theorems from two core Lean libraries: stdlib and mathlib. zkPisuccessfuly proves 57.9% of the theorems in stdlib, and 14.1% of the theorems in mathlib, within 4.5 minutes per theorem. A zkPiproof is sufficiently short that Fermat could have written one in the margin of his notebook to convince the world, in zero knowledge, that he proved his famous last theorem. Interactive theorem provers (ITPs) can express virtually all systems of formal reasoning. Thus, an implemented zkSNARKfor ITP theorems generalizes practical zero-knowledge's interface beyond the status quo: circuit satisfiability and program execution.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Traitor Tracing without Trusted Authority from Registered Functional Encryption
Pedro Branco, Russell W. F. Lai, Monosij Maitra, Giulio Malavolta, Ahmadreza Rahimi, and Ivy K. Y. Woo
Traitor-tracing systems allow identifying the users who contributed to building a rogue decoder in a broadcast environment. In a traditional traitor-tracing system, a key authority is responsible for generating the global public parameters and issuing secret keys to users. All security is lost if the \emph{key authority itself} is corrupt. This raises the question: Can we construct a traitor-tracing scheme, without a trusted authority? In this work, we propose a new model for traitor-tracing systems where, instead of having a key authority, users could generate and register their own public keys. The public parameters are computed by aggregating all user public keys. Crucially, the aggregation process is \emph{public}, thus eliminating the need of any trusted authority. We present two new traitor-tracing systems in this model based on bilinear pairings. Our first scheme is proven adaptively secure in the generic group model. This scheme features a transparent setup, ciphertexts consisting of $6\sqrt{L}+4$ group elements, and a public tracing algorithm. Our second scheme supports a bounded collusion of traitors and is proven selectively secure in the standard model. Our main technical ingredients are new registered functional encryption (RFE) schemes for quadratic and linear functions which, prior to this work, were known only from indistinguishability obfuscation. To substantiate the practicality of our approach, we evaluate the performance a proof of concept implementation. For a group of $L = 1024$ users, encryption and decryption take roughly 50ms and 4ms, respectively, whereas a ciphertext is of size 6.7KB.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Compute, but Verify: Efficient Multiparty Computation over Authenticated Inputs
Moumita Dutta, Chaya Ganesh, Sikhar Patranabis, and Nitin Singh
Traditional notions of secure multiparty computation (MPC) allow mutually distrusting parties to jointly compute a function over their private inputs, but typically do not specify how these inputs are chosen. Motivated by real-world applications where corrupt inputs could adversely impact privacy and operational legitimacy, we consider a notion of authenticated MPC where the inputs are authenticated, e.g., signed using a digital signature by some certification authority. We propose a generic and efficient compiler that transforms any linear secret sharing based honest-majority MPC protocol into one with input authentication. Our compiler incurs significantly lower computational costs and competitive communication overheads when compared to the best existing solutions, while entirely avoiding the (potentially expensive) protocol-specific techniques and pre-processing requirements that are inherent to these solutions. For $n$-party honest majority MPC protocols with abort security where each party has $\ell$ inputs, our compiler incurs $O(n\log \ell)$ communication overall and a computational overhead of $O(\ell)$ group exponentiations per party (the corresponding overheads for the most efficient existing solution are $O(n^2)$ and $O(\ell n)$). Finally, for a corruption threshold $t<n/3$, our compiler preserves the stronger identifiable abort security of the underlying MPC protocol. No existing solution for authenticated MPC achieves this regardless of the corruption threshold. Along the way, we make several technical contributions that are of independent interest. This includes the notion of distributed proofs of knowledge and concrete realizations of the same for several relations of interest, such as proving knowledge of many popularly used digital signature schemes, and proving knowledge of opening of a Pedersen commitment.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Threshold Computation in the Head: Improved Framework for Post-Quantum Signatures and Zero-Knowledge Arguments
Thibauld Feneuil and Matthieu Rivain
The MPC-in-the-Head paradigm is instrumental in building zero-knowledge proof systems and post-quantum signatures using techniques from secure multi-party computation. In this work, we extend and improve the recently proposed framework of MPC-in-the-Head based on threshold secret sharing, here called Threshold Computation in the Head. We first address the two main limitations of this framework, namely the degradation of the communication cost and the constraint on the number of parties. Our tweak of this framework makes it applicable to the previous MPCitH schemes (and in particular post-quantum signature candidates recently submitted to NIST) for which we obtain up to 50% timing improvements without degrading the signature size. Then we extend the TCitH framework to support quadratic (or higher degree) MPC round functions as well as packed secret sharing. We show the benefits of our extended framework for several applications. First, we provide post-quantum zero-knowledge arguments for arithmetic circuits which improve the state of the art in the "small to medium size" regime. Then we apply our extended framework to derive improved variants of the MPCitH candidates submitted to NIST. For most of them, we save between 5% and 37% of the signature size. We further propose a generic way to build efficient post-quantum ring signatures from any one-way function. When applying our TCitH framework to this design to concrete one-way functions, the obtained scheme outperforms all the previous proposals in the state of the art. For instance, our scheme instantiated with MQ achieves sizes below 6 KB and timings around 10 ms for a ring of 4000 users. Finally, we provide exact arguments for lattice problems. Our scheme is competitive with the state of the art and achieves proofs around 17 KB for LWE instances with similar security as Kyber512.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Efficient Instances of Docked Double Decker With AES, and Application to Authenticated Encryption
Christoph Dobraunig, Krystian Matusiewicz, Bart Mennink, and Alexander Tereschenko
A tweakable wide blockcipher is a construction which behaves in the same way as a tweakable blockcipher, with the difference that the actual block size is flexible. Due to this feature, a tweakable wide blockcipher can be directly used as a strong encryption scheme that provides full diffusion when encrypting plaintexts to ciphertexts and vice versa. Furthermore, it can be the basis of authenticated encryption schemes fulfilling the strongest security notions. In this paper, we present two instantiations of the docked double decker tweakable wide blockcipher: $\mathit{ddd}\text{-}\mathit{AES}$ and $\mathit{bbb}\text{-}\mathit{ddd}\text{-}\mathit{AES}$. Both instances exclusively use similar building blocks as AES-GCM (AES and finite field multiplication), are designed for maximal parallelism, and hence, can make efficient use of existing hardware accelerators. Moreover, $\mathit{bbb}\text{-}\mathit{ddd}\text{-}\mathit{AES}$ builds upon a novel beyond birthday bound secure pseudorandom function, a tweakable variant of the XOR of permutations, facilitating in the need to include a tweak in the AES evaluations without sacrificing flexibility in docked double decker. We furthermore introduce an authenticated encryption mode $\mathit{aaa}$ specifically tailored to be instantiated with $\mathit{ddd}\text{-}\mathit{AES}$ and $\mathit{bbb}\text{-}\mathit{ddd}\text{-}\mathit{AES}$, where special attentions is given to how the nonce and associated data can be processed. We prove that this mode is secure both in the nonce-respecting setting as well as in the setting where random nonces are used.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
WhisPIR: Stateless Private Information Retrieval with Low Communication
Uncategorized
Leo de Castro, Kevin Lewi, and Edward Suh
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Uncategorized
Recent constructions of private information retrieval (PIR) have seen significant improvements in computational performance. However, these improvements rely on heavy offline preprocessing that is typically difficult in real-world applications. Motivated by the question of PIR with no offline processing, we introduce WhisPIR, a fully stateless PIR protocol with low per-query communication. WhisPIR clients are all ephemeral, meaning that they appear with only the protocol public parameters and disappear as soon as their query is complete, giving no opportunity for additional "offline" communication that is not counted towards the overall query communication. As such, WhisPIR is highly suited for practical applications that must support many clients and frequent database updates. We demonstrate that WhisPIR requires significantly less communication than all other lattice-based PIR protocols in a stateless setting. WhisPIR is outperformed in computation only by SimplePIR and HintlessPIR when the database entries are large (several kilobytes). WhisPIR achieves this performance by introducing a number of novel optimizations. These include improvements to the index expansion algorithm of SealPIR & OnionPIR that optimizes the algorithm when only one rotation key is available. WhisPIR also makes novel use of the non-compact variant of the BGV homomorphic encryption scheme to further save communication and computation. To demonstrate the practicality of WhisPIR, we apply the protocol to the problem of secure blocklist checking, an important user-safety application in end-to-end encrypted messaging.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Communication-Optimal Convex Agreement
Diana Ghinea, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, and Roger Wattenhofer
Byzantine Agreement (BA) allows a set of $n$ parties to agree on a value even when up to $t$ of the parties involved are corrupted. While previous works have shown that, for $\ell$-bit inputs, BA can be achieved with the optimal communication complexity $\mathcal{O}(\ell n)$ for sufficiently large $\ell$, BA only ensures that honest parties agree on a meaningful output when they hold the same input, rendering the primitive inadequate for many real-world applications. This gave rise to the notion of Convex Agreement (CA), introduced by Vaidya and Garg [PODC'13], which requires the honest parties' outputs to be in the convex hull of the honest inputs. Unfortunately, all existing CA protocols incur a communication complexity of at least $\Omega(\ell n^2)$. In this work, we introduce the first CA protocol with the optimal communication of $\mathcal{O}(\ell n)$ bits for inputs in $\mathbb{Z}$ of size $\ell = \Omega(\kappa \cdot n^2 \log n)$, where $\kappa$ is the security parameter.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Beyond the circuit: How to Minimize Foreign Arithmetic in ZKP Circuits
Michele Orrù, George Kadianakis, Mary Maller, and Greg Zaverucha
Zero-knowledge circuits are frequently required to prove gadgets that are not optimised for the constraint system in question. A particularly daunting task is to embed foreign arithmetic such as Boolean operations, field arithmetic, or public-key cryptography. We construct techniques for offloading foreign arithmetic from a zero-knowledge circuit including: (i) equality of discrete logarithms across different groups; (ii) scalar multiplication without requiring elliptic curve operations; (iii) proving knowledge of an AES encryption. To achieve our goal, we employ techniques inherited from rejection sampling and lookup protocols. We implement and provide concrete benchmarks for our protocols.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
KiloNova: Non-Uniform PCD with Zero-Knowledge Property from Generic Folding Schemes
Tianyu Zheng, Shang Gao, Yu Guo, and Bin Xiao
Most existing accumulation/folding schemes focus on implementing Incrementally Verifiable Computation (IVC). Proof-carrying Data (PCD), as a generalization of IVC, enables sequential computation performance by multiple distrusting parties, thereby offering a robust primitive tool in real-world applications. However, building non-uniform PCD from folding schemes faces many technical challenges, particularly in handling cross items and preserving zero knowledge. This paper introduces KiloNova, a non-uniform PCD system with zero-knowledge properties derived from generic folding schemes. Motivated by HyperNova (Kothapalli et al. ePrint 2023), we derive a variant of the Customizable Constraint System with linear claims on circuits and inputs to avoid cross items. With the new constraint system, we propose a generic folding scheme for multiple instances of different circuits and ensure the zero-knowledge property with various effective methods. Consequently, we build a non-uniform ZK-PCD scheme from the generic folding scheme and improve its performance with some optimization techniques, such as circuit aggregation and decoupling. We propose a new construction for ZK-PCD that does not use a ZK argument system and has little influence on the complexity. The theoretical evaluation shows our non-uniform ZK-PCD scheme outperforms previous models. A single multi-scalar multiplication dominates the prover cost at each step. The recursive circuit is dominated by $O(\log(n))$ random-oracle-like hashes and $O(k)$ scalar multiplications, where $n$ is the circuit input length and $k$ is the instance number at each step.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Circuit-Succinct Universally-Composable NIZKs with Updatable CRS
Behzad Abdolmaleki, Noemi Glaeser, Sebastian Ramacher, and Daniel Slamanig
Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs (NIZKs) and in particular succinct NIZK arguments of knowledge (zk-SNARKs) increasingly see real-world adoption in large and complex systems. Many zk-SNARKs require a trusted setup, i.e., a common reference string (CRS), and for practical use it is desirable to reduce the trust in the CRS generation. The latter can be achieved via the notions of subversion or updatable CRS. Another important property when deployed in large systems is the ability to securely compose them to obtain more complex protocols, e.g., via the Universal Composability (UC) framework. Relying on the UC framework allows arbitrary and secure composition of protocols in a modular way. In this work, we investigate whether zk-SNARKs can provide updatability and composability simultaneously. This is a challenging task as the UC framework rules out several natural techniques for such a construction. As our main result, we show that it is indeed possible to achieve these properties in a generic and modular way if we relax the succinctness properties of zk-SNARKs slightly to those of a circuit-succinct NIZK which is not witness-succinct, i.e., by increasing the proof size of the underlying zk-SNARK by the size of the witness $w$. We argue that for various practical applications of zk-SNARKs this overhead is acceptable. Our starting point is the Lamassu framework (ACM CCS'20), which we extend in several directions. Our new generic compiler adds only minimal overhead, which we demonstrate by benchmarking its application to the Sonic proof system (ACM CCS'19).
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Witness Encryption for Succinct Functional Commitments and Applications
Matteo Campanelli, Dario Fiore, and Hamidreza Khoshakhlagh
Witness encryption (WE), introduced by Garg, Gentry, Sahai, and Waters (STOC 2013) allows one to encrypt a message to a statement $\mathsf{x}$ for some NP language $\mathcal{L}$, such that any user holding a witness for $\mathsf{x} \in \mathcal{L}$ can decrypt the ciphertext. The extreme power of this primitive comes at the cost of its elusiveness: a practical construction from established cryptographic assumptions is currently out of reach. In this work, we investigate a new notion of encryption that has a flavor of WE and that we can build only based on bilinear pairings, for interesting classes of computation. We do this by connecting witness encryption to functional commitments (FC). FCs are an advanced notion of commitments that allows fine-grained openings, that is non-interactive proofs to show that a commitment $\mathsf{cm}$ opens to $v$ such that $y=G(v)$, with the crucial feature that both commitments and openings are succinct. Our new WE notion, witness encryption for (succinct) functional commitment (WE-FC), allows one to encrypt a message with respect to a triple $(\mathsf{cm}, G, y)$, and decryption is unlocked using an FC opening that $\mathsf{cm}$ opens to $v$ such that $y=G(v)$. This mechanism is similar to the notion of witness encryption for NIZK of commitments [Benhamouda and Lin, TCC'20], with the crucial difference that ours supports commitments and decryption time whose size and complexity do not depend on the length of the committed data $v$. Our main contributions are therefore the formal definition of WE-FC, a generic methodology to compile an FC in bilinear groups into an associated WE-FC scheme (semantically secure in the generic group model), and a new FC construction for NC1 circuits that yields a WE-FC for the same class of functions. Similarly to [Benhamouda and Lin, TCC'20], we show how to apply WE-FC to construct multiparty reusable non-interactive secure computation (mrNISC) protocols. Crucially, the efficiency profile of WE-FC yields mrNISC protocols whose offline stage has shorter communication (only a succinct commitment from each party). As an additional contribution, we discuss further applications of WE-FC and show how to extend this primitive to better suit these settings.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Threshold Encryption with Silent Setup
Sanjam Garg, Dimitris Kolonelos, Guru-Vamsi Policharla, and Mingyuan Wang
We build a concretely efficient threshold encryption scheme where the joint public key of a set of parties is computed as a deterministic function of their locally computed public keys, enabling a silent setup phase. By eliminating interaction from the setup phase, our scheme immediately enjoys several highly desirable features such as asynchronous setup, multiverse support, and dynamic threshold. Prior to our work, the only known constructions of threshold encryption with silent setup relied on heavy cryptographic machinery such as indistinguishability Obfuscation or witness encryption for all of $\mathsf{NP}$. Our core technical innovation lies in building a special purpose witness encryption scheme for the statement ``at least $t$ parties have signed a given message''. Our construction relies on pairings and is proved secure in the Generic Group Model. Notably, our construction, restricted to the special case of threshold $t=1$, gives an alternative construction of the (flexible) distributed broadcast encryption from pairings, which has been the central focus of several recent works. We implement and evaluate our scheme to demonstrate its concrete efficiency. Both encryption and partial decryption are constant time, taking $<7\,$ms and $<1\,$ms, respectively. For a committee of $1024$ parties, the aggregation of partial decryptions takes $<200\,$ms, when all parties provide partial decryptions. The size of each ciphertext is $\approx 8\times$ larger than an ElGamal ciphertext.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Note on the cryptanalysis of Speedy
Tim Beyne and Addie Neyt
At Eurocrypt 2023, a differential attack on the block cipher Speedy-7-192 was presented. This note shows that the main differential characteristic that this attack is based on has probability zero.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Asynchronous Agreement on a Core Set in Constant Expected Time and More Efficient Asynchronous VSS and MPC
Ittai Abraham, Gilad Asharov, Arpita Patra, and Gilad Stern
A major challenge of any asynchronous MPC protocol is the need to reach an agreement on the set of private inputs to be used as input for the MPC functionality. Ben-Or, Canetti and Goldreich [STOC 93] call this problem Agreement on a Core Set (ACS) and solve it by running $n$ parallel instances of asynchronous binary Byzantine agreements. To the best of our knowledge, all results in the perfect security setting used this same paradigm for solving ACS. This leads to a fundamental barrier of expected $\Omega(\log n)$ rounds for any asynchronous MPC protocol (even for constant depth circuits). We provide a new solution for Agreement on a Core Set that runs in expected $O(1)$ rounds. Our perfectly secure variant is optimally resilient ($t<n/4$) and requires just $O(n^4\log n)$ expected communication complexity. We show a similar result with statistical security for $t<n/3$. Our ACS is based on a new notion of Asynchronously Validated Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement (AVABA) and new information-theoretic analogs to techniques used in the authenticated model. In addition to the above, we also construct a new perfectly secure packed asynchronous verifiable secret sharing (AVSS) protocol with communication complexity of $O(nX + n^3 \log n)$ for sharing $X$ secrets (of size $O(\log n)$ bits each). The best prior required $O(nX + n^4 \log n)$ for $X$ secrets. AVSS is an important building block for our ACS, and for asynchronous MPC. We improve both communication complexity and round complexity in asynchronous MPC when plugging our new ACS and new AVSS.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Election Eligibility with OpenID: Turning Authentication into Transferable Proof of Eligibility
Véronique Cortier, Alexandre Debant, Anselme Goetschmann, and Lucca Hirschi
Eligibility checks are often abstracted away or omitted in voting protocols, leading to situations where the voting server can easily stuff the ballot box. One reason for this is the difficulty of bootstraping the authentication material for voters without relying on trusting the voting server. In this paper, we propose a new protocol that solves this problem by building on OpenID, a widely deployed authentication protocol. Instead of using it as a standard authentication means, we turn it into a mechanism that delivers transferable proofs of eligibility. Using zk-SNARK proofs, we show that this can be done without revealing any compromising information, in particular, protecting everlasting privacy. Our approach remains efficient and can easily be integrated into existing protocols, as we have done for the Belenios voting protocol. We provide a full-fledged proof of concept along with benchmarks showing our protocol could be realistically used in large-scale elections.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Distributed Fiat-Shamir Transform
Michele Battagliola and Andrea Flamini
The recent surge of distribute technologies caused an increasing interest towards threshold signature protocols, that peaked with the recent NIST First Call for Multi-Party Threshold Schemes. Since its introduction, the Fiat-Shamir Transform has been the most popular way to design standard digital signature schemes. In this work, we translate the Fiat-Shamir Transform into a multi-party setting, building a framework that seeks to be an alternative, easier way to design threshold digital signatures. We do that by introducing the concept of threshold identification scheme and threshold sigma protocol, and showing necessary and sufficient conditions to prove the security of the threshold signature schemes derived from them. Lastly, we show a practical application of our framework providing an alternative security proof for Sparkle, a recent threshold Schnorr signature. In particular, we consider the threshold identification scheme underlying Sparkle and prove the security of the signature derived from it. We show that using our framework the effort required to prove the security of threshold signatures might be drastically lowered. In fact, instead of reducing explicitly its security to the security of a hard problem, it is enough to prove some properties of the underlying threshold sigma protocol and threshold identification scheme. Then, by applying the results that we prove in this paper it is guaranteed that the derived threshold signature is secure.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Kleptographic Attacks against Implicit Rejection
Uncategorized
Antoine Joux, Julian Loss, and Benedikt Wagner
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Uncategorized
Given its integral role in modern encryption systems such as CRYSTALS-Kyber, the Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO) transform will soon be at the center of our secure communications infrastructure. An enduring debate surrounding the FO transform is whether to use explicit or implicit rejection when decapsulation fails. Presently, implicit rejection, as implemented in CRYSTALS-Kyber, is supported by a strong set of arguments. Therefore, understanding its security implications in different attacker models is essential. In this work, we study implicit rejection through a novel lens, namely, from the perspective of kleptography. Concretely, we consider an attacker model in which the attacker can subvert the user's code to compromise security while remaining undetectable. In this scenario, we present three attacks that significantly reduce the security level of the FO transform with implicit rejection. Notably, our attacks apply to CRYSTALS-Kyber.
Last updated:  2024-02-16
Anonymity on Byzantine-Resilient Decentralized Computing
Kehao Ma, Minghui Xu, Yihao Guo, Lukai Cui, Shiping Ni, Shan Zhang, Weibing Wang, Haiyong Yang, and Xiuzhen Cheng
In recent years, decentralized computing has gained popularity in various domains such as decentralized learning, financial services and the Industrial Internet of Things. As identity privacy becomes increasingly important in the era of big data, safeguarding user identity privacy while ensuring the security of decentralized computing systems has become a critical challenge. To address this issue, we propose ADC (Anonymous Decentralized Computing) to achieve anonymity in decentralized computing. In ADC, the entire network of users can vote to trace and revoke malicious nodes. Furthermore, ADC possesses excellent Sybil-resistance and Byzantine fault tolerance, enhancing the security of the system and increasing user trust in the decentralized computing system. To decentralize the system, we propose a practical blockchain-based decentralized group signature scheme called Group Contract. We construct the entire decentralized system based on Group Contract, which does not require the participation of a trusted authority to guarantee the above functions. Finally, we conduct rigorous privacy and security analysis and performance evaluation to demonstrate the security and practicality of ADC for decentralized computing with only a minor additional time overhead.
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