Papers updated in last 7 days (48 results)

Last updated:  2024-07-24
Watermarks in the Sand: Impossibility of Strong Watermarking for Generative Models
Hanlin Zhang, Benjamin L. Edelman, Danilo Francati, Daniele Venturi, Giuseppe Ateniese, and Boaz Barak
Watermarking generative models consists of planting a statistical signal (watermark) in a model’s output so that it can be later verified that the output was generated by the given model. A strong watermarking scheme satisfies the property that a computationally bounded attacker cannot erase the watermark without causing significant quality degradation. In this paper, we study the (im)possibility of strong watermarking schemes. We prove that, under well-specified and natural assumptions, strong watermarking is impossible to achieve. This holds even in the private detection algorithm setting, where the watermark insertion and detection algorithms share a secret key, unknown to the attacker. To prove this result, we introduce a generic efficient watermark attack; the attacker is not required to know the private key of the scheme or even which scheme is used. Our attack is based on two assumptions: (1) The attacker has access to a “quality oracle” that can evaluate whether a candidate output is a high-quality response to a prompt, and (2) The attacker has access to a “perturbation oracle” which can modify an output with a nontrivial probability of maintaining quality, and which induces an efficiently mixing random walk on high-quality outputs. We argue that both assumptions can be satisfied in practice by an attacker with weaker computational capabilities than the watermarked model itself, to which the attacker has only black-box access. Furthermore, our assumptions will likely only be easier to satisfy over time as models grow in capabilities and modalities. We demonstrate the feasibility of our attack by instantiating it to attack three existing watermarking schemes for large language models: Kirchenbauer et al. (2023a), Kuditipudi et al. (2023), and Zhao et al. (2023a), as well as those for vision-language models Fernandez et al. (2023) and Mountain (2021). The same attack successfully removes the watermarks planted by all schemes, with only minor quality degradation.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
A Refined Hardness Estimation of LWE in Two-step Mode
Wenwen Xia, Leizhang Wang, Geng Wang, Dawu Gu, and Baocang Wang
Recently, researchers have proposed many LWE estimators, such as lattice-estimator (Albrecht et al, Asiacrypt 2017) and leaky-LWE-Estimator (Dachman-Soled et al, Crypto 2020), while the latter has already been used in estimating the security level of Kyber and Dilithium using only BKZ. However, we prove in this paper that solving LWE by combining a lattice reduction step (by LLL or BKZ) and a target vector searching step (by enumeration or sieving), which we call a Two-step mode, is more efficient than using only BKZ. Moreover, we give a refined LWE estimator in Two-step mode by analyzing the relationship between the probability distribution of the target vector and the solving success rate in a Two-step mode LWE solving algorithm. While the latest Two-step estimator for LWE, which is the “primal-bdd” mode in lattice-estimator1, does not take into account some up-to-date results and lacks a thorough theoretical analysis. Under the same gate-count model, our estimation for NIST PQC standards drops by 2.1∼3.4 bits (2.2∼4.6 bits while considering more flexible blocksize and jump strategy) compared with leaky-LWE-Estimator. Furthermore, we also give a conservative estimation for LWE from the Two-step solving algorithm. Compared with the Core-SVP model, which is used in previous conservative estimations, our estimation relies on weaker assumptions and outputs higher evaluation results than the Core- SVP model. For NIST PQC standards, our conservative estimation is 4.17∼8.11 bits higher than the Core-SVP estimation. Hence our estimator can give a closer estimation for both upper bound and lower bound of LWE hardness.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Cryptanalysis of the SNOVA signature scheme
Peigen Li and Jintai Ding
SNOVA is a variant of a UOV-type signature scheme over a noncommutative ring. In this article, we demonstrate that certain parameters provided by authors in SNOVA fail to meet the NIST security level, and the complexities are lower than those claimed by SNOVA.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
OAE-RUP: A Strong Online AEAD Security Notion and its Application to SAEF
Amit Singh Bhati, Elena Andreeva, and Damian Vizar
Release of unverified plaintexts (RUP) security is an important target for robustness in AE schemes. It is also highly crucial for lightweight (LW) implementations of online AE schemes on memory-constrained devices. Surprisingly, very few online AEAD schemes come with provable guarantees against RUP integrity and not one with any well-defined RUP confidentiality. In this work, we first propose a new strong security notion for online AE schemes called OAE-RUP that captures security under blockwise processing of both encryption (which includes nonce-misuse) and decryption (which includes RUP). Formally, OAE-RUP combines the standard RUP integrity notion INT-RUP with a new RUP confidentiality notion sOPRPF (strong Online PseudoRandom Permutation followed by a pseudorandom Function). sOPRPF is based on the concept of "strong online permutations" and can be seen as an extension of the well-known CCA3 notion (Abed et al., FSE 2014) that captures arbitrary-length inputs. An OAE-RUP-secure scheme is resistant against nonce-misuse as well as leakage of unverified plaintexts where the integrity remains unaffected, and the confidentiality of any encrypted plaintext is preserved up to the leakage of the longest prefix with the leaked plaintexts and the leakage of the length of the longest prefix with the nonce-repeating ciphertexts. We then prove the OAE-RUP security of the SAEF mode. SAEF is a ForkAE mode (Asiacrypt 2019) that is optimized for authenticated encryption of short messages and processes the message blocks sequentially and in an online manner. At SAC 2020, it was shown that SAEF is also an online nonce misuse-resistant AE (OAE), offering enhanced security against adversaries that make blockwise adaptive encryption queries. It has remained an open question if SAEF also resists attacks against blockwise adaptive decryption adversaries or, more generally, when the decrypted plaintext is released before verification (RUP). Our proofs are conducted using the coefficients H technique, and they show that, without any modifications, SAEF is OAE-RUP secure up to the birthday bound, i.e., up to $2^{n/2}$ processed data blocks, where $n$ is the block size of the forkcipher.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Concurrent Security of Anonymous Credentials Light, Revisited
Julia Kastner, Julian Loss, and Omar Renawi
We revisit the concurrent security guarantees of the well-known Anonymous Credentials Light (ACL) scheme (Baldimtsi and Lysyanskaya, CCS'13). This scheme was originally proven secure when executed sequentially, and its concurrent security was left as an open problem. A later work of Benhamouda et al. (EUROCRYPT'21) gave an efficient attack on ACL when executed concurrently, seemingly resolving this question once and for all. In this work, we point out a subtle flaw in the attack of Benhamouda et al. on ACL and show, in spite of popular opinion, that it can be proven concurrently secure. Our modular proof in the algebraic group model uses an ID scheme as an intermediate step and leads to a major simplification of the complex security argument for Abe's Blind Signature scheme by Kastner et al. (PKC'22).
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Correlation Electromagnetic Analysis on an FPGA Implementation of CRYSTALS-Kyber
Rafael Carrera Rodriguez, Florent Bruguier, Emanuele Valea, and Pascal Benoit
Post-quantum cryptography represents a category of cryptosystems resistant to quantum algorithms. Recently, NIST launched a process to standardize one or more of such algorithms in the key encapsulation mechanism and signature categories. Such schemes are under the scrutiny of their mathematical security, but they are not side-channel secure at the algorithm level. That is why their side-channel vulnerabilities must be assessed by the research community. In this paper, we present a non-profiled correlation electromagnetic analysis against an FPGA implementation of the chosen NIST key-encapsulation mechanism standard, CRYSTALS-Kyber. The attack correlates an electromagnetic radiation model of the polynomial multiplication execution with the captured traces. With 166,620 traces, this attack correctly recovers 100% of the subkeys. Furthermore, a countermeasure is presented for securing the target implementation against the presented attack.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Towards post-quantum secure PAKE - A tight security proof for OCAKE in the BPR model
Nouri Alnahawi, Kathrin Hövelmanns, Andreas Hülsing, Silvia Ritsch, and Alexander Wiesmaier
We revisit OCAKE (ACNS 23), a generic recipe that constructs password-based authenticated key exchange (PAKE) from key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs), to allow instantiations with post-quantums KEM like KYBER. The ACNS23 paper left as an open problem to argue security against quantum attackers, with its security proof being in the universal composability (UC) framework. This is common for PAKE, however, at the time of this submission’s writing, it was not known how to prove (computational) UC security against quantum adversaries. Doing this becomes even more involved if the proof uses idealizations like random oracles or ideal ciphers. To pave the way towards post-quantum security proofs, we therefore resort to a (still classical) game-based security proof in the BPR model (EUROCRYPT 2000). We consider this a crucial stepping stone towards a fully satisfying post-quantum security proof. We also hope that a game-based proof is easier to (potentially formally) verify. We prove security of (a minor variation of) OCAKE, assuming the underlying KEM satisfies notions of ciphertext indistinguishability, anonymity, and (computational) public-key uniformity. Using multi-user variants of these properties, we achieve tight security bounds. We provide a full detailed proof – something often omitted in publications on game-based security of PAKE. As a side-contribution, we demonstrate in detail how to handle password guesses, which is something we were unable to find in the existing literature at the time of writing. Finally, we discuss which current PQC KEMs can be plugged into the proposed protocol and provide a concrete instantiation, accompanied by a proof-of-concept implementation and respective run-time benchmarks.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Post-quantum XML and SAML Single Sign-On
Johannes Müller and Jan Oupický
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is one of the most popular serialization languages. Since many security protocols are built using XML, it also provides cryptographic functionality. A central framework in this area is the Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML). This standard is one of the most widely used options for implementing Single Sign-On (SSO), which allows users to authenticate to different service providers using the credentials from a single identity provider. Like all other security protocols currently in use, the security and privacy of XML-based frameworks such as SAML is threatened by the development of increasingly powerful quantum computers. In fact, future attackers with access to scalable quantum computers will be able to break the currently used cryptographic building blocks and thus undermine the security of the SAML SSO to illegally access sensitive private information. Post-quantum cryptography algorithms have been developed to protect against such quantum attackers. While many security protocols have been migrated into the quantum age by using post-quantum cryptography, no such solutions for XML and the security protocols based on it have been developed, let alone tested. We make the following contributions to fill this gap. We have designed post-quantum solutions for the cryptographic building blocks in XML and integrated them into the SAML SSO protocol. We implemented our solutions in the OpenSAML, Apache Santuario, and BouncyCastle libraries and extensively tested their performance for various post-quantum instantiations. As a result, we have created a comprehensive and solid foundation for post-quantum XML and post-quantum SAML SSO migration.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
SoK: Post-Quantum TLS Handshake
Nouri Alnahawi, Johannes Müller, Jan Oupický, and Alexander Wiesmaier
Transport Layer Security (TLS) is the backbone security protocol of the Internet. As this fundamental protocol is at risk from future quantum attackers, many proposals have been made to protect TLS against this threat by implementing post-quantum cryptography (PQC). The widespread interest in post-quantum TLS has given rise to a large number of solutions over the last decade. These proposals differ in many aspects, including the security properties they seek to protect, the efficiency and trustworthiness of their post-quantum building blocks, and the application scenarios they consider, to name a few. Based on an extensive literature review, we classify existing solutions according to their general approaches, analyze their individual contributions, and present the results of our extensive performance experiments. Based on these insights, we identify the most reasonable candidates for post-quantum TLS, which research problems in this area have already been solved, and which are still open. Overall, our work provides a well-founded reference point for researching post-quantum TLS and preparing TLS in practice for the quantum age.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Efficient Schemes for Committing Authenticated Encryption
Mihir Bellare and Viet Tung Hoang
This paper provides efficient authenticated-encryption (AE) schemes in which a ciphertext is a commitment to the key. These are extended, at minimal additional cost, to schemes where the ciphertext is a commitment to all encryption inputs, meaning key, nonce, associated data and message. Our primary schemes are modifications of GCM (for basic, unique-nonce AE security) and AES-GCM-SIV (for misuse-resistant AE security) and add both forms of commitment without any increase in ciphertext size. We also give more generic, but somewhat more costly, solutions.
Last updated:  2024-07-24
Succinctly-Committing Authenticated Encryption
Mihir Bellare and Viet Tung Hoang
Recent attacks and applications have led to the need for symmetric encryption schemes that, in addition to providing the usual authenticity and privacy, are also committing. In response, many committing authenticated encryption schemes have been proposed. However, all known schemes, in order to provide s bits of committing security, suffer an expansion---this is the length of the ciphertext minus the length of the plaintext---of 2s bits. This incurs a cost in bandwidth or storage. (We typically want s=128, leading to 256-bit expansion.) However, it has been considered unavoidable due to birthday attacks. We show how to bypass this limitation. We give authenticated encryption (AE) schemes that provide s bits of committing security, yet suffer expansion only around s as long as messages are long enough, namely more than s bits. We call such schemes succinct. We do this via a generic, ciphertext-shortening transform called SC: given an AE scheme with 2s-bit expansion, SC returns an AE scheme with s-bit expansion while preserving committing security. SC is very efficient; an AES-based instantiation has overhead just two AES calls. As a tool, SC uses a collision-resistant invertible PRF called HtM, that we design, and whose analysis is technically difficult. To add the committing security that SC assumes to a base scheme, we also give a transform CTY that improves Chan and Rogaway's CTX. Our results hold in a general framework for authenticated encryption, called AE3, that includes both AE1 (also called AEAD) and AE2 (also called nonce-hiding AE) as special cases, so that we in particular obtain succinctly-committing AE schemes for both these settings.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
On the Impossibility of Algebraic NIZK In Pairing-Free Groups
Emanuele Giunta
Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge proofs (NIZK) allow a prover to convince a verifier that a statement is true by sending only one message and without conveying any other information. In the CRS model, many instantiations have been proposed from group-theoretic assumptions. On the one hand, some of these constructions use the group structure in a black-box way but rely on pairings, an example being the celebrated Groth-Sahai proof system. On the other hand, a recent line of research realized NIZKs from sub-exponential DDH in pairing-free groups using Correlation Intractable Hash functions, but at the price of making non black-box usage of the group. As of today no construction is known to simultaneously reduce its security to pairing-free group problems and to use the underlying group in a black-box way. This is indeed not a coincidence: in this paper, we prove that for a large class of NIZK either a pairing-free group is used non black-box by relying on element representation, or security reduces to external hardness assumptions. More specifically our impossibility applies to two incomparable cases. The first one covers Arguments of Knowledge (AoK) which proves that a preimage under a given one way function is known. The second one covers NIZK (not necessarily AoK) for hard subset problems, which captures relations such as DDH, Decision-Linear and Matrix-DDH.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
On the Impossibility of Algebraic Vector Commitments in Pairing-Free Groups
Dario Catalano, Dario Fiore, Rosario Gennaro, and Emanuele Giunta
Vector Commitments allow one to (concisely) commit to a vector of messages so that one can later (concisely) open the commitment at selected locations. In the state of the art of vector commitments, algebraic constructions have emerged as a particularly useful class, as they enable advanced properties, such as stateless updates, subvector openings and aggregation, that are for example unknown in Merkle-tree-based schemes. In spite of their popularity, algebraic vector commitments remain poorly understood objects. In particular, no construction in standard prime order groups (without pairing) is known. In this paper, we shed light on this state of affairs by showing that a large class of concise algebraic vector commitments in pairing-free, prime order groups are impossible to realize. Our results also preclude any cryptographic primitive that implies the algebraic vector commitments we rule out, as special cases. This means that we also show the impossibility, for instance, of succinct polynomial commitments and functional commitments (for all classes of functions including linear forms) in pairing-free groups of prime order.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
Sloth: Key Stretching and Deniable Encryption using Secure Elements on Smartphones
Daniel Hugenroth, Alberto Sonnino, Sam Cutler, and Alastair R. Beresford
Privacy enhancing technologies must not only protect sensitive data in-transit, but also locally at-rest. For example, anonymity networks hide the sender and/or recipient of a message from network adversaries. However, if a participating device is physically captured, its owner can be pressured to give access to the stored conversations. Therefore, client software should allow the user to plausibly deny the existence of meaningful data. Since biometrics can be collected without consent and server-based authentication leaks metadata, implementations typically rely on memorable passwords for local authentication. Traditional password-based key stretching lacks a strict time guarantee due to the ease of parallelized password guessing by attackers. This paper introduces Sloth, a key stretching method leveraging the Secure Element (SE) commonly found in modern smartphones to provide a strict rate limit on password guessing. While this would be straightforward with full access to the SE, Android and iOS only provide a very limited API. Sloth utilizes the existing developer SE API and novel cryptographic constructions to build an effective rate-limit for password guessing on recent Android and iOS devices. Our approach ensures robust security even for short, randomly-generated, six-character alpha-numeric passwords against adversaries with virtually unlimited computing resources. Our solution is compatible with approximately 96% of iPhones and 45% of Android phones and Sloth seamlessly integrates without device or OS modifications, making it immediately usable by app developers today. We formally define the security of Sloth and evaluate its performance on various devices. Finally, we present HiddenSloth, a plausibly-deniable encryption scheme leveraging Sloth. It provides multi-snapshot resistance against adversaries who can covertly capture its on-disk content multiple times.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
Protecting Quantum Procrastinators with Signature Lifting: A Case Study in Cryptocurrencies
Or Sattath and Shai Wyborski
Current solutions to quantum vulnerabilities of widely used cryptographic schemes involve migrating users to post-quantum schemes before quantum attacks become feasible. This work deals with protecting quantum procrastinators: users that failed to migrate to post-quantum cryptography in time. To address this problem in the context of digital signatures, we introduce a technique called signature lifting, that allows us to lift a deployed pre-quantum signature scheme satisfying a certain property to a post-quantum signature scheme that uses the same keys. Informally, the said property is that a post-quantum one-way function is used "somewhere along the way" to derive the public-key from the secret-key. Our constructions of signature lifting relies heavily on the post-quantum digital signature scheme Picnic (Chase et al., CCS'17). Our main case-study is cryptocurrencies, where this property holds in two scenarios: when the public-key is generated via a key-derivation function or when the public-key hash is posted instead of the public-key itself. We propose a modification, based on signature lifting, that can be applied in many cryptocurrencies for securely spending pre-quantum coins in presence of quantum adversaries. Our construction improves upon existing constructions in two major ways: it is not limited to pre-quantum coins whose ECDSA public-key has been kept secret (and in particular, it handles all coins that are stored in addresses generated by HD wallets), and it does not require access to post-quantum coins or using side payments to pay for posting the transaction.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
More Efficient Zero-Knowledge Protocols over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ via Galois Rings
Fuchun Lin, Chaoping Xing, and Yizhou Yao
A recent line of works on zero-knowledge (ZK) protocols with a vector oblivious linear function evaluation (VOLE)-based offline phase provides a new paradigm for scalable ZK protocols featuring fast proving and small prover memory. Very recently, Baum et al. (Crypto'23) proposed the VOLE-in-the-head technique, allowing such protocols to become publicly verifiable. Many practically efficient protocols for proving circuit satisfiability over any Galois field are implemented, while protocols over rings $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ are significantly lagging behind, with only a proof-of-concept pioneering work called Appenzeller to Brie (CCS'21) and a first proposal called Moz$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$arella (Crypto'22). The ring $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{32}}$ or $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{64}}$, though highly important (it captures computation in real-life programming and the computer architectures such as CPU words), presents non-trivial difficulties because, for example, unlike Galois fields $\mathbb{F}_{2^{k}}$, the fraction of units in $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{k}}$ is $1/2$. In this work, we first construct ZK protocols over a high degree Galois ring extension of $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{k}}$ (fraction of units close to $1$) and then convert them to $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ efficiently using amortization techniques. Our results greatly change the landscape of ZK protocols over~$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. (1) We propose a competing ZK protocol that has many advantages over the state-of-the-art Moz$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$arella. We remove the undesirable dependence of communication complexity on the security parameter, and achieve communication complexity {\em strictly} linear in the circuit size. Furthermore, our protocol has better concrete efficiency. For $40,80$ bits soundness on circuits over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{32}}$ and $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{64}}$, we offer $1.15\times$--$2.9\times$ improvements in communication. (2) Inspired by the recently proposed interactive message authentication code technique (Weng et al., CCS'22), we construct a constant round ZK protocol over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ with sublinear (in the circuit size) communication complexity, which was previously achieved only over fields. (3) We show that the pseudorandom correlation generator approach can be adapted to efficiently implement VOLE over Galois rings, with analysis of the hardness of underlying LPN assumptions over Galois rings. (4) We adapt the VOLE-in-the-head technique to make it work for $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$, yielding {\em publicly verifiable} non-interactive ZK protocols over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ which preserve most of the efficiency metrics of the VOLE-based ZK protocols.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
A New PPML Paradigm for Quantized Models
Tianpei Lu, Bingsheng Zhang, Xiaoyuan Zhang, and Kui Ren
Model quantization has become a common practice in machine learning (ML) to improve efficiency and reduce computational/communicational overhead. However, adopting quantization in privacy-preserving machine learning (PPML) remains challenging due to the complex internal structure of quantized operators, which leads to inefficient protocols under the existing PPML frameworks. In this work, we propose a new PPML paradigm that is tailor-made for and can benefit from quantized models. Our main observation is that lookup tables can ignore the complex internal constructs of any functions which can be used to simplify the quantized operator evaluation. We view the model inference process as a sequence of quantized operators, and each operator is implemented by a lookup table. We then develop an efficient private lookup table evaluation protocol, and its online communication cost is only $\log n$, where $n$ is the size of the lookup table. On a single CPU core, our protocol can evaluate $2^{15}$ tables with 8-bit input and 8-bit output per second. The resulting PPML framework for quantized models offers extremely fast online performance. The experimental results demonstrate that our quantization strategy achieves substantial speedups over SOTA PPML solutions, improving the online performance by $40\sim 60 \times$ w.r.t. convolutional neural network (CNN) models, such as AlexNet, VGG16, and ResNet18, and by $10\sim 25 \times$ w.r.t. large language models (LLMs), such as GPT-2, GPT-Neo, and Llama2.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
QuickPool: Privacy-Preserving Ride-Sharing Service
Banashri Karmakar, Shyam Murthy, Arpita Patra, and Protik Paul
Online ride-sharing services (RSS) have become very popular owing to increased awareness of environmental concerns and as a response to increased traffic congestion. To request a ride, users submit their locations and route information for ride matching to a service provider (SP), leading to possible privacy concerns caused by leakage of users' location data. We propose QuickPool, an efficient SP-aided RSS solution that can obliviously match multiple riders and drivers simultaneously, without involving any other auxiliary server. End-users, namely, riders and drivers share their route information with SP as encryptions of the ordered set of points-of-interest (PoI) of their route from their start to end locations. SP performs a zone based oblivious matching of drivers and riders, based on partial route overlap as well as proximity of start and end points. QuickPool is in the semi-honest setting, and makes use of secure multi-party computation. We provide security proof of our protocol, perform extensive testing of our implementation and show that our protocol simultaneously matches multiple drivers and riders very efficiently. We compare the performance of QuickPool with state-of-the-art works and observe a run time improvement of 1.6 - 2$\times$, and communication improvement of at least 8$\times$.
Last updated:  2024-07-23
Perceived Information Revisited II: Information-Theoretical Analysis of Deep-Learning Based Side-Channel Attacks
Akira Ito, Rei Ueno, and Naofumi Homma
Previous studies on deep-learning-based side-channel attacks (DL-SCAs) have shown that traditional performance evaluation metrics commonly used in DL, like accuracy and F1 score, are not effective in evaluating DL-SCA performance. Therefore, some previous studies have proposed new alternative metrics for evaluating the performance of DL-SCAs. Notably, perceived information (PI) and effective perceived information (EPI) are major metrics based on information theory. While it has been experimentally confirmed that these metrics can give the attack success rate (SR) for DL-SCAs, their theoretical validity remains unclear. In this paper, we propose a new theoretically valid performance evaluation metric called latent perceived information (LPI), which serves as an alternative to the existing metrics. LPI is defined as the mutual information between the output of the feature extractor of a neural network (NN) model and the intermediate value, representing the potential attack performance of the trained model. First, we prove that LPI provides an upper bound on the SR of a DL-SCA by modeling and formulating DL-SCA as a communication channel. Additionally, we clarify the conditions under which PI and EPI theoretically provide an upper bound on the SR from the perspective of LPI. For practical computation of LPI, we present two methods. One utilizes the Kraskov (KSG) estimator, a common mutual information estimator, and the other is based on the logistic regression. While the KSG estimator is computationally intensive, it yields accurate LPI values. In contrast, the logistic regression is faster but provides a lower bound for LPI. Through experimental attacks on AES software and hardware implementations with masking countermeasures, we demonstrate that the LPI values estimated by these two methods are significantly similar, indicating the reliability and soundness of our proposed estimation techniques. Furthermore, we present the use of a classifier based on logistic regression to improve the attack performance of the trained model. We experimentally demonstrate that an NN model with the logistic regression-based classifier can achieve the upper bound of attack performance predicted by LPI, meaning a significant improvement in attack performance from the original NN. Thus, our study contributes to realizing the optimal distinguisher using the trained model in terms of attack performance.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Linea Prover Documentation
Linea Prover
Rollup technology today promises long-term solutions to the scalability of the blockchain. Among a thriving ecosystem, Consensys has launched the Linea zkEVM Rollup network for Ethereum. At a high level, the Ethereum blockchain can be seen as a state machine and its state transition can be arithmetized carefully. Linea's prover protocol uses this arithmetization, along with transactions on layer two in order to compute a cryptographic proof that the state transition is performed correctly. The proof is then sent over to the Ethereum layer, where the smart contract (verifier contract) on Ethereum checks the proof and accepts the state transition if the proof is valid. The interaction between layer two and Ethereum is costly, which imposes substantial limitations on the proof size. Therefore, Linea's prover aims to compress the proof via cryptographic tools such as list polynomial commitments (LPCs), polynomial interactive oracle proofs (PIOPs), and Succinct Non-Interactive Arguments of Knowledge (SNARKs). We introduce Wizard-IOP, a cryptographic tool for handling a wide class of queries (such as range checks, scalar products, permutations checks, etc.) needed to ensure the correctness of the executions of the state machines efficiently and conveniently. Another cryptographic tool is the Arcane compiler, which outputs standard PIOPs and is employed by Wizard-IOP to make different queries homogeneous. After applying Arcane, all the queries constitute evaluation queries over the polynomials. We then apply the Unique Evaluation compiler (UniEval), which receives the output of the Arcane and provides us with a PIOP that requires only a single evaluation check. At this point, we employ Vortex, a list polynomial commitment (LPC) scheme to convert the resulting PIOP into an argument of knowledge. The argument of knowledge is then made succinct by applying different techniques such as self-recursion, standard recursion, and proof aggregations.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Swoosh: Efficient Lattice-Based Non-Interactive Key Exchange
Phillip Gajland, Bor de Kock, Miguel Quaresma, Giulio Malavolta, and Peter Schwabe
The advent of quantum computers has sparked significant interest in post-quantum cryptographic schemes, as a replacement for currently used cryptographic primitives. In this context, lattice-based cryptography has emerged as the leading paradigm to build post-quantum cryptography. However, all existing viable replacements of the classical Diffie-Hellman key exchange require additional rounds of interactions, thus failing to achieve all the benefits of this protocol. Although earlier work has shown that lattice-based Non-Interactive Key Exchange (NIKE) is theoretically possible, it has been considered too inefficient for real-life applications. In this work, we challenge this folklore belief and provide the first evidence against it. We construct an efficient lattice-based NIKE whose security is based on the standard module learning with errors (M-LWE) problem in the quantum random oracle model. Our scheme is obtained in two steps: (i) A passively-secure construction that achieves a strong notion of correctness, coupled with (ii) a generic compiler that turns any such scheme into an actively-secure one. To substantiate our efficiency claim, we provide an optimised implementation of our passively-secure construction in Rust and Jasmin. Our implementation demonstrates the scheme's applicability to real-world scenarios, yielding public keys of approximately 220 KBs. Moreover, the computation of shared keys takes fewer than 12 million cycles on an Intel Skylake CPU, offering a post-quantum security level exceeding 120 bits.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Interactive Authentication
Deepak Maram, Mahimna Kelkar, and Ittay Eyal
Authentication is the first, crucial step in securing digital assets like cryptocurrencies and online services like banking. It relies on principals maintaining exclusive access to credentials like cryptographic signing keys, passwords, and physical devices. But both individuals and organizations struggle to manage their credentials, resulting in loss of assets and identity theft. In this work, we study mechanisms with back-and-forth interaction with the principals. For example, a user receives an email notification about sending money from her bank account and is given a period of time to abort. We define the authentication problem, where a mechanism interacts with a user and an attacker. A mechanism's success depends on the scenario, namely, which credentials each principal knows. The profile of a mechanism is the set of scenarios in which it succeeds. The subset relation on profiles defines a partial order on mechanisms. We bound the profile size and discover three types of novel mechanisms that are maximally secure. We show the efficacy of our model by analyzing existing mechanisms and make concrete improvement proposals: Using sticky messages for security notifications, prioritizing credentials when accessing one's bank account, and using one of our maximal mechanisms to improve a popular cryptocurrency wallet. We demonstrate the practicality of our mechanisms by implementing the latter.
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Formal Verification of Emulated Floating-Point Arithmetic in Falcon
Vincent Hwang
We show that there is a discrepancy between the emulated floating-point multiplication in the submission package of the digital signature Falcon and the claimed behavior. In particular, we show that some floating-point products with absolute values the smallest normal positive floating-point number are incorrectly zeroized. However, we show that the discrepancy doesn’t affect the complex fast Fourier transform in the signature generation of Falcon by modeling the floating-point addition, subtraction, and multiplication in CryptoLine. We later implement our own floating-point multiplications in Armv7-M assembly and Jasmin and prove their equivalence with our model, demonstrating the possibility of transferring the challenging verification task (verifying highly-optimized assembly) to the presumably more readable code base (Jasmin).
Last updated:  2024-07-22
Zero-Knowledge Proofs of Training for Deep Neural Networks
Kasra Abbaszadeh, Christodoulos Pappas, Jonathan Katz, and Dimitrios Papadopoulos
A zero-knowledge proof of training (zkPoT) enables a party to prove that they have correctly trained a committed model based on a committed dataset without revealing any additional information about the model or the dataset. An ideal zkPoT should offer provable security and privacy guarantees, succinct proof size and verifier runtime, and practical prover efficiency. In this work, we present \name, a zkPoT targeted for deep neural networks (DNNs) that achieves all these goals at once. Our construction enables a prover to iteratively train their model via (mini-batch) gradient descent, where the number of iterations need not be fixed in advance; at the end of each iteration, the prover generates a commitment to the trained model parameters attached with a succinct zkPoT, attesting to the correctness of the executed iterations. The proof size and verifier time are independent of the number of iterations. Our construction relies on two building blocks. First, we propose an optimized GKR-style (sumcheck-based) proof system for the gradient-descent algorithm with concretely efficient prover cost; this allows the prover to generate a proof for each iteration. We then show how to recursively compose these proofs across multiple iterations to attain succinctness. As of independent interest, we propose a generic framework for efficient recursive composition of GKR-style proofs, along with aggregatable polynomial commitments. Benchmarks indicate that \name\ can handle the training of complex models such as VGG-11 with 10~million parameters and batch size~$16$. The prover runtime is $15$~minutes per iteration, which is $\mathbf{24 \times}$ faster than generic recursive proofs, with prover memory overhead $\mathbf{27\times}$ lower. The proof size is $1.63$~megabytes, and the verifier runtime is only $130$~milliseconds, where both are independent of the number of iterations and the size of the dataset.
Last updated:  2024-07-21
Towards Quantum-Safe Blockchain: Exploration of PQC and Public-key Recovery on Embedded Systems
Dominik Marchsreiter
Blockchain technology ensures accountability, transparency, and redundancy in critical applications, includ- ing IoT with embedded systems. However, the reliance on public-key cryptography (PKC) makes blockchain vulnerable to quantum computing threats. This paper addresses the urgent need for quantum-safe blockchain solutions by integrating Post- Quantum Cryptography (PQC) into blockchain frameworks. Utilizing algorithms from the NIST PQC standardization pro- cess, we aim to fortify blockchain security and resilience, partic- ularly for IoT and embedded systems. Despite the importance of PQC, its implementation in blockchain systems tailored for embedded environments remains underexplored. We propose a quantum-secure blockchain architecture, evaluating various PQC primitives and optimizing transaction sizes through tech- niques such as public-key recovery for Falcon, achieving up to 17% reduction in transaction size. Our analysis identifies Falcon-512 as the most suitable algorithm for quantum-secure blockchains in embedded environments, with XMSS as a viable stateful alternative. However, for embedded devices, Dilithium demonstrates a higher transactions-per-second (TPS) rate compared to Falcon, primarily due to Falcon’s slower sign- ing performance on ARM CPUs. This highlights the signing time as a critical limiting factor in the integration of PQC within embedded blockchains. Additionally, we integrate smart contract functionality into the quantum-secure blockchain, assessing the impact of PQC on smart contract authentication. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility and practicality of deploying quantum-secure blockchain solutions in embedded systems, paving the way for robust and future-proof IoT applications.
Last updated:  2024-07-21
Cryptanalysis of two post-quantum authenticated key agreement protocols
Mehdi Abri and Hamid Mala
As the use of the internet and digital devices has grown rapidly, keeping digital communications secure has become very important. Authenticated Key Agreement (AKA) protocols play a vital role in securing digital communications. These protocols enable the communicating parties to mutually authenticate and securely establish a shared secret key. The emergence of quantum computers makes many existing AKA protocols vulnerable to their immense computational power. Consequently, designing new protocols that are resistant to quantum attacks has become essential. Extensive research in this area had led to the design of several post-quantum AKA schemes. In this paper, we analyze two post-quantum AKA schemes proposed by Dharminder et al. [2022] and Pursharthi and Mishra. [2024] and demonstrate that these schemes are not secure against active adversaries. An adversary can impersonate an authorized user to the server. We then propose reliable solutions to prevent these attacks.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
A zero-trust swarm security architecture and protocols
Alex Shafarenko
This report presents the security protocols and general trust architecture of the SMARTEDGE swarm computing platform. Part 1 describes the coordination protocols for use in a swarm production environment, e.g. a smart factory, and Part 2 deals with crowd-sensing scenarios characteristic of traffic-control swarms.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
AVeCQ: Anonymous Verifiable Crowdsourcing with Worker Qualities
Vlasis Koutsos, Sankarshan Damle, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Sujit Gujar, and Dimitris Chatzopoulos
In crowdsourcing systems, requesters publish tasks, and interested workers provide answers to get rewards. Worker anonymity motivates participation since it protects their privacy. Anonymity with unlinkability is an enhanced version of anonymity because it makes it impossible to ``link'' workers across the tasks they participate in. Another core feature of crowdsourcing systems is worker quality which expresses a worker's trustworthiness and quantifies their historical performance. In this work, we present AVeCQ, the first crowdsourcing system that reconciles these properties, achieving enhanced anonymity and verifiable worker quality updates. AVeCQ relies on a suite of cryptographic tools, such as zero-knowledge proofs, to (i) guarantee workers' privacy, (ii) prove the correctness of worker quality scores and task answers, and (iii) commensurate payments. AVeCQ is developed modularly, where requesters and workers communicate over a platform that supports pseudonymity, information logging, and payments. To compare AVeCQ with the state-of-the-art, we prototype it over Ethereum. AVeCQ outperforms the state-of-the-art in three popular crowdsourcing tasks (image annotation, average review, and Gallup polls). E.g., for an Average Review task with 5 choices and 128 workers AVeCQ is 40% faster (including computing and verifying necessary proofs, and blockchain transaction processing overheads) with the task's requester consuming 87% fewer gas.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Grafted Trees Bear Better Fruit: An Improved Multiple-Valued Plaintext-Checking Side-Channel Attack against Kyber
Jinnuo Li, Chi Cheng, Muyan Shen, Peng Chen, Qian Guo, Dongsheng Liu, Liji Wu, and Jian Weng
As a prominent category of side-channel attacks (SCAs), plaintext-checking (PC) oracle-based SCAs offer the advantages of generality and operational simplicity on a targeted device. At TCHES 2023, Rajendran et al. and Tanaka et al. independently proposed the multiple-valued (MV) PC oracle, significantly reducing the required number of queries (a.k.a., traces) in the PC oracle. However, in practice, when dealing with environmental noise or inaccuracies in the waveform classifier, they still rely on majority voting or the other technique that usually results in three times the number of queries compared to the ideal case. In this paper, we propose an improved method to further reduce the number of queries of the MV-PC oracle, particularly in scenarios where the oracle is imperfect. Compared to the state-of-the-art at TCHES 2023, our proposed method reduces the number of queries for a full key recovery by more than $42.5\%$. The method involves three rounds. Our key observation is that coefficients recovered in the first round can be regarded as prior information to significantly aid in retrieving coefficients in the second round. This improvement is achieved through a newly designed grafted tree. Notably, the proposed method is generic and can be applied to both the NIST key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) standard Kyber and other significant candidates, such as Saber and Frodo. We have conducted extensive software simulations against Kyber-512, Kyber-768, Kyber-1024, FireSaber, and Frodo-1344 to validate the efficiency of the proposed method. An electromagnetic attack conducted on real-world implementations, using an STM32F407G board equipped with an ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller and Kyber implementation from the public library \textit{pqm4}, aligns well with our simulations.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Key-and-Signature Compact Multi-Signatures for Blockchain: A Compiler with Realizations
Shaoquan Jiang, Dima Alhadidi, and Hamid Fazli Khojir
Multi-signature is a protocol where a set of signatures jointly sign a message so that the final signature is significantly shorter than concatenating individual signatures together. Recently, it finds applications in blockchain, where several users want to jointly authorize a payment through a multi-signature. However, in this setting, there is no centralized authority and it could suffer from a rogue key attack where the attacker can generate his own keys arbitrarily. Further, to minimize the storage on blockchain, it is desired that the aggregated public-key and the aggregated signature are both as short as possible. In this paper, we find a compiler that converts a kind of identification (ID) scheme (which we call a linear ID) to a multi-signature so that both the aggregated public-key and the aggregated signature have a size independent of the number of signers. Our compiler is provably secure. The advantage of our results is that we reduce a multi-party problem to a weakly secure two-party problem. We realize our compiler with two ID schemes. The first is Schnorr ID. The second is a new lattice-based ID scheme, which via our compiler gives the first regular lattice-based multi-signature scheme with key-and-signature compact without a restart during signing process.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Cryptanalysis of Rank-2 Module-LIP with Symplectic Automorphisms
Hengyi Luo, Kaijie Jiang, Yanbin Pan, and Anyu Wang
At Eurocrypt'24, Mureau et al. formally defined the Lattice Isomorphism Problem for module lattices (module-LIP) in a number field $\mathbb{K}$, and proposed a heuristic randomized algorithm solving module-LIP for modules of rank 2 in $\mathbb{K}^2$ with a totally real number field $\mathbb{K}$, which runs in classical polynomial time for a large class of modules and a large class of totally real number field under some reasonable number theoretic assumptions. In this paper, by introducing a (pseudo) symplectic automorphism of the module, we successfully reduce the problem of solving module-LIP over CM number field to the problem of finding certain symplectic automorphism. Furthermore, we show that a weak (pseudo) symplectic automorphism can be computed efficiently, which immediately turns out to be the desired automorphism when the module is in a totally real number field. This directly results in a provable deterministic polynomial-time algorithm solving module-LIP for rank-2 modules in $\mathbb{K}^2$ where $\mathbb{K}$ is a totally real number field, without any assumptions or restrictions on the modules and the totally real number fields. Moreover, the weak symplectic automorphism can also be utilized to invalidate the omSVP assumption employed in HAWK's forgery security analysis, although it does not yield any actual attacks against HAWK itself.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
Nova: Recursive Zero-Knowledge Arguments from Folding Schemes
Abhiram Kothapalli, Srinath Setty, and Ioanna Tzialla
We introduce a new approach to realize incrementally verifiable computation (IVC), in which the prover recursively proves the correct execution of incremental computations of the form $y=F^{(\ell)}(x)$, where $F$ is a (potentially non-deterministic) computation, $x$ is the input, $y$ is the output, and $\ell > 0$. Unlike prior approaches to realize IVC, our approach avoids succinct non-interactive arguments of knowledge (SNARKs) entirely and arguments of knowledge in general. Instead, we introduce and employ folding schemes, a weaker, simpler, and more efficiently-realizable primitive, which reduces the task of checking two instances in some relation to the task of checking a single instance. We construct a folding scheme for a characterization of $\mathsf{NP}$ and show that it implies an IVC scheme with improved efficiency characteristics: (1) the "recursion overhead" (i.e., the number of steps that the prover proves in addition to proving the execution of $F$) is a constant and it is dominated by two group scalar multiplications expressed as a circuit (this is the smallest recursion overhead in the literature), and (2) the prover's work at each step is dominated by two multiexponentiations of size $O(|F|)$, providing the fastest prover in the literature. The size of a proof is $O(|F|)$ group elements, but we show that using a variant of an existing zkSNARK, the prover can prove the knowledge of a valid proof succinctly and in zero-knowledge with $O(\log{|F|})$ group elements. Finally, our approach neither requires a trusted setup nor FFTs, so it can be instantiated efficiently with any cycles of elliptic curves where DLOG is hard.
Last updated:  2024-07-20
HyperNova: Recursive arguments for customizable constraint systems
Abhiram Kothapalli and Srinath Setty
We introduce HyperNova, a new recursive argument for proving incremental computations whose steps are expressed with CCS (Setty et al. ePrint 2023/552), a customizable constraint system that simultaneously generalizes Plonkish, R1CS, and AIR without overheads. HyperNova makes four contributions, each resolving a major problem in the area of recursive arguments. First, it provides a folding scheme for CCS where the prover’s cryptographic cost is a single multi-scalar multiplication (MSM) of size equal to the number of variables in the constraint system, which is optimal when using an MSM-based commitment scheme. The folding scheme can fold multiple instances at once, making it easier to build generalizations of IVC such as PCD. Second, when proving program executions on stateful machines (e.g., EVM, RISC-V), the cost of proving a step of a program is proportional only to the size of the circuit representing the instruction invoked by the program step ("a la carte" cost profile). Third, we show how to achieve zero-knowledge for "free" and without the need to employ zero-knowledge SNARKs: we use a folding scheme to "randomize" IVC proofs. This highlights a new application of folding schemes. Fourth, we show how to efficiently instantiate HyperNova over a cycle of elliptic curves. For this, we provide a general technique, which we refer to as CycleFold, that applies to all modern folding-scheme-based recursive arguments.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Abuse-Resistant Location Tracking: Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Offline Finding Ecosystem
Harry Eldridge, Gabrielle Beck, Matthew Green, Nadia Heninger, and Abhishek Jain
Location tracking accessories (or "tracking tags") such as those sold by Apple, Samsung, and Tile, allow owners to track the location of their property via offline finding networks. The tracking protocols were designed to ensure that no entity (including the vendor) can use a tag's broadcasts to surveil its owner. These privacy guarantees, however, seem to be at odds with the phenomenon of $\textit{tracker-based stalking}$, where attackers use these very tags to monitor a target's movements. Numerous such criminal incidents have been reported, and in response, manufacturers have chosen to substantially weaken privacy guarantees in order to allow users to detect stalker tags. This compromise has been adopted in a recent IETF draft jointly proposed by Apple and Google. We put forth the notion of $\textit{abuse-resistant offline finding protocols}$ that aim to achieve a better balance between user privacy and stalker detection. We present an efficient protocol that achieves stalker detection under realistic conditions without sacrificing honest user privacy. At the heart of our result, and of independent interest, is a new notion of $\textit{multi-dealer secret sharing}$ which strengthens standard secret sharing with novel privacy and correctness guarantees. We show that this primitive can be instantiated efficiently on edge devices using variants of Interleaved Reed-Solomon codes combined with new lattice-based decoding algorithms.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Generalized class group actions on oriented elliptic curves with level structure
Sarah Arpin, Wouter Castryck, Jonathan Komada Eriksen, Gioella Lorenzon, and Frederik Vercauteren
We study a large family of generalized class groups of imaginary quadratic orders $O$ and prove that they act freely and (essentially) transitively on the set of primitively $O$-oriented elliptic curves over a field $k$ (assuming this set is non-empty) equipped with appropriate level structure. This extends, in several ways, a recent observation due to Galbraith, Perrin and Voloch for the ray class group. We show that this leads to a reinterpretation of the action of the class group of a suborder $O' \subseteq O$ on the set of $O'$-oriented elliptic curves, discuss several other examples, and briefly comment on the hardness of the corresponding vectorization problems.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Tight Time-Space Tradeoffs for the Decisional Diffie-Hellman Problem
Akshima, Tyler Besselman, Siyao Guo, Zhiye Xie, and Yuping Ye
In the (preprocessing) Decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) problem, we are given a cyclic group $G$ with a generator $g$ and a prime order $N$, and we want to prepare some advice of size $S$, such that we can efficiently distinguish $(g^{x},g^{y},g^{xy})$ from $(g^{x},g^{y},g^{z})$ in time $T$ for uniformly and independently chosen $x,y,z$ from $\mathbb{Z}_N$. This is a central cryptographic problem whose computational hardness underpins many widely deployed schemes, such as the Diffie–Hellman key exchange protocol. We prove that any generic preprocessing DDH algorithm (operating in any cyclic group) achieves advantage at most $O(ST^2 / N)$. This bound matches the best known attack up to poly-log factors, and confirms that DDH is as secure as the (seemingly harder) discrete logarithm problem against preprocessing attacks. Our result resolves an open question by Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan (EUROCRYPT 2018), who proved optimal bounds for many variants of discrete logarithm problems except DDH (with an $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{ST^2/N})$ bound). We obtain our results by adopting and refining the approach by Gravin, Guo, Kwok, Lu (SODA 2021) and by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). Along the way, we significantly simplified and extended the above techniques which may be of independent interest. The highlights of our techniques are as follows: (1) We obtain a simpler reduction from decisional problems against $S$-bit advice to their $S$-wise XOR lemmas against zero-advice, recovering the reduction by Gravin, Guo, Kwok and Lu (SODA 2021). (2) We show how to reduce generic hardness of decisional problems to their variants in the simpler hyperplane query model proposed by Yun (EUROCRYPT 2015). This is the first work analyzing a decisional problem in Yun's model, answering an open problem proposed by Auerbach, Hoffman, and Pascual-Perez (TCC 2023). (3) We prove an $S$-wise XOR lemma of DDH in Yun's model. As a corollary, we obtain the generic hardness of the $S$-XOR DDH problem.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Rudraksh: A compact and lightweight post-quantum key-encapsulation mechanism
Suparna Kundu, Archisman Ghosh, Angshuman Karmakar, Shreyas Sen, and Ingrid Verbauwhede
Resource-constrained devices such as wireless sensors and Internet of Things (IoT) devices have become ubiquitous in our digital ecosystem. These devices generate and handle a major part of our digital data. In the face of the impending threat of quantum computers on our public-key infrastructure, it is impossible to imagine the security and privacy of our digital world without integrating post-quantum cryptography (PQC) into these devices. Usually, due to the resource constraints of these devices, the cryptographic schemes in these devices have to operate with very small memory and consume very little power. Therefore, we must provide a lightweight implementation of existing PQC schemes by possibly trading off the efficiency. The other option that can potentially provide the most optimal result is by designing PQC schemes suitable for lightweight and low-power-consuming implementation. Unfortunately, the latter method has been largely ignored in PQC research. In this work, we first provide a lightweight CCA-secure PQ key-encapsulation mechanism (KEM) design based on hard lattice problems. We have done a scrupulous and extensive analysis and evaluation of different design elements, such as polynomial size, field modulus structure, reduction algorithm, secret and error distribution, etc., of a lattice-based KEM. We have optimized each of them to obtain a lightweight design. Our design provides a $100$ bit of PQ security and shows $\sim3$x improvement in terms of area with respect to the state-of-the-art Kyber KEM, a PQ standard.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Attacking Tropical Stickel Protocol by MILP and Heuristic Optimization Techniques
Sulaiman Alhussaini and Serge˘ı Sergeev
Known attacks on the tropical implementation of Stickel protocol involve solving a minimal covering problem, and this leads to an exponential growth in the time required to recover the secret key as the used polynomial degree increases. Consequently, it can be argued that Alice and Bob can still securely execute the protocol by utilizing very high polynomial degrees, a feasible approach due to the efficiency of tropical operations. The same is true for the implementation of Stickel protocol over some other semirings with idempotent addition (such as the max-min or fuzzy semiring). In this paper, we propose alternative methods to attacking Stickel protocol that avoid this minimal covering problem and the associated exponential time complexity. These methods involve framing the attacks as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) problem or applying certain global optimization techniques.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Shared-Custodial Password-Authenticated Deterministic Wallets
Poulami Das, Andreas Erwig, and Sebastian Faust
Cryptographic wallets are an essential tool in Blockchain networks to ensure the secure storage and maintenance of an user's cryptographic keys. Broadly, wallets can be divided into three categories, namely custodial, non-custodial, and shared-custodial wallets. The first two are centralized solutions, i.e., the wallet is operated by a single entity, which inherently introduces a single point of failure. Shared-custodial wallets, on the other hand, are maintained by two independent parties, e.g., the wallet user and a service provider, and hence avoid the single point of failure centralized solutions. Unfortunately, current shared-custodial wallets suffer from significant privacy issues. In our work, we introduce password-authenticated deterministic wallets (PADW), a novel and efficient shared-custodial wallet solution, which exhibits strong security and privacy guarantees. In a nutshell, in a PADW scheme, the secret key of the user is shared between the user and the server. In order to generate a signature, the user first authenticates itself to the server by providing a password and afterwards engages in an interactive signing protocol with the server. Security is guaranteed as long as at most one of the two parties is corrupted. Privacy, on the other hand, guarantees that a corrupted server cannot link a transaction to a particular user. We formally model the notion of PADW schemes and we give an instantiation from blind Schnorr signatures. Our construction allows for deterministic key derivation, a feature that is widely used in practice by existing wallet schemes, and it does not rely on any heavy cryptographic primitives. We prove our scheme secure against adaptive adversaries in the random oracle model and under standard assumptions. That is, our security proof only relies on the assumption that the Schnorr signature scheme is unforgeable and that a public key encryption scheme is CCA-secure.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
PathGES: An Efficient and Secure Graph Encryption Scheme for Shortest Path Queries
Francesca Falzon, Esha Ghosh, Kenneth G. Paterson, and Roberto Tamassia
The increasing importance of graph databases and cloud storage services prompts the study of private queries on graphs. We propose PathGES, a graph encryption scheme (GES) for single-pair shortest path queries. PathGES is efficient and mitigates the state-of-the-art attack by Falzon and Paterson (2022) on the GES by Ghosh, Kamara, and Tamassia (2021), while only incurring an additional logarithmic factor in storage overhead. PathGES leverages a novel data structure that minimizes leakage and server computation. We generalize what it means for one leakage function to leak less than another by defining a relation with respect to a family of query sequences and show that our scheme provably leaks less than the GKT scheme when all queries have been issued. We complement our security proof with a cryptanalysis that demonstrates an information-theoretic gap in the size of the query reconstruction space of our scheme as compared to the GKT scheme and provide concrete examples of the gap for several graph families. Our prototype implementation of PathGES is efficient in practice for real-world social network and geographic data sets. In comparison with the GKT scheme, PathGES has on average the same response size and up to 1.5$\times$ faster round-trip query time.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Time is not enough: Timing Leakage Analysis on Cryptographic Chips via Plaintext-Ciphertext Correlation in Non-timing Channel
Congming Wei, Guangze Hong, An Wang, Jing Wang, Shaofei Sun, Yaoling Ding, Liehuang Zhu, and Wenrui Ma
In side-channel testing, the standard timing analysis works when the vendor can provide a measurement to indicate the execution time of cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, we find that there exists timing leakage in power/electromagnetic channels, which is often ignored in traditional timing analysis. Hence a new method of timing analysis is proposed to deal with the case where execution time is not available. Different execution time leads to different execution intervals, affecting the locations of plaintext and ciphertext transmission. Our method detects timing leakage by studying changes in plaintext-ciphertext correlation when traces are aligned forward and backward. Experiments are then carried out on different cryptographic devices. Furthermore, we propose an improved timing analysis framework which gives appropriate methods for different scenarios.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
Expanding the Toolbox: Coercion and Vote-Selling at Vote-Casting Revisited
Tamara Finogina, Javier Herranz, and Peter B. Roenne
Coercion is a challenging and multi-faceted threat that prevents people from expressing their will freely. Similarly, vote-buying does to undermine the foundation of free democratic elections. These threats are especially dire for remote electronic voting, which relies on voters to express their political will freely but happens in an uncontrolled environment outside the polling station and the protection of the ballot booth. However, electronic voting in general, both in-booth and remote, faces a major challenge, namely to ensure that voters can verify that their intent is captured correctly without providing a receipt of the cast vote to the coercer or vote buyer. Even though there are known techniques to resist or partially mitigate coercion and vote-buying, we explicitly demonstrate that they generally underestimate the power of malicious actors by not accounting for current technological tools that could support coercion and vote-selling. In this paper, we give several examples of how a coercer can force voters to comply with his demands or how voters can prove how they voted. To do so, we use tools like blockchains, delay encryption, privacy-preserving smart contracts, or trusted hardware. Since some of the successful coercion attacks occur on voting schemes that were supposed/claimed/proven to be coercion-resistant or receipt-free, the main conclusion of this work is that the coercion models should be re-evaluated, and new definitions of coercion and receipt-freeness are necessary. We propose such new definitions as part of this paper and investigate their implications.
Last updated:  2024-07-19
On the Relationship between FuncCPA and FuncCPA+
Takumi Shinozaki, Keisuke Tanaka, Masayuki Tezuka, and Yusuke Yoshida
Akavia, Gentry, Halevi, and Vald introduced the security notion of function-chosen-plaintext-attack (FuncCPA security) for public-key encryption schemes. FuncCPA is defined by adding a functional re-encryption oracle to the IND-CPA game. This notion is crucial for secure computation applications where the server is allowed to delegate a part of the computation to the client. Dodis, Halevi, and Wichs introduced a stronger variant called FuncCPA$^+$. They showed FuncCPA$^+$ implies FuncCPA and conjectured that FuncCPA$^+$ is strictly stronger than FuncCPA. They left an open problem to clarify the relationship between these variants. Contrary to their conjecture, we show that FuncCPA is equivalent to FuncCPA$^+$. We show it by two proofs with a trade-off between the number of queries and the number of function inputs. Furthermore, we show these parameters determine the security levels of FuncCPA and FuncCPA$^+$.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
Respire: High-Rate PIR for Databases with Small Records
Alexander Burton, Samir Jordan Menon, and David J. Wu
Private information retrieval (PIR) is a key building block in many privacy-preserving systems, and recent works have made significant progress on reducing the concrete computational costs of single-server PIR. However, existing constructions have high communication overhead, especially for databases with small records. In this work, we introduce Respire, a lattice-based PIR scheme tailored for databases of small records. To retrieve a single record from a database with over a million 256-byte records, the Respire protocol requires just 6.1 KB of online communication; this is a 5.9x reduction compared to the best previous lattice-based scheme. Moreover, Respire naturally extends to support batch queries. Compared to previous communication-efficient batch PIR schemes, Respire achieves a 3.4-7.1x reduction in total communication while maintaining comparable throughput (200-400 MB/s). The design of Respire relies on new query compression and response packing techniques based on ring switching in homomorphic encryption.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
A Crack in the Firmament: Restoring Soundness of the Orion Proof System and More
Thomas den Hollander and Daniel Slamanig
Orion (Xie et al. CRYPTO'22) is a recent plausibly post-quantum zero-knowledge argument system with a linear time prover. It improves over Brakedown (Golovnev et al. ePrint'21 and CRYPTO'23) by reducing proof size and verifier complexity to be polylogarithmic and additionally adds the zero-knowledge property. The argument system is demonstrated to be concretely efficient with a prover time being the fastest among all existing succinct proof systems and a proof size that is an order of magnitude smaller than Brakedown. Since its publication in CRYPTO 2022, two revisions have been made to the zk-SNARK. First, there was an issue with how zero-knowledge was handled. Second, Orion was discovered to be unsound, which was then repaired through the use of a commit-and-prove SNARK as an ``outer'' SNARK. As we will show in this paper, unfortunately, Orion in its current revision is still unsound (with and without the zero-knowledge property) and we will demonstrate practical attacks on it. We then show how to repair Orion without additional assumptions, which requies non-trivial fixes when aiming to preserve the linear time prover complexity. The proposed fixes lead to an even improved efficiency, i.e., smaller proof size and verifier time, over the claimed efficiency of the initial version of Orion. Moreover, we provide the first rigorous security proofs and explicitly consider multi-point openings and non-interactivity. While revisiting Orion we make some additional contributions which might be of independent interest, most notable an improved code randomization technique that retains the minimum relative distance.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
Efficient Threshold FHE for Privacy-Preserving Applications
Siddhartha Chowdhury, Sayani Sinha, Animesh Singh, Shubham Mishra, Chandan Chaudhary, Sikhar Patranabis, Pratyay Mukherjee, Ayantika Chatterjee, and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Threshold Fully Homomorphic Encryption (ThFHE) enables arbitrary computation over encrypted data while keeping the decryption key distributed across multiple parties at all times. ThFHE is a key enabler for threshold cryptography and, more generally, secure distributed computing. Existing ThFHE schemes relying on standard hardness assumptions, inherently require highly inefficient parameters and are unsuitable for practical deployment. In this paper, we take a novel approach towards making ThFHE practically usable by (i) proposing an efficient ThFHE scheme with a new analysis resulting in significantly improved parameters; (ii) and providing the first practical ThFHE implementation benchmark based on Torus FHE. • We propose the first practical ThFHE scheme with a polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio that supports practically efficient parameters while retaining provable security based on standard quantum-safe assumptions. We achieve this via R ́enyi divergence-based security analysis of our proposed threshold decryption mechanism. • We present a prototype software implementation of our proposed ThFHE scheme that builds upon the existing Torus-FHE library and supports (distributed) decryption on highly resource-constrained ARM-based handheld devices. Along the way, we implement several extensions to the Torus FHE library, including a Torus-based linear integer secret sharing subroutine to support ThFHE key sharing and distributed decryption for any threshold access structure. We illustrate the efficacy of our proposal via an end-to-end use case involving encrypted computations over a real medical database and distributed decryptions of the computed result on resource-constrained ARM-based handheld devices.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
On the Number of Restricted Solutions to Constrained Systems and their Applications
Benoît Cogliati, Jordan Ethan, Ashwin Jha, Mridul Nandi, and Abishanka Saha
In this paper, we formulate a special class of systems of linear equations over finite fields and derive lower bounds on the number of solutions adhering to some predefined restrictions. We then demonstrate the applications of these lower bounds to derive tight PRF security (up to $2^{3n/4}$ queries) for single-keyed variants of the Double-block Hash-then-Sum (DBHtS) paradigm, specifically PMAC+ and LightMAC+. Additionally, we show that the sum of $r$ independent copies of the Even-Mansour cipher is a secure PRF up to $2^{\frac{r}{r+1}n}$ queries.
Last updated:  2024-07-18
Quantum One-Wayness of the Single-Round Sponge with Invertible Permutations
Joseph Carolan and Alexander Poremba
Sponge hashing is a widely used class of cryptographic hash algorithms which underlies the current international hash function standard SHA-3. In a nutshell, a sponge function takes as input a bit-stream of any length and processes it via a simple iterative procedure: it repeatedly feeds each block of the input into a so-called block function, and then produces a digest by once again iterating the block function on the final output bits. While much is known about the post-quantum security of the sponge construction when the block function is modeled as a random function or one-way permutation, the case of invertible permutations, which more accurately models the construction underlying SHA-3, has so far remained a fundamental open problem. In this work, we make new progress towards overcoming this barrier and show several results. First, we prove the ``double-sided zero-search'' conjecture proposed by Unruh (eprint' 2021) and show that finding zero-pairs in a random $2n$-bit permutation requires at least $\Omega(2^{n/2})$ many queries---and this is tight due to Grover's algorithm. At the core of our proof lies a novel ``symmetrization argument'' which uses insights from the theory of Young subgroups. Second, we consider more general variants of the double-sided search problem and show similar query lower bounds for them. As an application, we prove the quantum one-wayness of the single-round sponge with invertible permutations in the quantum random oracle model.
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.