Papers updated in last 7 days (55 results)

Last updated:  2023-12-03
A Novel CCA Attack for NTRU+ KEM
Joohee Lee, Minju Lee, Hansol Ryu, and Jaehui Park
The KpqC competition has begun in 2022, that aims to standardize Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) in the Republic of Korea. Among the 16 submissions of the KpqC competition, the lattice-based schemes exhibit the most promising and balanced features in performance. In this paper, we propose an effective classical CCA attack to recover the transmitted session key for NTRU+, one of the lattice-based Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEM) proposed in the KpqC competition, for the first time. With the proposed attacks, we show that all the suggested parameters of NTRU+ do not satisfy the claimed security. We also suggest a way to modify the NTRU+ scheme to defend our attack.
Last updated:  2023-12-02
Quantifying risks in cryptographic selection processes
Daniel J. Bernstein
There appears to be a widespread belief that some processes of selecting cryptosystems are less risky than other processes. As a case study of quantifying the difference in risks, this paper compares the currently-known-failure rates of three large groups of cryptosystems: (1) the round-1 submissions to the NIST Post-Quantum Cryptography Standardization Project, (2) the round-1 submissions not broken by the end of round 1, and (3) the round-1 submissions selected by NIST for round 2 of the same project. These groups of cryptosystems turn out to have currently-known-failure rates that are strikingly high, and that include statistically significant differences across the groups, not matching the pattern of differences that one might expect. Readers are cautioned that the actual failure rates could be much higher than the currently-known-failure rates.
Last updated:  2023-12-02
Some remarks on how to hash faster onto elliptic curves
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article proposes four optimizations of indifferentiable hashing onto (prime-order subgroups of) ordinary elliptic curves over finite fields $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$. One of them is dedicated to elliptic curves $E$ without non-trivial automorphisms provided that $q \equiv 2 \ (\mathrm{mod} \ 3)$. The second deals with $q \equiv 2, 4 \ (\mathrm{mod} \ 7)$ and an elliptic curve $E_7$ of $j$-invariant $-3^3 5^3$. The corresponding section plays a rather theoretical role, because (the quadratic twist of) $E_7$ is not used in real-world cryptography. The other two optimizations take place for the subgroups $\mathbb{G}_1$, $\mathbb{G}_2$ of pairing-friendly curves. The performance gain comes from the smaller number of required exponentiations in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ for hashing to $E(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$, $E_7(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$, and $\mathbb{G}_2$ as well as from the absence of necessity to hash directly onto $\mathbb{G}_1$ in certain settings. In particular, the last insight allows to drastically speed up verification of the aggregate BLS signature incorporated in many blockchain technologies. The new results affect, for example, the pairing-friendly curve BLS12-381 (the most popular in practice at the moment) and a few plain curves from the American standard NIST SP 800-186. Among other things, a taxonomy of state-of-the-art hash functions to elliptic curves is presented. Finally, the article discusses how to hash over highly $2$-adic fields $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$.
Last updated:  2023-12-02
There Is Always a Way Out! Destruction-Resistant Key Management: Formal Definition and Practical Instantiation
Yuan Zhang, Yaqing Song, Shiyu Li, Weijia Li, Zeqi Lai, and Qiang Tang
A central advantage of deploying cryptosystems is that the security of large high-sensitive data sets can be reduced to the security of a very small key. The most popular way to manage keys is to use a $(t,n)-$threshold secret sharing scheme: a user splits her/his key into $n$ shares, distributes them among $n$ key servers, and can recover the key with the aid of any $t$ of them. However, it is vulnerable to device destruction: if all key servers and user's devices break down, the key will be permanently lost. We propose a $\mathrm{\underline{D}}$estruction-$\mathrm{\underline{R}}$esistant $\mathrm{\underline{K}}$ey $\mathrm{\underline{M}}$anagement scheme, dubbed DRKM, which ensures the key availability even if destruction occurs. In DRKM, a user utilizes her/his $n^{*}$ personal identification factors (PIFs) to derive a cryptographic key but can retrieve the key using any $t^{*}$ of the $n^{*}$ PIFs. As most PIFs can be retrieved by the user $\textit{per se}$ without requiring $\textit{stateful}$ devices, destruction resistance is achieved. With the integration of a $(t,n)-$threshold secret sharing scheme, DRKM also provides $\textit{portable}$ key access for the user (with the aid of any $t$ of $n$ key servers) before destruction occurs. DRKM can be utilized to construct a destruction-resistant cryptosystem (DRC) in tandem with any backup system. We formally prove the security of DRKM, implement a DRKM prototype, and conduct a comprehensive performance evaluation to demonstrate its high efficiency. We further utilize Cramer's Rule to reduce the required buffer to retrieve a key from 25 MB to 40 KB (for 256-bit security).
Last updated:  2023-12-02
Hidden Stream Ciphers and TMTO Attacks on TLS 1.3, DTLS 1.3, QUIC, and Signal
John Preuß Mattsson
Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.3 and the Signal protocol are very important and widely used security protocols. We show that the key update function in TLS 1.3 and the symmetric key ratchet in Signal can be modeled as non-additive synchronous stream ciphers. This means that the efficient Time Memory Tradeoff Attacks for stream ciphers can be applied. The implication is that TLS 1.3, QUIC, DTLS 1.3, and Signal offer a lower security level against TMTO attacks than expected from the key sizes. We provide detailed analyses of the key update mechanisms in TLS 1.3 and Signal, illustrate the importance of ephemeral key exchange, and show that the process that DTLS 1.3 and QUIC use to calculate AEAD limits is flawed. We provide many concrete recommendations for the analyzed protocols.
Last updated:  2023-12-02
Rectangular Attack on VOX
Gilles Macario-Rat, Jacques Patarin, Benoit Cogliati, Jean-Charles Faugère, Pierre-Alain Fouque, Louis Gouin, Robin Larrieu, and Brice Minaud
VOX has been submitted to the NIST Round 1 Additional Signature of the Post-Quantum Signature Competition in June 2023. VOX is a strengthened variant of UOV which uses the Quotient-Ring (QR) setting to reduce the public-key size. At the end of August 2023, Furue and Ikamatsu posted on the NIST mailing-list a post, indicating that the parameters of VOX can be attacked efficiently using the rectangular attack in the QR setting. In this note, we explain the attack in the specific case of VOX, we detail the complexity, and show that as Furue and Ikematsu indicated, the attack can be completely avoided by adding one more constraint on the parameter selection. Finally, we show that this constraint does not increase the sizes of the public keys or signature.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Fast batched asynchronous distributed key generation
Jens Groth and Victor Shoup
We present new protocols for threshold Schnorr signatures that work in an asynchronous communication setting, providing robustness and optimal resilience. These protocols provide unprecedented performance in terms of communication and computational complexity. In terms of communication complexity, for each signature, a single party must transmit a few dozen group elements and scalars across the network (independent of the size of the signing committee). In terms of computational complexity, the amortized cost for one party to generate a signature is actually less than that of just running the standard Schnorr signing or verification algorithm (at least for moderately sized signing committees, say, up to 100). For example, we estimate that with a signing committee of 49 parties, at most 16 of which are corrupt, we can generate 50,000 Schnorr signatures per second (assuming each party can dedicate one standard CPU core and 500Mbs of network bandwidth to signing). Importantly, this estimate includes both the cost of an offline precomputation phase (which just churns out message independent "presignatures") and an online signature generation phase. Also, the online signing phase can generate a signature with very little network latency (just one to three rounds, depending on how throughput and latency are balanced). To achieve this result, we provide two new innovations. One is a new secret sharing protocol (again, asynchronous, robust, optimally resilient) that allows the dealer to securely distribute shares of a large batch of ephemeral secret keys, and to publish the corresponding ephemeral public keys. To achieve better performance, our protocol minimizes public-key operations, and in particular, is based on a novel technique that does not use the traditional technique based on "polynomial commitments". The second innovation is a new algorithm to efficiently combine ephemeral public keys contributed by different parties (some possibly corrupt) into a smaller number of secure ephemeral public keys. This new algorithm is based on a novel construction of a so-called "super-invertible matrix" along with a corresponding highly-efficient algorithm for multiplying this matrix by a vector of group elements. As protocols for verifiably sharing a secret key with an associated public key and the technology of super-invertible matrices both play a major role in threshold cryptography and multi-party computation, our two new innovations should have applicability well beyond that of threshold Schnorr signatures.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Succinct Arguments over Towers of Binary Fields
Benjamin E. Diamond and Jim Posen
We introduce an efficient SNARK for towers of binary fields. Adapting Brakedown (CRYPTO '23), we construct a multilinear polynomial commitment scheme suitable for polynomials over tiny fields, including that with 2 elements. Our commitment scheme, unlike those of previous works, treats small-field polynomials with zero embedding overhead. We further introduce binary-field adaptations of HyperPlonk's (EUROCRYPT '23) product and permutation checks, as well as of Lasso's lookup. Our scheme's binary PLONKish variant captures standard hash functions—like Keccak-256 and Grøstl—extremely efficiently. With recourse to thorough performance benchmarks, we argue that our scheme can efficiently generate precisely those Keccak-256-proofs which critically underlie modern efforts to scale Ethereum.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Arke: Scalable and Byzantine Fault Tolerant Privacy-Preserving Contact Discovery
Nicolas Mohnblatt, Alberto Sonnino, Kobi Gurkan, and Philipp Jovanovic
Contact discovery is a crucial component of social applications, facilitating interactions between registered contacts. This work introduces Arke, a novel approach to contact discovery that addresses the limitations of existing solutions in terms of privacy, scalability, and reliance on trusted third parties. Arke ensures the unlinkability of user interactions, mitigates enumeration attacks, and operates without single points of failure or trust. Notably, Arke is the first contact discovery system whose performance is independent of the total number of users and the first that can operate in a Byzantine setting. It achieves its privacy goals through an unlinkable handshake mechanism built on top of an identity-based non-interactive key exchange. By leveraging a custom distributed architecture, Arke forgoes the expense of consensus to achieve scalability while maintaining consistency in a Byzantine fault tolerant environment. Performance evaluations demonstrate that Arke can support enough throughput to operate at a planetary scale while maintaining sub-second latencies in a large geo-distributed setting.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
DY Fuzzing: Formal Dolev-Yao Models Meet Cryptographic Protocol Fuzz Testing
Max Ammann, Lucca Hirschi, and Steve Kremer
Critical and widely used cryptographic protocols have repeatedly been found to contain flaws in their design and their implementation. A prominent class of such vulnerabilities is logical attacks, e.g. attacks that exploit flawed protocol logic. Automated formal verification methods, based on the Dolev-Yao (DY) attacker, formally define and excel at finding such flaws, but operate only on abstract specification models. Fully automated verification of existing protocol implementations is today still out of reach. This leaves open whether such implementations are secure. Unfortunately, this blind spot hides numerous attacks, such as recent logical attacks on widely used TLS implementations introduced by implementation bugs. We answer by proposing a novel and effective technique that we call DY model-guided fuzzing, which precludes logical attacks against protocol implementations. The main idea is to consider as possible test cases the set of abstract DY executions of the DY attacker, and use a novel mutation-based fuzzer to explore this set. The DY fuzzer concretizes each abstract execution to test it on the program under test. This approach enables reasoning at a more structural and security-related level of messages represented as formal terms (e.g. decrypt a message and re-encrypt it with a different key) as opposed to random bit-level modifications that are much less likely to produce relevant logical adversarial behaviors. We implement a full-fledged and modular DY protocol fuzzer. We demonstrate its effectiveness by fuzzing three popular TLS implementations, resulting in the discovery of four novel vulnerabilities.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Learning with Errors over Group Rings Constructed by Semi-direct Product
Jiaqi Liu and Fang-Wei Fu
The Learning with Errors (LWE) problem has been widely utilized as a foundation for numerous cryptographic tools over the years. In this study, we focus on an algebraic variant of the LWE problem called Group ring LWE (GR-LWE). We select group rings (or their direct summands) that underlie specific families of finite groups constructed by taking the semi-direct product of two cyclic groups. Unlike the Ring-LWE problem described in \cite{lyubashevsky2010ideal}, the multiplication operation in the group rings considered here is non-commutative. As an extension of Ring-LWE, it maintains computational hardness and can be potentially applied in many cryptographic scenarios. In this paper, we present two polynomial-time quantum reductions. Firstly, we provide a quantum reduction from the worst-case shortest independent vectors problem (SIVP) in ideal lattices with polynomial approximate factor to the search version of GR-LWE. This reduction requires that the underlying group ring possesses certain mild properties; Secondly, we present another quantum reduction for two types of group rings, where the worst-case SIVP problem is directly reduced to the (average-case) decision GR-LWE problem. The pseudorandomness of GR-LWE samples guaranteed by this reduction can be consequently leveraged to construct semantically secure public-key cryptosystems.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Leverage Staking with Liquid Staking Derivatives (LSDs): Opportunities and Risks
Xihan Xiong, Zhipeng Wang, Xi Chen, William Knottenbelt, and Michael Huth
Lido, the leading Liquidity Staking Derivative (LSD) provider on Ethereum, allows users to stake an arbitrary amount of ETH to receive stETH, which can be integrated with Decentralized Finance (DeFi) protocols such as Aave. The composability between Lido and Aave enables a novel strategy called “leverage staking”, where users stake ETH on Lido to acquire stETH, utilize stETH as collateral on Aave to borrow ETH, and then restake the borrowed ETH on Lido. Users can iteratively execute this process to optimize potential returns based on their risk profile. This paper systematically studies the opportunities and risks associated with leverage staking. We are the first to formalize the stETH-ETH leverage staking strategy within the Lido-Aave ecosystem. Our empirical study identifies 262 leverage staking positions on Ethereum, with an aggregated staking amount of 295,243 ETH (482M USD). We discover that 90.13% of leverage staking positions have achieved higher returns than conventional staking. Furthermore, we perform stress tests to evaluate the risk introduced by leverage staking under extreme conditions. We find that leverage staking significantly amplifies the risk of cascading liquidations. We hope this paper can inform and encourage the development of robust risk management approaches to protect the Lido-Aave LSD ecosystem.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Horst Meets Fluid-SPN: Griffin for Zero-Knowledge Applications
Lorenzo Grassi, Yonglin Hao, Christian Rechberger, Markus Schofnegger, Roman Walch, and Qingju Wang
Zero-knowledge (ZK) applications form a large group of use cases in modern cryptography, and recently gained in popularity due to novel proof systems. For many of these applications, cryptographic hash functions are used as the main building blocks, and they often dominate the overall performance and cost of these approaches. Therefore, in the last years several new hash functions were built in order to reduce the cost in these scenarios, including Poseidon and Rescue among others. These hash functions often look very different from more classical designs such as AES or SHA-2. For example, they work natively over prime fields rather than binary ones. At the same time, for example Poseidon and Rescue share some common features, such as being SPN schemes and instantiating the nonlinear layer with invertible power maps. While this allows the designers to provide simple and strong arguments for establishing their security, it also introduces crucial limitations in the design, which may affect the performance in the target applications. In this paper, we propose the Horst construction, in which the addition in a Feistel scheme (x, y) -> (y + F(x), x) is extended via a multiplication, i.e., (x, y) -> (y * G(x) + F(x), x). By carefully analyzing the performance metrics in SNARK and STARK protocols, we show how to combine an expanding Horst scheme with a Rescue-like SPN scheme in order to provide security and better efficiency in the target applications. We provide an extensive security analysis for our new design Griffin and a comparison with all current competitors.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Breach Extraction Attacks: Exposing and Addressing the Leakage in Second Generation Compromised Credential Checking Services
Dario Pasquini, Danilo Francati, Giuseppe Ateniese, and Evgenios M. Kornaropoulos
Credential tweaking attacks use breached passwords to generate semantically similar passwords and gain access to victims' services. These attacks sidestep the first generation of compromised credential checking (C3) services. The second generation of compromised credential checking services, called "Might I Get Pwned" (MIGP), is a privacy-preserving protocol that defends against credential tweaking attacks by allowing clients to query whether a password or a semantically similar variation is present in the server's compromised credentials dataset. The desired privacy requirements include not revealing the user's entered password to the server and ensuring that no compromised credentials are disclosed to the client. In this work, we formalize the cryptographic leakage of the MIGP protocol and perform a security analysis to assess its impact on the credentials held by the server. We focus on how this leakage aids breach extraction attacks, where an honest-but-curious client interacts with the server to extract information about the stored credentials. Furthermore, we discover additional leakage that arises from the implementation of Cloudflare's deployment of MIGP. We evaluate how the discovered leakage affects the guessing capability of an attacker in relation to breach extraction attacks. Finally, we propose MIGP 2.0, a new iteration of the MIGP protocol designed to minimize data leakage and prevent the introduced attacks.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
HashRand: Efficient Asynchronous Random Beacon without Threshold Cryptographic Setup
Akhil Bandarupalli, Adithya Bhat, Saurabh Bagchi, Aniket Kate, and Michael Reiter
Regular access to unpredictable and bias-resistant randomness is important for applications such as blockchains, voting, and secure distributed computing. Distributed random beacon protocols address this need by distributing trust across multiple nodes, with the majority of them assumed to be honest. These protocols have found applications in blockchain technology, leading to the proposal of several distributed random beacon protocols, with some already implemented. However, many current random beacon systems rely on threshold cryptographic setups or exhibit high computational costs, while others assume partial or bounded synchronous networks. To overcome these limitations, we propose HashRand, a computation and communication-efficient asynchronous random beacon protocol that uses a secure Hash function to generate beacons and pairwise secure channels. HashRand has a per-node communication complexity of $\mathcal{O}(\lambda n \log(n))$ bits per beacon. The computational efficiency of HashRand is attributed to the two orders of magnitude lower time of a one-way Hash computation compared to discrete log exponentiation. Interestingly, besides reduced overhead, HashRand achieves Post-Quantum security by leveraging the secure Hash function against quantum adversaries, setting it apart from other random beacon protocols that use discrete log cryptography. In a geo-distributed testbed of $n=160$ nodes, HashRand produces 1 beacon every second, which is at least 4x higher than Spurt. We also demonstrate the practical utility of HashRand by implementing a Post-Quantum secure Asynchronous SMR protocol, which has a response rate of over 122k txns per second over a WAN at $n=40$ nodes.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
End-to-End Encrypted Zoom Meetings: Proving Security and Strengthening Liveness
Yevgeniy Dodis, Daniel Jost, Balachandar Kesavan, and Antonio Marcedone
In May 2020, Zoom Video Communications, Inc. (Zoom) announced a multi-step plan to comprehensively support end-to-end encrypted (E2EE) group video calls and subsequently rolled out basic E2EE support to customers in October 2020. In this work we provide the first formal security analysis of Zoom's E2EE protocol, and also lay foundation to the general problem of E2EE group video communication. We observe that the vast security literature analyzing asynchronous messaging does not translate well to synchronous video calls. Namely, while strong forms of forward secrecy and post compromise security are less important for (typically short-lived) video calls, various liveness properties become crucial. For example, mandating that participants quickly learn of updates to the meeting roster and key, media streams being displayed are recent, and banned participants promptly lose any access to the meeting. Our main results are as follows: 1. Propose a new notion of leader-based continuous group key agreement with liveness, which accurately captures the E2EE properties specific to the synchronous communication scenario. 2. Prove security of the core of Zoom's E2EE meetings protocol in the above well-defined model. 3. Propose ways to strengthen Zoom's liveness properties by simple modifications to the original protocol, which subsequently influenced updates implemented in production.
Last updated:  2023-12-01
Lattice-based Programmable Hash Functions and Applications
Jiang Zhang, Yu Chen, and Zhenfeng Zhang
Driven by the open problem raised by Hofheinz and Kiltz (Journal of Cryptology, 2012), we study the formalization of lattice-based programmable hash function (PHF), and give three types of concrete constructions by using several techniques such as a novel combination of cover-free sets and lattice trapdoors. Under the Inhomogeneous Small Integer Solution (ISIS) assumption, we show that any (non-trivial) lattice-based PHF is a collision-resistant hash function, which gives a direct application of this new primitive. We further demonstrate the power of lattice-based PHF by giving generic constructions of signature and identity-based encryption (IBE) in the standard model, which not only provide a way to unify several previous lattice-based schemes using the partitioning proof techniques, but also allow us to obtain new short signature schemes and IBE schemes from (ideal) lattices. Specifically, by instantiating the generic constructions with our Type-II and Type-III PHF constructions, we immediately obtain two short signatures and two IBE schemes with asymptotically much shorter keys. A major downside which inherits from our Type-II and Type-III PHF constructions is that we can only prove the security of the new signatures and IBEs in the bounded security model that the number Q of the adversary’s queries is required to be known in advance. Another downside is that the computational time of our new signatures and IBEs is a linear function of Q, which is large for typical parameters. To overcome the above limitations, we also give a refined way of using Type-II and Type-III PHFs to construct lattice-based short signatures with short verification keys in the full security model. In particular, our methods depart from the confined guessing technique of B¨ohl et al. (Eurocrypt’13) that was used to construct previous standard model short signature schemes with short verification keys by Ducas and Micciancio (Crypto’14) and by Alperin-Sheriff (PKC’15), and allow us to achieve much tighter security from weaker hardness assumptions.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Cycle Structure and Observability of Two Types of Galois NFSRs
Xianghan Wang, Jianghua Zhong, and Dongdai Lin
Nonlinear feedback shift registers (NFSRs) are used in many stream ciphers as their main building blocks. One security criterion for the design of a stream cipher is to assure its keystream has a long period. To meet this criterion, the NFSR used in a stream cipher must have a long state cycle. Further, to simultaneously avoid equivalent keys, the keystream's period is not compressed compared to the NFSR's state cycle length, which can be guaranteed if the NFSR is observable in the sense that any two distinct initial states are distinguishable from their resulting output sequences. The cycle structure of a general NFSR remains an open hard problem. Constructing Fibonacci NFSRs with maximum state cycles has therefore attracted much attention, but so far such Fibonacci NFSRs with known feedback functions have been found only for their stage numbers no greater than 33. Considering that Galois NFSRs may decrease the area and increase the throughput compared to Fibonacci NFSRs, this paper studies two types of $n$-stage Galois NFSRs, whose state transition matrices are circulant matrices with only one nonzero element of 1 in each column. The cycle structure and observability of both types are disclosed using the semi-tensor product based Boolean network approach. In the first type, each Galois NFSR has the state transition matrix, in which the position of the element 1 in the first column is even. It has the maximum state cycle with an arbitrary stage number and an explicit feedback functions. It is observable if and only if its output function is dependent on the first state bit. In the second type, each Galois NFSR has the state transition matrix, in which the position of the element 1 in the first column is $2^m+1$ with positive integer $m\leq n-1$ for the NFSR's stage number $n$. It has $2^m$ cycles of length $2^{n-m}$, and it is observable if its output function is dependent on all the state bits whose indices are no smaller than $n-m+1$.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
New Security Proofs and Complexity Records for Advanced Encryption Standard
Orhun Kara
Common block ciphers like AES specified by the NIST or KASUMI (A5/3) of GSM are extensively utilized by billions of individuals globally to protect their privacy and maintain confidentiality in daily communications. However, these ciphers lack comprehensive security proofs against the vast majority of known attacks. Currently, security proofs are limited to differential and linear attacks for both AES and KASUMI. For instance, the consensus on the security of AES is not based on formal mathematical proofs but on intensive cryptanalysis over its reduced rounds spanning several decades. In this work, we introduce new security proofs for AES against another attack method: impossible differential (ID) attacks. We classify ID attacks as reciprocal and nonreciprocal ID attacks. We show that sharp and generic lower bounds can be imposed on the data complexities of reciprocal ID attacks on substitution permutation networks. We prove that the minimum data required for a reciprocal ID attack on AES using a conventional ID characteristic is $2^{66}$ chosen plaintexts whereas a nonreciprocal ID attack involves at least $2^{88}$ computational steps. We mount a nonreciprocal ID attack on 6-round AES for 192-bit and 256-bit keys, which requires only $2^{18}$ chosen plaintexts and outperforms the data complexity of any attack. Given its marginal time complexity, this attack does not pose a substantial threat to the security of AES. However, we have made enhancements to the integral attack on 6-round AES, thereby surpassing the longstanding record for the most efficient attack after a period of 23 years.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Efficient Issuer-Hiding Authentication, Application to Anonymous Credential
Olivier Sanders and Jacques Traoré
Anonymous credentials are cryptographic mechanisms enabling users to authenticate themselves with a fine-grained control on the information they leak in the process. They have been the topic of countless papers which have improved the performance of such mechanisms or proposed new schemes able to prove ever-more complex statements about the attributes certified by those credentials. However, whereas these papers have studied in depth the problem of the information leaked by the credential and/or the attributes, almost all of them have surprisingly overlooked the information one may infer from the knowledge of the credential issuer. In this paper we address this problem by showing how one can efficiently hide the actual issuer of a credential within a set of potential issuers. The novelty of our work is that we do not resort to zero-knowledge proofs but instead we show how one can tweak Pointcheval-Sanders signatures to achieve this issuer-hiding property at a very low cost. This results in an efficient anonymous credential system that indeed provide a complete control of the information leaked in the authentication process. Our construction is moreover modular and can then fit a wide spectrum of applications, notably for Self-Sovereign Identity (SSI) systems.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Decentralized Finance (DeFi): A Survey
Erya Jiang, Bo Qin, Qin Wang, Zhipeng Wang, Qianhong Wu, Jian Weng, Xinyu Li, Chenyang Wang, Yuhang Ding, and Yanran Zhang
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is a new paradigm in the creation, distribution, and utilization of financial services via the integration of blockchain technology. Our research conducts a comprehensive introduction and meticulous classification of various DeFi applications. Beyond that, we thoroughly analyze these risks from both technical and economic perspectives, spanning multiple layers. We point out research gaps and revenues, covering technical advancements, innovative economics, and sociology and ecology optimization.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Unconditionally Secure Commitments with Quantum Auxiliary Inputs
Tomoyuki Morimae, Barak Nehoran, and Takashi Yamakawa
We show the following unconditional results on quantum commitments in two related yet different models: 1. We revisit the notion of quantum auxiliary-input commitments introduced by Chailloux, Kerenidis, and Rosgen (Comput. Complex. 2016) where both the committer and receiver take the same quantum state, which is determined by the security parameter, as quantum auxiliary inputs. We show that computationally-hiding and statistically-binding quantum auxiliary-input commitments exist unconditionally, i.e., without relying on any unproven assumption, while Chailloux et al. assumed a complexity-theoretic assumption, ${\bf QIP}\not\subseteq{\bf QMA}$. On the other hand, we observe that achieving both statistical hiding and statistical binding at the same time is impossible even in the quantum auxiliary-input setting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of unconditionally proving computational security of any form of (classical or quantum) commitments for which statistical security is impossible. As intermediate steps toward our construction, we introduce and unconditionally construct post-quantum sparse pseudorandom distributions and quantum auxiliary-input EFI pairs which may be of independent interest. 2. We introduce a new model which we call the common reference quantum state (CRQS) model where both the committer and receiver take the same quantum state that is randomly sampled by an efficient setup algorithm. We unconditionally prove that there exist statistically hiding and statistically binding commitments in the CRQS model, circumventing the impossibility in the plain model. We also discuss their applications to zero-knowledge proofs, oblivious transfers, and multi-party computations.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Zero-day vulnerability prevention with recursive feature elimination and ensemble learning
Mike Nkongolo Wa Nkongolo
This study focuses on spotting and stopping new types of online threats by improving the UGRansome dataset to detect unusual activity in real-time. By blending different machine learning methods, like naïve tree-based ensemble learning and recursive feature elimination (RFE), the research achieves a high accuracy rate of 97%. Naïve Bayes (NB) stands out as the most effective classifier. The suggested setup, combining gradient boosting (GB) and random forest (RF) with NB, effectively identifies and prevents unknown vulnerabilities in computer systems. UGRansome successfully blocks over 100 kilobits per second (kbps) of harmful online traffic by using details pinpointed by the RFE method, specifically uniform resource locators (URLs). This outperforms existing Intrusion Detection System (IDS) datasets. It's particularly good at stopping secure shell attacks, proving the dataset's usefulness in making networks safer. This research marks significant progress in detecting intrusions. The NB model excels in accuracy, precision, and remembering patterns, especially in identifying new threats. Moreover, the suggested naïve tree-based ensemble model shows outstanding accuracy, standing out as the best-performing technique among all models studied. Applying the UGRansome properties-based rule noticeably changes how traffic is sorted, decreasing unknown traffic while increasing unclassified traffic, which requires more investigation.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Unclonable Cryptography with Unbounded Collusions
Alper Çakan and Vipul Goyal
Quantum no-cloning theorem gives rise to the intriguing possibility of quantum copy protection where we encode a program in a quantum state such that a user in possession of $k$ such states cannot create $k+1$ working copies. Introduced by Aaronson (CCC'09) over a decade ago, copy protection has proven to be notoriously hard to achieve. In this work, we construct public-key encryption and functional encryption schemes whose secret keys are copy-protected against unbounded collusions in the plain model (i.e. without any idealized oracles), assuming (post-quantum) subexponentially secure $\mathcal{iO}$, one-way functions and LWE. This resolves a long-standing open question of constructing fully collusion-resistant copy-protected functionalities raised by multiple previous works. Prior to our work, copy-protected functionalities were known only in restricted collusion models where either an a-priori bound on the collusion size was needed, in the plain model with the same assumptions as ours (Liu, Liu, Qian, Zhandry [TCC'22]), or adversary was only prevented from doubling their number of working programs, in a structured quantum oracle model (Aaronson [CCC'09]). We obtain our results through a novel technique which uses identity-based encryption to construct unbounded collusion resistant copy-protection schemes from $1\to2$ secure schemes. This is analogous to the technique of using digital signatures to construct full-fledged quantum money from single banknote schemes (Lutomirski et al. [ICS'09], Farhi et al. [ITCS'12], Aaronson and Christiano [STOC'12]). We believe our technique is of independent interest. Along the way, we also construct a puncturable functional encryption scheme whose master secret key can be punctured at all functions $f$ such that $f(m_0) \neq f(m_1)$. This might also be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Withdrawable Signature: How to Call off a Signature
Xin Liu, Joonsang Baek, and Willy Susilo
Digital signatures are a cornerstone of security and trust in cryptography, providing authenticity, integrity, and non-repudiation. Despite their benefits, traditional digital signature schemes suffer from inherent immutability, offering no provision for a signer to retract a previously issued signature. This paper introduces the concept of a withdrawable signature scheme, which allows for the retraction of a signature without revealing the signer's private key or compromising the security of other signatures the signer created before. This property, defined as ``withdrawability'', is particularly relevant in decentralized systems, such as e-voting, blockchain-based smart contracts, and escrow services, where signers may wish to revoke or alter their commitment. The core idea of our construction of a withdrawable signature scheme is to ensure that the parties with a withdrawable signature are not convinced whether the signer signed a specific message. This ability to generate a signature while preventing validity from being verified is a fundamental requirement of our scheme, epitomizing the property of \textit{withdrawability}. After formally defining security notions for withdrawable signatures, we present two constructions of the scheme based on the pairing and the discrete logarithm. We provide security proof that both constructions are unforgeable under insider corruption and satisfy the criteria of withdrawability. We anticipate our new type of signature will significantly enhance flexibility and security in digital transactions and communications.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Secret-Shared Shuffle with Malicious Security
Xiangfu Song, Dong Yin, Jianli Bai, Changyu Dong, and Ee-Chien Chang
A secret-shared shuffle (SSS) protocol permutes a secret-shared vector using a random secret permutation. It has found numerous applications, however, it is also an expensive operation and often a performance bottleneck. Chase et al. (Asiacrypt'20) recently proposed a highly efficient semi-honest two-party SSS protocol known as the CGP protocol. It utilizes purposely designed pseudorandom correlations that facilitate a communication-efficient online shuffle phase. That said, semi-honest security is insufficient in many real-world application scenarios since shuffle is usually used for highly sensitive applications. Considering this, recent works (CANS'21, NDSS'22) attempted to enhance the CGP protocol with malicious security over authenticated secret sharings. However, we find that these attempts are flawed, and malicious adversaries can still learn private information via malicious deviations. This is demonstrated with concrete attacks proposed in this paper. Then the question is how to fill the gap and design a maliciously secure CGP shuffle protocol. We answer this question by introducing a set of lightweight correlation checks and a leakage reduction mechanism. Then we apply our techniques with authenticated secret sharings to achieve malicious security. Notably, our protocol, while increasing security, is also efficient. In the two-party setting, experiment results show that our maliciously secure protocol introduces an acceptable overhead compared to its semi-honest version and is more efficient than the state-of-the-art maliciously secure SSS protocol from the MP-SPDZ library.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Unconditionally secure quantum commitments with preprocessing
Luowen Qian
We demonstrate how to build computationally secure commitment schemes with the aid of quantum auxiliary inputs without unproven complexity assumptions. Furthermore, the quantum auxiliary input can be prepared either (1) efficiently through a trusted setup similar to the classical common random string model, or (2) strictly between the two involved parties in uniform exponential time. Classically this remains impossible without first proving $\mathsf{P} \neq \mathsf{NP}$.
Last updated:  2023-11-30
Ring-LWE Hardness Based on Ideals of Hidden Orders of Number Fields
Charanjit S Jutla and Chengyu Lin
We extend the known pseudorandomness of Ring-LWE to be based on lattices that do not correspond to any ideal of any order in the underlying number field. In earlier works of Lyubashevsky et al (EUROCRYPT 2010) and Peikert et al (STOC 2017), the hardness of RLWE was based on ideal lattices of ring of integers of number fields, which are known to be Dedekind domains. While these works extended Regev's (STOC 2005) quantum polynomial-time reduction for LWE, thus allowing more efficient and more structured cryptosystems, the additional algebraic structure of ideals of Dedekind domains leaves open the possibility that such ideal lattices are not as hard as general lattices. In this work we show that hardness of $q$-Ring-LWE can be based on worst-case hardness of ideal lattices in arbitrary orders $O$, as long as the order $O$ satisfies the property that $\frac{1}{m}\cdot O$ contains the ring of integers, for some $m$ co-prime to $q$. Further, the hard lattice problems need not be given the order $O$ itself as input. The reduction requires that the noise be a factor $m$ more than the original Ring-LWE reduction. We also show that for the power-of-two cyclotomic number fields, there exist orders with $m=4$ such that non-trivial ideals of the order, which are not contained in the conductor, are non-invertible. Another reduction shows that hardness of $q$-Ring-LWE can be based on worst-case hardness of lattices that correspond to sum of ideal-lattices in arbitrary and different orders in the number field, as long as the (set of) orders $\{O_i\}$ satisfy the property that $\frac{1}{m}\cdot O_i$ contains the ring of integers, for some $m$ co-prime to $q$. We also show that for the power-of-two cyclotomic number fields, there exist orders $O_1, O_2$ with $m=8$ such that there are ideals $I_1, I_2$ of $O_1, O_2$ resp. with $I_1+ I_2$ not an ideal of any order in the number field.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
More forging (and patching) of tropical signatures
Daniel R. L. Brown and Chris Monico
Panny [3] described how to forge the “tropical signatures” proposed by Chen, Grigoriev and Shpilrain [1]. (These signatures are loosely related to the NP-complete problem of factoring tropical polynomials). We describe more methods to forge these tropical signatures. We also describe some patches that thwart all but one of these forgery methods (which we summarize as re-hashing an honest signature).
Last updated:  2023-11-29
An Incremental PoSW for General Weight Distributions
Hamza Abusalah and Valerio Cini
A proof of sequential work (PoSW) scheme allows the prover to convince a verifier that it computed a certain number of computational steps sequentially. Very recently, graph-labeling PoSW schemes, found applications in light-client blockchain protocols, most notably bootstrapping. A bootstrapping protocol allows a light client, with minimal information about the blockchain, to hold a commitment to its stable prefix. An incremental PoSW (iPoSW) scheme allows the prover to non-trivially increment proofs: given $\chi,\pi_1$ and integers $N_1,N_2$ such that $\pi_1$ is a valid proof for $N_1$, it generates a valid proof $\pi$ for $N_1+N_2$. In this work, we construct an iPoSW scheme based on the skiplist-based PoSW scheme of Abusalah et al. and prove its security in the random oracle model by employing the powerful on-the-fly sampling technique of Döttling et al. Moreover, unlike the iPoSW scheme of Döttling et al., ours is the first iPoSW scheme which is suitable for constructing incremental non-interactive arguments of chain knowledge (SNACK) schemes, which are at the heart of space and time efficient blockchain light-client protocols. In particular, our scheme works for general weight distributions, which we characterize as incrementally sampleable distributions. Our general treatment recovers the distribution underlying the scheme of Döttling et al. as well as the distribution underlying SNACK-enabled bootstrapping application as special cases. In realizing our general construction, we develop a new on-the-fly sampling technique.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
ID-CAKE: Identity-based Cluster Authentication and Key Exchange Scheme for Message Broadcasting and Batch Verification in VANETs
Apurva K Vangujar, Alia Umrani, and Paolo Palmieri
Vehicle Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) play a pivotal role in intelligent transportation systems, offering dynamic communication between vehicles, Road Side Units (RSUs), and the internet. Given the open-access nature of VANETs and the associated threats, such as impersonation and privacy violations, ensuring the security of these communications is of utmost importance. This paper presents the Identity-based Cluster Authentication and Key Exchange (ID-CAKE) scheme, a new approach to address security challenges in VANETs. The ID-CAKE scheme integrates the Cluster Consensus Identity-based Identification (CCIBI) with Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs and the Identity-based Multireceiver Key Exchange Mechanism (ID-mKEM) signature scheme. This integration provides robust authorization via CCIBI, while ID-mKEM signatures ensure message integrity, and guarantee both non-repudiation and unforgeability through mKEM for message broadcasting. The scheme employs a novel three-party ZK proof for batch verification using mKEM, which significantly reduces computational burdens. Our scheme also ensures anonymity and unlinkability by introducing pseudo-identities to all users in the cluster. The rigorous security proofs provided confirm the resilience of the ID-CAKE scheme against potential attacks, adhering to the different scenarios, against the hardness of the elliptic curve computational Diffie-Hellman under the random oracle model. The ID-CAKE scheme establishes a robust security framework for VANETs, and its introduction highlights potential pathways for future exploration in the realm of VANET security.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
Formalizing Nakamoto-Style Proof of Stake
Søren Eller Thomsen and Bas Spitters
Show abstract
Fault-tolerant distributed systems move the trust in a single party to a majority of parties participating in the protocol. This makes blockchain based crypto-currencies possible: they allow parties to agree on a total order of transactions without a trusted third party. To trust a distributed system, the security of the protocol and the correctness of the implementation must be indisputable. We present the first machine checked proof that guarantees both safety and liveness for a consensus algorithm. We verify a Proof of Stake (PoS) Nakamoto-style blockchain (NSB) protocol, using the foundational proof assistant Coq. In particular, we consider a PoS NSB in a synchronous network with a static set of corrupted parties. We define execution semantics for this setting and prove chain growth, chain quality, and common prefix which together implies both safety and liveness.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
Sloth: Key Stretching and Deniable Encryption using Secure Elements on Smartphones
Daniel Hugenroth, Alberto Sonnino, Sam Cutler, and Alastair R. Beresford
Traditional key stretching lacks a strict time guarantee due to the ease of parallelized password guessing by attackers. This paper introduces Sloth, a key stretching method leveraging the Secure Element (SE) commonly found in modern smartphones to provide a strict rate limit on password guessing. While this would be straightforward with full access to the SE, Android and iOS only provide a very limited API. Sloth utilizes the existing developer SE API and novel cryptographic constructions to build an effective rate-limit for password guessing on recent Android and iOS devices. Our approach ensures robust security even for short, randomly-generated, six-character alpha-numeric passwords against adversaries with virtually unlimited computing resources. Our solution is compatible with approximately 96% of iPhones and 45% of Android phones and Sloth seamlessly integrates without device or OS modifications, making it immediately usable by app developers today. We formally define the security of Sloth and evaluate its performance on various devices. Finally, we present HiddenSloth, a deniable encryption scheme, leveraging Sloth and the SE to withstand multi-snapshot adversaries.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
BBB PRP Security of the Lai-Massey Mode
Ritam Bhaumik and Mohammad Amin Raeisi
In spite of being a popular technique for designing block ciphers, Lai-Massey networks have received considerably less attention from a security analysis point-of-view than Feistel networks and Substitution-Permutation networks. In this paper we study the beyond-birthday-bound (BBB) security of Lai-Massey networks with independent random round functions against chosen-plaintext adversaries. Concretely, we show that five rounds are necessary and sufficient to achieve BBB security.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
Cryptanalysis of QARMAv2
Hosein Hadipour and Yosuke Todo
QARMAv2 is a general-purpose and hardware-oriented family of lightweight tweakable block ciphers (TBCs) introduced in ToSC 2023. QARMAv2, as a redesign of QARMA with a longer tweak and tighter security margins, is also designed to be suitable for cryptographic memory protection and control flow integrity. The designers of QARMAv2 provided a relatively comprehensive security analysis in the design specification, e.g., some bounds for the number of attacked rounds in differential and boomerang analysis, together with some concrete impossible differential, zero-correlation, and integral distinguishers. As one of the first third-party cryptanalysis of QARMAv2, Hadipour et al. significantly improved the integral distinguishers of QARMAv2 and provided the longest concrete distinguishers of QARMAv2 up to now. However, they provided no key recovery attack based on their distinguishers. This paper delves into the cryptanalysis of QARMAv2 to enhance our understanding of its security. Given that the integral distinguishers of QARMAv2 are the longest concrete distinguishers for this cipher so far, we focus on integral attack. To this end, we first further improve the automatic tool introduced by Hadipour et al., for finding integral distinguishers of TBCs following the TWEAKEY framework. This new tool exploits the MixColumns property of QARMAv2 to find integral distinguishers more suitable for key recovery attacks. Then, we combine several techniques for integral key recovery attacks, e.g., Meet-in-the-middle and partial-sum techniques to build a fine-grained integral key recovery attack on QARMAv2. Notably, we demonstrate how to leverage the low data complexity of the integral distinguishers of QARMAv2 to reduce the memory complexity of the meet-in-the-middle technique. As a result, we managed to propose the first concrete key recovery attacks on reduced-round versions of QARMAv2 by attacking 13 rounds of QARMAv2-64-128 with a single tweak block, 14 rounds of QARMAv2-64-128 with two independent tweak blocks, and 16 rounds of QARMAv2-128-256 with two independent tweak blocks. Our attacks do not compromise the claimed security of QARMAv2, but they shed more light on the cryptanalysis of this cipher.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
A Note On the Universality of Black-box MKtP Solvers
Noam Mazor and Rafael Pass
Show abstract
The relationships between various meta-complexity problems are not well understood in the worst-case regime, including whether the search version is harder than the decision version, whether the hardness scales with the ``threshold", and how the hardness of different meta complexity problems relate to one another, and to the task of function inversion. In this note, we present resolutions to some of these questions with respect to the \emph{black-box} analog of these problems. In more detail, let $MK^t_MP[s]$ denote the language consisting of strings $x$ with $K_{M}^t(x) < s(|x|)$, where $K_M^t(x)$ denotes the $t$-bounded Kolmogorov complexity of $x$ with $M$ as the underlying (Universal) Turing machine, and let $search-MK^t_MP[s]$ denote the search version of the same problem. We show that if there for every Universal Turing machine $U$ there exists a $2^{\alpha n}poly(n)$-size $U$-oracle aided circuit deciding $MK^t_UP [n-O(1)]$, then for every function $s$, and every not necessarily universal Turing machine $M$, there exists a $2^{\alpha s(n)}poly(n)$ size $M$-oracle aided circuit solving $search-MK^t_MP[s(n)]$; this in turn yields circuits of roughly the same size for both the Minimum Circuit Size Problem (MCSP), and the function inversion problem, as they can be thought of as instantiating $MK^t_MP$ with particular choices of (a non universal) TMs $M$ (the circuit emulator for the case of MCSP, and the function evaluation in the case of function inversion). As a corollary of independent interest, we get that the complexity of black-box function inversion is (roughly) the same as the complexity of black-box deciding $MK^t_UP[n-O(1)]$ for any universal TM $U$; that is, also in the worst-case regime, black-box function inversion is ``equivalent" to black-box deciding $MKtUP$.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
A CP-based Automatic Tool for Instantiating Truncated Differential Characteristics - Extended Version
François Delobel, Patrick Derbez, Arthur Gontier, Loïc Rouquette, and Christine Solnon
An important criteria to assert the security of a cryptographic primitive is its resistance against differential cryptanalysis. For word-oriented primitives, a common technique to determine the number of rounds required to ensure the immunity against differential distinguishers is to consider truncated differential characteristics and to count the number of active S-boxes. Doing so allows one to provide an upper bound on the probability of the best differential characteristic with a reduced computational cost. However, in order to design very efficient primitives, it might be needed to evaluate the probability more accurately. This is usually done in a second step, during which one tries to instantiate truncated differential characteristics with actual values and computes its corresponding probability. This step is usually done either with ad-hoc algorithms or with CP, SAT or MILP models that are solved by generic solvers. In this paper, we present a generic tool for automatically generating these models to handle all word-oriented ciphers. Furthermore the running times to solve these models are very competitive with all the previous dedicated approaches.
Last updated:  2023-11-29
Accountable Multi-Signatures with Constant Size Public Keys
Dan Boneh, Aditi Partap, and Brent Waters
A multisignature scheme is used to aggregate signatures by multiple parties on a common message $m$ into a single short signature on $m$. Multisignatures are used widely in practice, most notably, in proof-of-stake consensus protocols. In existing multisignature schemes, the verifier needs the public keys of all the signers in order to verify a multisignature issued by some subset of signers. We construct new practical multisignature schemes with three properties: (i) the verifier only needs to store a constant size public key in order to verify a multisignature by an arbitrary subset of parties, (ii) signature size is constant beyond the description of the signing set, and (iii) signers generate their secret signing keys locally, that is, without a distributed key generation protocol. Existing schemes satisfy properties (ii) and (iii). The new capability is property (i) which dramatically reduces the verifier's memory requirements from linear in the number of signers to constant. We give two pairing-based constructions: one in the random oracle model and one in the plain model. We also show that by relaxing property (iii), that is, allowing for a simple distributed key generation protocol, we can further improve efficiency while continuing to satisfy properties (i) and (ii). We give a pairing-based scheme and a lattice-based scheme in this relaxed model.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Vector Commitments with Efficient Updates
Ertem Nusret Tas and Dan Boneh
Dynamic vector commitments that enable local updates of opening proofs have applications ranging from verifiable databases with membership changes to stateless clients on blockchains. In these applications, each user maintains a relevant subset of the committed messages and the corresponding opening proofs with the goal of ensuring a succinct global state. When the messages are updated, users are given some global update information and update their opening proofs to match the new vector commitment. We investigate the relation between the size of the update information and the runtime complexity needed to update an individual opening proof. Existing vector commitment schemes require that either the information size or the runtime scale linearly in the number $k$ of updated state elements. We construct a vector commitment scheme that asymptotically achieves both length and runtime that is sublinear in $k$, namely $k^\nu$ and $k^{1-\nu}$ for any $\nu \in (0,1)$. We prove an information-theoretic lower bound on the relation between the update information size and runtime complexity that shows the asymptotic optimality of our scheme. For $\nu = 1/2$, our constructions outperform Verkle commitments by about a factor of $2$ in terms of both the update information size and runtime, but makes use of larger public parameters.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Subverting Cryptographic Hardware used in Blockchain Consensus
Pratyush Ranjan Tiwari and Matthew Green
In this work, we study and formalize security notions for algorithm substitution attacks (ASAs) on em cryptographic puzzles. Puzzles are difficult problems that require an investment of computation, memory, or some other related resource. They are heavily used as a building block for the consensus networks used by cryptocurrencies. These include primitives such as proof-of-work, proof-of-space, and verifiable delay functions (VDFs). Due to economies of scale, these networks increasingly rely on a small number of companies to construct opaque hardware or software (e.g., GPU or FPGA images): this dependency raises concerns about cryptographic subversion. Unlike the algorithms considered by previous ASAs, cryptographic puzzles do not rely on secret keys and thus enable a very different set of attacks. We first explore the threat model for these systems and then propose concrete attacks that (1) selectively reduce a victim's solving capability ( e.g., hashrate) and (2) exfiltrate puzzle solutions to an attacker. We then propose defenses, several of which can be applied to existing cryptocurrency hardware with minimal changes. We also find that mining devices for many major proof-of-work cryptocurrencies already demonstrate errors exactly how a potentially subverted device would. Given that these attacks are relevant to all proof of work cryptocurrencies that have a combined market capitalization of around a few hundred billion dollars (2022), we recommend that all vulnerable mining protocols consider making the suggested adaptations today.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Quantum Money from Abelian Group Actions
Mark Zhandry
We give a construction of public key quantum money, and even a strengthened version called quantum lightning, from abelian group actions, which can in turn be constructed from suitable isogenies over elliptic curves. We prove security in the generic group model for group actions under a plausible computational assumption, and develop a general toolkit for proving quantum security in this model. Along the way, we explore knowledge assumptions and algebraic group actions in the quantum setting, finding significant limitations of these assumptions/models compared to generic group actions.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
ZKSMT: A VM for Proving SMT Theorems in Zero Knowledge
Daniel Luick, John Kolesar, Timos Antonopoulos, William R. Harris, James Parker, Ruzica Piskac, Eran Tromer, Xiao Wang, and Ning Luo
Verification of program safety is often reducible to proving the unsatisfiability (i.e., validity) of a formula in Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT): Boolean logic combined with theories that formalize arbitrary first-order fragments. Zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs allow SMT formulas to be validated without revealing the underlying formulas or their proofs to other parties, which is a crucial building block for proving the safety of proprietary programs. Recently, Luo et al. (CCS 2022) studied the simpler problem of proving the unsatisfiability of pure Boolean formulas, but it does not support safety proofs generated by SMT solvers. This work presents ZKSMT, a novel framework for proving the validity of SMT formulas in ZK. We design a virtual machine (VM) tailored to efficiently represent the verification process of SMT validity proofs in ZK. Our VM can support the vast majority of popular theories when proving program safety while being complete and sound. To demonstrate this, we instantiate the commonly used theories of equality and linear integer arithmetic in our VM with theory-specific optimizations for proving them in ZK. ZKSMT achieves high practicality even when running on realistic SMT formulas generated by Boogie, a common tool for software verification. It achieves a three-order-of-magnitude improvement compared to a baseline that executes the proof verification code in a general ZK system.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Practical Quantum-Safe Stateful Hybrid Key Exchange Protocol
Jia Xu, Yiwen Gao, Hoonwei Lim, Hongbing Wang, and Ee-Chien Chang
Shor's quantum algorithm, running in quantum computers, can efficiently solve integer factorization problem and discrete logarithm problem in polynomial time. This poses an urgent and serious threat to long-term security with recent accelerated evolution of quantum computing. However, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) plans to release its standard of post-quantum cryptography between 2022 and 2024. It is crucially important to propose an early solution, which is likely secure against quantum attacks and classical attacks, and likely to comply with the future NIST standard. A robust combiner combines a set of 2 or more cryptography primitives into a new primitive of the same type, and guarantees that if anyone of the ingredient primitive is secure, then the resulting primitive is secure. This work proposes the first construction of robust combiner for Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM), with optimal amortized performance. From our robust combiner of KEMs, we construct efficient stateful hybrid Key Exchange Protocol (KEP), which is more suitable for two parties who will communicate with each other frequently.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Sender-Anamorphic Encryption Reformulated: Achieving Robust and Generic Constructions
Yi Wang, Rongmao Chen, Xinyi Huang, and Moti Yung
Motivated by the violation of two fundamental assumptions in secure communication - receiver-privacy and sender-freedom - by a certain entity referred to as ``the dictator'', Persiano et al. introduced the concept of Anamorphic Encryption (AME) for public key cryptosystems (EUROCRYPT 2022). Specifically, they presented receiver/sender-AME, directly tailored to scenarios where receiver privacy and sender freedom assumptions are compromised, respectively. In receiver-AME, entities share a double key to communicate in anamorphic fashion, raising concerns about the online distribution of the double key without detection by the dictator. The sender-AME with no shared secret is a potential candidate for key distribution. However, the only such known schemes (i.e., LWE and Dual LWE encryptions) suffer from an intrinsic limitation and cannot achieve reliable distribution. Here, we reformulate the sender-AME, present the notion of $\ell$-sender-AME and formalize the properties of (strong) security and robustness. Robustness refers to guaranteed delivery of duplicate messages to the intended receiver, ensuring that decrypting normal ciphertexts in an anamorphic way or decrypting anamorphic ciphertexts with an incorrect duplicate secret key results in an explicit abort signal. We first present a simple construction for pseudo-random and robust public key encryption that shares the similar idea of public-key stegosystem by von Ahn and Hopper (EUROCRYPT 2004). Then, inspired by Chen et al.'s malicious algorithm-substitution attack (ASA) on key encapsulation mechanisms (KEM) (ASIACRYPT 2020), we give a generic construction for hybrid PKE with special KEM that encompasses well-known schemes, including ElGamal and Cramer-Shoup cryptosystems. The constructions of $\ell$-sender-AME motivate us to explore the relations between AME, ASA on PKE, and public-key stegosystem. The results show that a strongly secure $\ell$-sender-AME is such a strong primitive that implies reformulated receiver-AME, public-key stegosystem, and generalized ASA on PKE. By expanding the scope of sender-anamorphic encryption and establishing its robustness, as well as exploring the connections among existing notions, we advance secure communication protocols under challenging conditions.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Key Exchange in the Post-Snowden Era: UC Secure Subversion-Resilient PAKE
Suvradip Chakraborty, Lorenzo Magliocco, Bernardo Magri, and Daniele Venturi
Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) allows two parties to establish a common high-entropy secret from a possibly low-entropy pre-shared secret such as a password. In this work, we provide the first PAKE protocol with subversion resilience in the framework of universal composability (UC), where the latter roughly means that UC security still holds even if one of the two parties is malicious and the honest party's code has been subverted (in an undetectable manner). We achieve this result by sanitizing the PAKE protocol from oblivious transfer (OT) due to Canetti et al. (PKC'12) via cryptographic reverse firewalls in the UC framework (Chakraborty et al., EUROCRYPT'22). This requires new techniques, which help us uncover new cryptographic primitives with sanitation-friendly properties along the way (such as OT, dual-mode cryptosystems, and signature schemes). As an additional contribution, we delve deeper in the backbone of communication required in the subversion-resilient UC framework, extending it to the unauthenticated setting, in line with the work of Barak et al. (CRYPTO'05).
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Load-Balanced Server-Aided MPC in Heterogeneous Computing
Yibiao Lu, Bingsheng Zhang, and Kui Ren
Most existing MPC protocols consider the homogeneous setting, where all the MPC players are assumed to have identical communication and computation resources. In practice, the weakest player often becomes the bottleneck of the entire MPC protocol execution. In this work, we initiate the study of so-called load-balanced MPC in the heterogeneous computing. A load-balanced MPC protocol can adjust the workload of each player accordingly to maximize the overall resource utilization. In particular, we propose new notions called composite circuit and composite garbling scheme, and construct two efficient server-aided protocols with malicious security and semi-honest security, respectively. Our maliciously secure protocol is over 400$\times$ faster than the authenticated garbling protocol (CCS'17); our semi-honest protocol is up to 173$\times$ faster than the optimized BMR protocol (CCS'16).
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Efficient TFHE Bootstrapping in the Multiparty Setting
Jeongeun Park and Sergi Rovira
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to efficiently compute TFHE bootstrapping keys for (predefined) multiple users. Hence, a fixed number of users can enjoy the same level of efficiency as in the single key setting, keeping their individual input privacy. Our construction relies on a novel algorithm called homomorphic indicator, which can be of independent interest. We provide a detailed analysis of the noise growth and a set of secure parameters suitable to be used in practice. Moreover, we compare the complexity of our technique with other state-of-the-art constructions and show which method performs better in what parameter sets, based on our noise analysis. We also provide a prototype implementation of our technique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of TFHE in the multiparty setting.
Last updated:  2023-11-28
Unclonable Cryptography in the Plain Model
Céline Chevalier, Paul Hermouet, and Quoc-Huy Vu
By leveraging the no-cloning principle of quantum mechanics, unclonable cryptography enables us to achieve novel cryptographic protocols that are otherwise impossible classically. Two most notable examples of unclonable cryptography are quantum copy-protection and unclonable encryption. Despite receiving a lot of attention in recent years, two important open questions still remain: copy- protection for point functions in the plain model, which is usually considered as feasibility demonstration, and unclonable encryption with unclonable indistinguishability security in the plain model. In this work, by relying on previous works of Coladangelo, Liu, Liu, and Zhandry (Crypto’21) and Culf and Vidick (Quantum’22), we establish a new monogamy-of-entanglement property for subspace coset states, which allows us to obtain the following new results: • We show that copy-protection of point functions exists in the plain model, with different challenge distributions (including arguably the most natural ones). • We show, for the first time, that unclonable encryption with unclonable indistinguishability security exists in the plain model.
Last updated:  2023-11-27
$\Pi$: A Unified Framework for Verifiable Secret Sharing
Karim Baghery
An $(n, t)$-Non-Interactive Verifiable Secret Sharing (NI-VSS) scheme allows a dealer to share a secret among $n$ parties, s.t. all the parties can verify the validity of their shares and only a set of them, i.e., more than $t$, can access the secret. In this paper, we present $\Pi$, as a unified framework for building NI-VSS schemes in the majority honest setting. Notably, $\Pi$ does not rely on homomorphic commitments; instead requires a Random Oracle (RO) and any commitment scheme that extra to its core attributes hiding and binding, it might be homomorphic and/or PQ-secure. - When employing Discrete Logarithm (DL)-based commitments, $\Pi$ enables the construction of two novel NI-VSS schemes in the RO model, named $\Pi_P$ and $\Pi_F$. In comparison to the well-known Pedersen and Feldman VSS schemes, both $\Pi_P$ and $\Pi_F$ require $O(1)$ exponentiations in the verification process, as opposed to $O(t)$, albeit at the expense of a slightly slower sharing phase and increased communication. - By instantiating $\Pi$ with a hash-based commitment scheme, we obtain an efficient NI-VSS scheme in the quantum RO model, labeled $\Pi_{LA}$ (pronounced [paɪla]). $\Pi_{LA}$ outperforms the recent construction by Atapoor, Baghery, Cozzo, and Pedersen from Asiacrypt'23 by a constant factor in all metrics. $\Pi_{LA}$ can also be viewed as an amplified version of the $\it{simple}$ NI-VSS scheme, proposed by Gennaro, Rabin, and Rabin, at PODC'98. - Building upon $\Pi_F$, we construct a Publicly VSS (PVSS) scheme, labeled $\Pi_S$, that can be seen as a new variant of Schoenmakers' scheme from Crypto'99. To this end, we first define the Polynomial Discrete Logarithm (PDL) problem, as a generalization of DL and then build a variant of the Schnorr Proof of Knowledge (PoK) scheme based on the new hardness assumption. We think the PDL relation and the associated PoK scheme can be independently interesting for Shamir-based threshold protocols. We believe $\Pi$ is general enough to be employed in various contexts such as lattices, isogenies, and an extensive array of practical use cases.
Last updated:  2023-11-27
Updatable Encryption from Group Actions
Antonin Leroux and Maxime Roméas
Updatable Encryption (UE) allows to rotate the encryption key in the outsourced storage setting while minimizing the bandwith used. The server can update ciphertexts to the new key using a token provided by the client. UE schemes should provide strong confidentiality guarantees against an adversary that can corrupt keys and tokens. This paper studies the problem of building UE in the group action framework. We introduce a new notion of Mappable Effective Group Action (MEGA) and show that we can build CCA secure UE from a MEGA by generalizing the SHINE construction of Boyd etal at Crypto 2020. Unfortunately, we do not know how to instantiate this new construction in the post-quantum setting. Doing so would solve the open problem of building a CCA secure post-quantum UE scheme. Isogeny-based group actions are the most studied post-quantum group actions. Unfortunately, the resulting group actions are not mappable. We show that we can still build UE from isogenies by introducing a new algebraic structure called Effective Triple Orbital Group Action (ETOGA). We prove that UE can be built from an ETOGA and show how to instantiate this abstract structure from isogeny-based group actions. This new construction solves two open problems in ciphertext-independent post-quantum UE. First, this is the first post-quantum UE scheme that supports an unbounded number of updates. Second, our isogeny-based UE scheme is the first post-quantum UE scheme not based on lattices. The security of this new scheme holds under an extended version of the weak pseudorandomness of the standard isogeny group action.
Last updated:  2023-11-27
PQC-NN: Post-Quantum Cryptography Neural Network
Abel C. H. Chen
In recent years, quantum computers and Shor’s quantum algorithm have been able to effectively solve NP (Non-deterministic Polynomial-time) problems such as prime factorization and discrete logarithm problems, posing a threat to current mainstream asymmetric cryptography, including RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). As a result, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the United States call for Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) methods that include lattice-based cryptography methods, code-based cryptography methods, multivariate cryptography methods, and hash-based cryptography methods for resisting quantum computing attacks. Therefore, this study proposes a PQC neural network (PQC-NN) that maps a code-based PQC method to a neural network structure and enhances the security of ciphertexts with non-linear activation functions, random perturbation of ciphertexts, and uniform distribution of ciphertexts. The main innovations of this study include: (1) constructing a neural network structure that complies with code-based PQC, where the weight sets between the input layer and the ciphertext layer can be used as a public key for encryption, and the weight sets between the ciphertext layer and the output layer can be used as a private key for decryption; (2) adding random perturbations to the ciphertext layer, which can be removed during the decryption phase to restore the original plaintext; (3) constraining the output values of the ciphertext layer to follow a uniform distribution with a significant similarity by adding the cumulative distribution function (CDF) values of the chi-square distribution to the loss function, ensuring that the neural network produces sufficiently uniform distribution for the output values of the ciphertext layer. In practical experiments, this study uses cellular network signals as a case study to demonstrate that encryption and decryption can be performed by the proposed PQC neural network with the uniform distribution of ciphertexts. In the future, the proposed PQC neural network could be applied to various applications.
Last updated:  2023-11-27
Crypto Dark Matter on the Torus: Oblivious PRFs from shallow PRFs and FHE
Martin R. Albrecht, Alex Davidson, Amit Deo, and Daniel Gardham
Partially Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (POPRFs) are 2-party protocols that allow a client to learn pseudorandom function (PRF) evaluations on inputs of its choice from a server. The client submits two inputs, one public and one private. The security properties ensure that the server cannot learn the private input, and the client cannot learn more than one evaluation per POPRF query. POPRFs have many applications including password-based key exchange and privacy-preserving authentication mechanisms. However, most constructions are based on classical assumptions, and those with post quantum security suffer from large efficiency drawbacks. In this work, we construct a novel POPRF from lattice assumptions and the “Crypto Dark Matter” PRF candidate (TCC’18) in the random oracle model. At a conceptual level, our scheme exploits the alignment of this family of PRF candidates, relying on mixed modulus computations, and programmable bootstrapping in the torus fully homomorphic encryption scheme (TFHE). We show that our construction achieves malicious client security based on circuit-private FHE, and client privacy from the semantic security of the FHE scheme. We further explore a heuristic approach to extend our scheme to support verifiability, based on the difficulty of computing cheating circuits in low depth. This would yield a verifiable (P)OPRF. We provide a proof-of-concept implementation and preliminary benchmarks of our construction. For the core online OPRF functionality, we require amortised 10.0KB communication per evaluation and a one-time per-client setup communication of 2.5MB.
Last updated:  2023-11-27
CASE: A New Frontier in Public-Key Authenticated Encryption
Shashank Agrawal, Shweta Agrawal, Manoj Prabhakaran, Rajeev Raghunath, and Jayesh Singla
We introduce a new cryptographic primitive, called Completely Anonymous Signed Encryption (CASE). CASE is a public-key authenticated encryption primitive, that offers anonymity for senders as well as receivers. A "case-packet" should appear, without a (decryption) key for opening it, to be a blackbox that reveals no information at all about its contents. To decase a case-packet fully - so that the message is retrieved and authenticated - a verifcation key is also required. Defining security for this primitive is subtle. We present a relatively simple Chosen Objects Attack (COA) security definition. Validating this definition, we show that it implies a comprehensive indistinguishability-preservation definition in the real-ideal paradigm. To obtain the latter definition, we extend the Cryptographic Agents framework of [2, 3] to allow maliciously created objects. We also provide a novel and practical construction for COA-secure CASE under standard assumptions in public-key cryptography, and in the standard model. We believe CASE can be a staple in future cryptographic libraries, thanks to its robust security guarantees and efficient instantiations based on standard assumptions.
Last updated:  2023-11-27
Chipmunk: Better Synchronized Multi-Signatures from Lattices
Nils Fleischhacker, Gottfried Herold, Mark Simkin, and Zhenfei Zhang
Multi-signatures allow for compressing many signatures for the same message that were generated under independent keys into one small aggregated signature. This primitive is particularly useful for proof-of-stake blockchains, like Ethereum, where the same block is signed by many signers, who vouch for the block's validity. Being able to compress all signatures for the same block into a short string significantly reduces the on-chain storage costs, which is an important efficiency metric for blockchains. In this work, we consider multi-signatures in the synchronized setting, where the signing algorithm takes an additional time parameter as input and it is only required that signatures for the same time step are aggregatable. The synchronized setting is simpler than the general multi-signature setting, but is sufficient for most blockchain related applications, as signers are naturally synchronized by the length of the chain. We present Chipmunk, a concretely efficient lattice-based multi-signature scheme in the synchronized setting that allows for signing an a-priori bounded number of messages. Chipmunk allows for non-interactive aggregation of signatures and is secure against rogue-key attacks. The construction is plausibly secure against quantum adversaries as our security relies on the assumed hardness of the short integer solution problem. We significantly improve upon the previously best known construction in this setting by Fleischhacker, Simkin, and Zhang (CCS 2022). Our aggregate signature size is $5.6 \times$ smaller and for $112$ bits of security our construction allows for compressing 8192 individual signatures into a multi-signature of size around $136$ KB. We provide a full implementation of Chipmunk and provide extensive benchmarks studying our construction's efficiency.
Last updated:  2023-11-26
Abraxas: Throughput-Efficient Hybrid Asynchronous Consensus
Erica Blum, Jonathan Katz, Julian Loss, Kartik Nayak, and Simon Ochsenreither
Protocols for state-machine replication (SMR) often trade off performance for resilience to network delay. In particular, protocols for asynchronous SMR tolerate arbitrary network delay but sacrifice throughput/latency when the network is fast, while partially synchronous protocols have good performance in a fast network but fail to make progress if the network experiences high delay. Existing hybrid protocols are resilient to arbitrary network delay and have good performance when the network is fast, but suffer from high overhead (``thrashing'') if the network repeatedly switches between being fast and slow (e.g., in a network that is typically fast but has intermittent message delays). We propose Abraxas, a generic approach for constructing a hybrid protocol based on any protocol $\Pi_\mathsf{fast}$ and any asynchronous protocol $\Pi_\mathsf{slow}$ to achieve (1)~security and performance equivalent to $\Pi_\mathsf{slow}$ under arbitrary network behavior; (2)~performance equivalent to $\Pi_\mathsf{fast}$ when conditions are favorable. We instantiate Abraxas with the best existing protocols for $\Pi_\mathsf{fast}$ (Jolteon) and $\Pi_\mathsf{slow}$ (2-chain VABA), and show experimentally that the resulting protocol significantly outperforms Ditto, the previous state-of-the-art hybrid protocol.
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