Papers updated in last 7 days (58 results)

Last updated:  2023-06-02
Anamorphic Signatures: Secrecy From a Dictator Who Only Permits Authentication!
Miroslaw Kutylowski, Giuseppe Persiano, Duong Hieu Phan, Moti Yung, and Marcin Zawada
The goal of this research is to raise technical doubts regarding the usefulness of the repeated attempts by governments to curb Cryptography (aka the ``Crypto Wars''), and argue that they, in fact, cause more damage than adding effective control. The notion of Anamorphic Encryption was presented in Eurocrypt '22 for a similar aim. There, despite the presence of a Dictator who possesses all keys and knows all messages, parties can arrange a hidden ``anamorphic'' message in an otherwise indistinguishable from regular ciphertexts (wrt the Dictator). In this work, we postulate a stronger cryptographic control setting where encryption does not exist (or is neutralized) since all communication is passed through the Dictator in, essentially, cleartext mode (or otherwise, when secure channels to and from the Dictator are the only confidentiality mechanism). Messages are only authenticated to assure recipients of the identity of the sender. We ask whether security against the Dictator still exists, even under such a strict regime which allows only authentication (i.e., authenticated/ signed messages) to pass end-to-end, and where received messages are determined by/ known to the Dictator, and the Dictator also eventually gets all keys to verify compliance of past signing. To frustrate the Dictator, this authenticated message setting gives rise to the possible notion of anamorphic channels inside signature and authentication schemes, where parties attempt to send undetectable secure messages (or other values) using signature tags which are indistinguishable from regular tags. We define and present implementation of schemes for anamorphic signature and authentication; these are applicable to existing and standardized signature and authentication schemes which were designed independently of the notion of anamorphic messages. Further, some cornerstone constructions of the foundations of signatures, in fact, introduce anamorphism.
Last updated:  2023-06-02
Quantum Reduction of Finding Short Code Vectors to the Decoding Problem
Thomas Debris-Alazard, Maxime Remaud, and Jean-Pierre Tillich
We give a quantum reduction from finding short codewords in a random linear code to decoding for the Hamming metric. This is the first time such a reduction (classical or quantum) has been obtained. Our reduction adapts to linear codes Stehlé-Steinfield-Tanaka-Xagawa’ re-interpretation of Regev's quantum reduction from finding short lattice vectors to solving the Closest Vector Problem. The Hamming metric is a much coarser metric than the Euclidean metric and this adaptation has needed several new ingredients to make it work. For instance, in order to have a meaningful reduction it is necessary in the Hamming metric to choose a very large decoding radius and this needs in many cases to go beyond the radius where decoding is always unique. Another crucial step for the analysis of the reduction is the choice of the errors that are being fed to the decoding algorithm. For lattices, errors are usually sampled according to a Gaussian distribution. However, it turns out that the Bernoulli distribution (the analogue for codes of the Gaussian) is too much spread out and cannot be used, as such, for the reduction with codes. This problem was solved by using instead a truncated Bernoulli distribution.
Last updated:  2023-06-02
Crypto Dark Matter on the Torus: Oblivious PRFs from shallow PRFs and FHE
Martin R. Albrecht, Alex Davidson, Amit Deo, and Daniel Gardham
Partially Oblivious Pseudorandom Functions (POPRFs) are 2-party protocols that allow a client to learn pseudorandom function (PRF) evaluations on inputs of its choice from a server. The client submits two inputs, one public and one private. The security properties ensure that the server cannot learn the private input and the client cannot learn more than one evaluation per POPRF query. POPRFs have many applications including password-based key exchange and privacy-preserving authentication mechanisms. However, most constructions are based on classical assumptions, and those with post-quantum security suffer from large efficiency drawbacks. In this work, we construct a novel POPRF from lattice assumptions and the “Crypto Dark Matter” PRF candidate (TCC’18) in the random oracle model. At a conceptual level, our scheme exploits the alignment of this family of PRF candidates, relying on mixed modulus computations, and programmable bootstrapping in the torus fully homomorphic encryption scheme (TFHE). We show that our construction achieves malicious client security based on circuit-private FHE, and client privacy from the semantic security of the FHE scheme. We further explore a heuristic approach to extend our scheme to support verifiability based on the difficulty of computing cheating circuits in low depth. This would yield a verifiable (P)OPRF. We provide a proof-of-concept implementation and benchmarks of our construction using the tfhe-rs software library. For the core online OPRF functionality, we require amortised 5.0kB communication per evaluation and a one-time per-client setup communication of 16.8MB.
Last updated:  2023-06-02
On digital signatures based on isomorphism problems: QROM security, ring signatures, and applications
Markus Bläser, Zhili Chen, Dung Hoang Duong, Antoine Joux, Ngoc Tuong Nguyen, Thomas Plantard, Youming Qiao, Willy Susilo, and Gang Tang
An isomorphism problem asks whether two combinatorial or algebraic structures are essentially the same. Based on the assumed hardness of an isomorphism problem, there is a well-known digital signature design based on the Goldreich-Micali-Widgerson (GMW) zero-knowledge protocol for graph isomorphism and the Fiat-Shamir (FS) transformation. Recently, there is a revival of activities on this design, as witnessed by the schemes SeaSign (Eurocrypt 2019), CSIFiSh (Asiacrypt 2019), LESS (Africacrypt 2020), ATFE (Eurocrypt 2022), and MEDS (Africacrypt 2023). The contributions of this paper are two-folds: the first is about the GMW-FS design in general, and the second is on the ATFE-GMW-FS scheme. First, we study the QROM security and ring signatures of the GMW-FS design in the group action framework. We distil properties of the underlying isomorphism problem for the GMW-FS design to be secure in the quantum random oracle model (QROM). We also show that this design supports a linkable ring signature construction following the work of Beullens, Katsumata and Pintore (Asiacrypt 2020). Second, we apply the above results to prove the security of the ATFE-GMW-FS scheme in the QROM model. We then describe a linkable ring signature scheme based on it, and provide an implementation of the ring signature scheme. Preliminary experiments suggest that our scheme is competitive among existing post-quantum ring signatures. We also discuss the parameter choices of the ATFE-GMW-FS scheme based on the recent attack by Beullens (Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1528), and the MPC-in-the-head construction for general group actions by Joux (Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/664).
Last updated:  2023-06-02
On Quantum Secure Compressing Pseudorandom Functions
Ritam Bhaumik, Benoît Cogliati, Jordan Ethan, and Ashwin Jha
In this paper we characterize all $2n$-bit-to-$n$-bit Pseudorandom Functions (PRFs) constructed with the minimum number of calls to $n$-bit-to-$n$-bit PRFs and arbitrary number of linear functions. First, we show that all two-round constructions are either classically insecure, or vulnerable to quantum period-finding attacks. Second, we categorize three-round constructions depending on their vulnerability to these types of attacks. This allows us to identify classes of constructions that could be proven secure. We then proceed to show the security of the following three candidates against any quantum distinguisher that asks at most $ 2^{n/4} $ (possibly superposition) queries \[ \begin{array}{rcl} \mathsf{TNT}(x_1,x_2) &:=& f_3(x_2 \oplus f_2(x_2 \oplus f_1(x_1)))\\ \mathsf{LRQ}(x_1,x_2) &:=& f_2(x_2) \oplus f_3(x_2 \oplus f_1(x_1))\\ \mathsf{LRWQ}(x_1,x_2) &:=& f_3( f_1(x_1) \oplus f_2(x_2)). \end{array} \] Note that the first construction is a classically secure tweakable block cipher due to Bao et al., and the third construction is shown to be quantum secure tweakable block cipher by Hosoyamada and Iwata with similar query limits. Of note is our proof framework, an adaptation of Chung et al.'s rigorous formulation of Zhandry's compressed oracle technique in indistinguishability setup, which could be of independent interests. This framework gives very compact and mostly classical looking proofs as compared to Hosoyamada and Iwata interpretation of Zhandry's compressed oracle.
Last updated:  2023-06-02
The Key Lattice Framework for Concurrent Group Messaging
Kelong Cong, Karim Eldefrawy, Nigel P. Smart, and Ben Terner
Today, two-party secure messaging is well-understood and widely adopted on the Internet, e.g., Signal and WhatsApp. Multiparty protocols for secure group messaging on the other hand are less mature and many protocols with different tradeoffs exist. Generally, such protocols require parties to first agree on a shared secret group key and then periodically update it while preserving forward secrecy (FS) and post compromise security (PCS). We present a new framework, called a key lattice, for managing keys in concurrent group messaging. Our framework can be seen as a ``key management'' layer that enables concurrent group messaging when secure pairwise channels are available. Proving security of group messaging protocols using the key lattice requires new game-based security definitions for both FS and PCS. Our new definitions are both simpler and more natural than previous ones, as our framework combines both FS and PCS into directional variants of the same abstraction, and additionally avoids dependence on time-based epochs. Additionally, we give a concrete, standalone instantiation of a concurrent group messaging protocol for dynamic groups. Our protocol provides both FS and PCS, supports concurrent updates, and only incurs $O(1)$ overhead for securing the messaging payload, $O(n)$ update cost and $O(n)$ healing costs, which are optimal.
Last updated:  2023-06-02
MPC With Delayed Parties Over Star-Like Networks
Mariana Gama, Emad Heydari Beni, Emmanuela Orsini, Nigel P. Smart, and Oliver Zajonc
While the efficiency of secure multi-party computation protocols has greatly increased in the last few years, these improvements and protocols are often based on rather unrealistic, idealised, assumptions about how technology is deployed in the real world. In this work we examine multi-party computation protocols in the presence of two major constraints present in deployed systems. Firstly, we consider the situation where the parties are connected not by direct point-to-point connections, but by a star-like topology with a few central post-office style relays. Secondly, we consider MPC protocols with a strong honest majority ($n \gg t/2$) in which we have stragglers (some parties are progressing slower than others). We model stragglers by allowing the adversary to delay messages to and from some parties for a given length of time. We first show that having only a single honest rely is enough to ensure consensus of the messages sent within a protocol; secondly, we show that special care must be taken to describe multiplication protocols in the case of relays and stragglers and that some well known protocols do not guarantee privacy and correctness in this setting; thirdly, we present an efficient honest-majority MPC protocol which can be run on top of the relays and which provides active-security with abort in the case of a strong honest majority, even when run with stragglers. We back up our protocol presentation with both experimental evaluations and simulations of the effect of the relays and delays on our protocol.
Last updated:  2023-06-02
Simplex Consensus: A Simple and Fast Consensus Protocol
Benjamin Y Chan and Rafael Pass
We present a theoretical framework for analyzing the efficiency of consensus protocols, and apply it to analyze the optimistic and pessimistic confirmation times of state-of-the-art partially-synchronous protocols in the so-called "rotating leader/random leader" model of consensus (recently popularized in the blockchain setting). We next present a new and simple consensus protocol in the partially synchronous setting, tolerating $f < n/3$ byzantine faults; in our eyes, this protocol is essentially as simple to describe as the simplest known protocols, but it also enjoys an even simpler security proof, while matching and, even improving, the efficiency of the state-of-the-art (according to our theoretical framework). As with the state-of-the-art protocols, our protocol assumes a (bare) PKI, a digital signature scheme, collision-resistant hash functions, and a random leader election oracle, which may be instantiated with a random oracle (or a CRS).
Last updated:  2023-06-02
Enhanced pqsigRM: Code-Based Digital Signature Scheme with Short Signature and Fast Verification for Post-Quantum Cryptography
Jinkyu Cho, Jong-Seon No, Yongwoo Lee, Zahyun Koo, and Young-Sik Kim
We present a novel code-based digital signature scheme, called Enhanced pqsigRM for post-quantum cryptography (PQC). This scheme is based on modified Reed–Muller (RM) codes, which modified RM codes with several security problems. Enhanced pqsigRM is a strengthened version of pqsigRM, which was submitted to NIST PQC standardization in round 1. The proposed scheme has the advantage of short signature size, fast verification cycles. For 128 bits of classical security, the signature size of the proposed scheme is 1032 bytes, which corresponds to 0.42 times that of Crystals-Dilithium, and the number of median verification cycles is 235,656, which is smaller than that of Crystals-Dilithium. Also, we use public codes, called modified RM codes, that are more difficult to distinguish from random codes. We use (U,U + V )-codes with high-dimensional hull to make these. Using modified RM codes, the proposed signature scheme resists various known attacks on RM-code-based cryptography. The proposed decoder samples from coset elements with small Hamming weight for any given syndrome and efficiently finds such elements.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
On the Classic Protocol for MPC Schnorr Signatures
Nikolaos Makriyannis
In this paper, we prove that the classic three-round protocol for MPC Schnorr Signatures is fully-adaptive UC-secure. Furthermore, we show that a simple variant of the Classic protocol achieves tight security, i.e.~the security of the resulting, modified, protocol tightly reduces to the security of the underlying non-MPC scheme.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Separations among formulations of non-malleable encryption under valid ciphertext condition
Yodai Watanabe
Non-malleability is one of the basic security goals for encryption schemes which ensures the resistance of the scheme against ciphertext modifications in the sense that any adversary, given a ciphertext of a plaintext, cannot generate another ciphertext whose underlying plaintext is meaningfully related to the initial one. There are multiple formulations of non-malleable encryption schemes, depending on whether they are based on simulation or comparison, or whether they impose valid ciphertext condition, in which an adversary is required to generate only valid ciphertexts, or not. In addition to the simulation-based and comparison-based formulations (SNM and CNM), non-malleability has an indistinguishability-based characterization called ciphertext indistinguishability (IND) against parallel chosen-ciphertext attacks. These three formulations, SNM, CNM and IND, have been shown to be equivalent if the valid ciphertext condition is not imposed; however, if that condition is imposed, then the equivalence among them has been shown only against the strongest type of attack models, and the relations among them against the weaker types of the attack models remain open. This work answers this open question by showing the separations SNM*$\not\rightarrow$CNM* and IND*$\not\rightarrow$SNM* against the weaker types of the attack models, where the asterisk attached to the short-hand notations represents that the valid ciphertext condition is imposed. Moreover, motivated by the proof of the latter separation, this paper introduces simulation-based and comparison-based formulations of semantic security (SSS* and CSS*) against parallel chosen-ciphertext attacks, and shows the equivalences SSS*$\leftrightarrow$SNM* and CSS*$\leftrightarrow$CNM* against all types of the attack models. It thus follows that IND*$\not\rightarrow$SSS*, that is, semantic security and ciphertext indistinguishability, which have been shown to be equivalent in various settings, separate against the weaker parallel chosen-ciphertext attacks under the valid ciphertext condition.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
The Self-Anti-Censorship Nature of Encryption: On the Prevalence of Anamorphic Cryptography
Mirek Kutylowski, Giuseppe Persiano, Duong Hieu Phan, Moti Yung, and Marcin Zawada
As part of the responses to the ongoing ``crypto wars,'' the notion of {\em Anamorphic Encryption} was put forth [Persiano-Phan-Yung Eurocrypt '22]. The notion allows private communication in spite of a dictator who (in violation of the usual normative conditions under which Cryptography is developed) is engaged in an extreme form of surveillance and/or censorship, where it asks for all private keys and knows and may even dictate all messages. The original work pointed out efficient ways to use two known schemes in the anamorphic mode, bypassing the draconian censorship and hiding information from the all-powerful dictator. A question left open was whether these examples are outlier results or whether anamorphic mode is pervasive in existing systems. Here we answer the above question: we develop new techniques, expand the notion, and show that the notion of Anamorphic Cryptography is, in fact, very much prevalent. We first refine the notion of Anamorphic Encryption with respect to the nature of covert communication. Specifically, we distinguish {\em Single-Receiver Encryption} for many to one communication, and {\em Multiple-Receiver Encryption} for many to many communication within the group of conspiring (against the dictator) users. We then show that Anamorphic Encryption can be embedded in the randomness used in the encryption, and give families of constructions that can be applied to numerous ciphers. In total the families cover classical encryption schemes, some of which in actual use (RSA-OAEP, Pailler, Goldwasser-Micali, ElGamal schemes, Cramer-Shoup, and Smooth Projective Hash based systems). Among our examples is an anamorphic channel with much higher capacity than the regular channel. In sum, the work shows the very large extent of the potential futility of control and censorship over the use of strong encryption by the dictator (typical for and even stronger than governments engaging in the ongoing ``crypto-wars''): While such limitations obviously hurt utility which encryption typically brings to safety in computing systems, they essentially, are not helping the dictator. The actual implications of what we show here and what does it mean in practice require further policy and legal analyses and perspectives.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Probabilistic Hash-and-Sign with Retry in the Quantum Random Oracle Model
Haruhisa Kosuge and Keita Xagawa
A hash-and-sign signature based on a preimage-sampleable function (PSF) (Gentry et al. [STOC 2008]) is secure in the Quantum Random Oracle Model (QROM) if the PSF is collision-resistant (Boneh et al. [ASIACRYPT 2011]) or one-way (Zhandry [CRYPTO 2012]). However, trapdoor functions (TDFs) in code-based and multivariate-quadratic-based (MQ-based) signatures are not PSFs; for example, underlying TDFs of the Courtois-Finiasz-Sendrier (CFS), Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar (UOV), and Hidden Field Equations (HFE) signatures are not surjections. Thus, such signature schemes adopt probabilistic hash-and-sign with retry. This paradigm is secure in the (classical) Random Oracle Model (ROM), assuming that the underlying TDF is non-invertible, that is, it is hard to find a preimage of a given random value in the range (e.g., Sakumoto et al. [PQCRYPTO 2011] for the modified UOV/HFE signatures). Unfortunately, there is currently no known security proof for the probabilistic hash-and-sign with retry in the QROM. We give the first security proof for the probabilistic hash-and-sign with retry in the QROM, assuming that the underlying non-PSF TDF is non-invertible. Our reduction from the non-invertibility assumption is tighter than the existing ones that apply only to signature schemes based on PSFs. We apply the security proof to code-based and MQ-based signatures. Additionally, we extend the proof into the multi-key setting and propose a generic method that provides security reduction without any security loss in the number of keys.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Upper bounding the number of bent functions using 2-row bent rectangles
Sergey Agievich
Using the representation of bent functions by bent rectangles, that is, special matrices with restrictions on columns and rows, we obtain an upper bound on the number of bent functions that improves previously known bounds in a practical range of dimensions. The core of our method is the following fact based on the recent observation by Potapov (arXiv:2107.14583): a 2-row bent rectangle is completely determined by one of its rows and the remaining values in slightly more than half of the columns.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Efficient Threshold FHE with Application to Real-Time Systems
Siddhartha Chowdhury, Sayani Sinha, Animesh Singh, Shubham Mishra, Chandan Chaudhary, Sikhar Patranabis, Pratyay Mukherjee, Ayantika Chatterjee, and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Threshold Fully Homomorphic Encryption (ThFHE) enables arbitrary computation over encrypted data while keeping the decryption key distributed across multiple parties at all times. ThFHE is a key enabler for threshold cryptography and, more generally, secure distributed computing. Existing ThFHE schemes inherently require highly inefficient parameters and are unsuitable for practical deployment. In this paper, we take the first step towards making ThFHE practically usable by (i) proposing a novel ThFHE scheme with a new analysis resulting in significantly improved parameters; (ii) and providing the first practical ThFHE implementation benchmark based on Torus FHE. • We propose the first practical ThFHE scheme with a polynomial modulus-to-noise ratio that supports practically efficient parameters while retaining provable security based on standard quantum-safe assumptions. We achieve this via a novel Rényi divergence-based security analysis of our proposed threshold decryption mechanism. • We present an optimized software implementation of a Torus-FHE based instantiation of our proposed ThFHE scheme that builds upon the existing Torus FHE library and supports (distributed) decryption on highly resource-constrained ARM-based handheld devices. Along the way, we implement several extensions to the Torus FHE library, including a Torus-based linear integer secret sharing subroutine to support ThFHE key sharing and distributed decryption for any threshold access structure. We illustrate the efficacy of our proposal via an end-to-end use case involving encrypted computations over a real medical database, and distributed decryptions of the computed result on resource-constrained ARM-based handheld devices.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Weak instances of class group action based cryptography via self-pairings
Wouter Castryck, Marc Houben, Simon-Philipp Merz, Marzio Mula, Sam van Buuren, and Frederik Vercauteren
In this paper we study non-trivial self-pairings with cyclic domains that are compatible with isogenies between elliptic curves oriented by an imaginary quadratic order $\mathcal{O}$. We prove that the order $m$ of such a self-pairing necessarily satisfies $m \mid \Delta_\mathcal{O}$ (and even $2m \mid \Delta_\mathcal{O} $ if $4 \mid \Delta_\mathcal{O}$ and $4m \mid \Delta_\mathcal{O}$ if $8 \mid \Delta_\mathcal{O}$) and is not a multiple of the field characteristic. Conversely, for each $m$ satisfying these necessary conditions, we construct a family of non-trivial cyclic self-pairings of order $m$ that are compatible with oriented isogenies, based on generalized Weil and Tate pairings. As an application, we identify weak instances of class group actions on elliptic curves assuming the degree of the secret isogeny is known. More in detail, we show that if $m^2 \mid \Delta_\mathcal{O}$ for some prime power $m$ then given two primitively $\mathcal{O}$-oriented elliptic curves $(E, \iota)$ and $(E',\iota') = [\mathfrak{a}] (E,\iota)$ connected by an unknown invertible ideal $\mathfrak{a} \subseteq \mathcal{O}$, we can recover $\mathfrak{a}$ essentially at the cost of a discrete logarithm computation in a group of order $m^2$, assuming the norm of $\mathfrak{a}$ is given and is smaller than $m^2$. We give concrete instances, involving ordinary elliptic curves over finite fields, where this turns into a polynomial time attack. Finally, we show that these self-pairings simplify known results on the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem for class group actions on oriented elliptic curves.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
CLAASP: a Cryptographic Library for the Automated Analysis of Symmetric Primitives
Emanuele Bellini, David Gerault, Juan Grados, Yun Ju Huang, Mohamed Rachidi, Sharwan Tiwari, and Rusydi H. Makarim
This paper introduces CLAASP, a Cryptographic Library for the Automated Analysis of Symmetric Primitives. The library is designed to be modular, extendable, easy to use, generic, efficient and fully automated. It is an extensive toolbox gathering state-of-the-art techniques aimed at simplifying the manual tasks of symmetric primitive designers and analysts. CLAASP is built on top of Sagemath and is open-source under the GPLv3 license. The central input of CLAASP is the description of a cryptographic primitive as a list of connected components in the form of a directed acyclic graph. From this representation, the library can automatically: (1) generate the Python or C code of the primitive evaluation function, (2) execute a wide range of statistical and avalanche tests on the primitive, (3) generate SAT, SMT, CP and MILP models to search, for example, differential and linear trails, (4) measure algebraic properties of the primitive, (5) test neural-based distinguishers. In this work, we also present a comprehensive survey and comparison of other software libraries aiming at similar goals as CLAASP.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Delegate and Verify the Update Keys of Revocable Identity-Based Encryption
Kwangsu Lee
Revocable identity-based encryption (RIBE) is an extension of identity-based encryption (IBE) and it supports efficient revocation of private keys. In the past, many efficient RIBE schemes have been proposed, but research on efficiently delegating the generation of update keys to a cloud server is somewhat insufficient. In this paper, we newly introduce the concept of delegated RIBE (DRIBE) that can delegate the generation of update keys to the semi-trusted cloud server and define the security models of DRIBE. Next, we propose a DRIBE scheme by generically combining a hierarchical IBE (HIBE) scheme, an identity-based broadcast encryption (IBBE) scheme, and a collision-resistant hash function. In addition, we propose a DRIBE-INC scheme that generates an occasional base update key and a periodic incremental update key to reduce the size of the update key in our DRIBE scheme.
Last updated:  2023-06-01
Zero-Knowledge Functional Elementary Databases
Xinxuan Zhang and Yi Deng
Zero-knowledge elementary databases (ZK-EDBs) enable a prover to commit a database ${D}$ of key-value $(x,v)$ pairs and later provide a convincing answer to the query ``send me the value $D(x)$ associated with $x$'' without revealing any extra knowledge (including the size of ${D}$). After its introduction, several works extended it to allow more expressive queries, but the expressiveness achieved so far is still limited: only a relatively simple queries--range queries over the keys and values-- can be handled by known constructions. In this paper we introduce a new notion called zero knowledge functional elementary databases (ZK-FEDBs), which allows the most general functional queries. Roughly speaking, for any Boolean circuit $f$, ZK-FEDBs allows the ZK-EDB prover to provide convincing answers to the queries of the form ``send me all records ${(x,v)}$ in ${{D}}$ satisfying $f(x,v)=1$,'' without revealing any extra knowledge (including the size of ${D}$). We present a construction of ZK-FEDBs in the random oracle model and generic group model, whose proof size is only linear in the length of record and the size of query circuit, and is independent of the size of input database $D$. Our technical constribution is two-fold. Firstly, we introduce a new variant of zero-knowledge sets (ZKS) which supports combined operations on sets, and present a concrete construction that is based on groups with unknown order. Secondly, we develop a tranformation that tranforms the query of Boolean circuit into a query of combined operations on related sets, which may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-05-31
Blockchain Transaction Censorship: (In)secure and (In)efficient?
Zhipeng Wang, Xihan Xiong, and William J. Knottenbelt
The ecosystem around blockchain and Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is seeing more and more interest from centralized regulators. For instance, recently, the US government placed sanctions on the largest DeFi mixer, Tornado.Cash (TC). To our knowledge, this is the first time that centralized regulators sanction a decentralized and open-source blockchain application. It has led various blockchain participants, e.g., miners/validators and DeFi platforms, to censor TC-related transactions. The blockchain community has extensively discussed that censoring transactions could affect users’ privacy. In this work, we analyze the efficiency and possible security implications of censorship on the different steps during the life cycle of a blockchain transaction, i.e., generation, propagation, and validation. We reveal that fine-grained censorship will reduce the security of block validators and centralized transaction propagation services, and can potentially cause Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. We also find that DeFi platforms adopt centralized third-party services to censor user addresses at the frontend level, which blockchain users could easily bypass. Moreover, we present a tainting attack whereby an adversary can prevent users from interacting normally with DeFi platforms by sending TC-related transactions.
Last updated:  2023-05-31
New Design Techniques for Efficient Arithmetization-Oriented Hash Functions:Anemoi Permutations and Jive Compression Mode
Clémence Bouvier, Pierre Briaud, Pyrros Chaidos, Léo Perrin, Robin Salen, Vesselin Velichkov, and Danny Willems
Advanced cryptographic protocols such as Zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs of knowledge, widely used in cryptocurrency applications such as Zcash, Monero, Filecoin, Tezos, Topos, demand new cryptographic hash functions that are efficient not only over the binary field $\mathbb{F}_2$, but also over large fields of prime characteristic $\mathbb{F}_p$. This need has been acknowledged by the wider community and new so-called Arithmetization-Oriented (AO) hash functions have been proposed, e.g. MiMC-Hash, Rescue-Prime, Poseidon, Reinforced Concrete and Griffin to name a few. In this paper we propose Anemoi: a new family of ZK-friendly permutations, that can be used to construct efficient hash functions and compression functions. The main features of these algorithms are that 1) they are designed to be efficient within multiple proof systems (e.g. Groth16, Plonk, etc.), 2) they contain dedicated functions optimised for specific applications (namely Merkle tree hashing and general purpose hashing), 3) they have highly competitive performance e.g. about a factor of 2 improvement over Poseidon and Rescue-Prime in terms of R1CS constraints, a 21%-35% Plonk constraint reduction over a highly optimized Poseidon implementation, as well as competitive native performance, running between two and three times faster than Rescue-Prime, depending on the field size. On the theoretical side, Anemoi pushes further the frontier in understanding the design principles that are truly entailed by arithmetization-orientation. In particular, we identify and exploit a previously unknown relationship between CCZ-equivalence and arithmetization-orientation. In addition, we propose two new standalone components that can be easily reused in new designs. One is a new S-box called Flystel, based on the well-studied butterfly structure, and the second is Jive -- a new mode of operation, inspired by the ``Latin dance'' symmetric algorithms (Salsa, ChaCha and derivatives). Our design is a conservative one: it uses a very classical Substitution-Permutation Network structure, and our detailed analysis of algebraic attacks highlights can be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-05-31
Lattice-based, more general anti-leakage model and its application in decentralization
Xiaokang Dai, Jingwei Chen, Wenyuan Wu, and Yong Feng
In the case of standard \LWE samples $(\mathbf{A},\mathbf{b = sA + e})$, $\mathbf{A}$ is typically uniformly over $\mathbb{Z}_q^{n \times m}$, and under the \LWE assumption, the conditional distribution of $\mathbf{s}$ given $\mathbf{b}$ and $\mathbf{s}$ should be consistent. However, if an adversary chooses $\mathbf{A}$ adaptively, the gap between the two may be larger. In this work, we are mainly interested in quantifying $\tilde{H}_\infty(\mathbf{s}|\mathbf{sA + e})$, while $\mathbf{A}$ an adversary chooses. Brakerski and D\"{o}ttling answered the question in one case: they proved that when $\mathbf{s}$ is uniformly chosen from $\mathbb{Z}_q^n$, it holds that $\tilde{H}_\infty(\mathbf{s}|\mathbf{sA + e}) \varpropto \rho_\sigma(\Lambda_q(\mathbf{A}))$. We prove that for any $d \leq q$, $\mathbf{s}$ is uniformly chosen from $\mathbb{Z}_d^n$ or is sampled from a discrete Gaussian, the above result still holds. In addition, as an independent result, we have also proved the regularity of the hash function mapped to the prime-order group and its Cartesian product. As an application of the above results, we improved the multi-key fully homomorphic encryption\cite{TCC:BraHalPol17} and answered the question raised at the end of their work positively: we have GSW-type ciphertext rather than Dual-GSW, and the improved scheme has shorter keys and ciphertexts
Last updated:  2023-05-31
Key lifting : Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption in plain model without noise flooding
Xiaokang Dai, Wenyuan Wu, and Yong Feng
Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (\MK), based on the Learning With Error assumption (\LWE), usually lifts ciphertexts of different users to new ciphertexts under a common public key to enable homomorphic evaluation. The efficiency of the current Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (\MK) scheme is mainly restricted by two aspects: Expensive ciphertext expansion operation: In a boolean circuit with input length $N$, multiplication depth $L$, security parameter $\lambda$, the number of additional encryptions introduced to achieve ciphertext expansion is $O(N\lambda^6L^4)$. Noise flooding technology resulting in a large modulus $q$ : In order to prove the security of the scheme, the noise flooding technology introduced in the encryption and distributed decryption stages will lead to a huge modulus $q = 2^{O(\lambda L)}B_\chi$, which corrodes the whole scheme and leads to sub-exponential approximation factors $\gamma = \tilde{O}(n\cdot 2^{\sqrt{nL}})$. This paper solves the first problem by presenting a framework called Key-Lifting Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (\KL). With this \emph{key lifting} procedure, the number of encryptions for a local user is reduced to $O(N)$, similar to single-key fully homomorphic encryption (\FHE). For the second problem, based on R\'{e}nyi divergence, we propose an optimized proof method that removes the noise flooding technology in the encryption phase. Additionally, in the distributed decryption phase, we prove that the asymmetric nature of the DGSW ciphertext ensures that the noise after decryption does not leak the noise in the initial ciphertext, as long as the depth of the circuit is sufficient. Thus, our initial ciphertext remains semantically secure even without noise flooding, provided the encryption scheme is leakage-resilient. This approach significantly reduces the size of the modulus $q$ (with $\log q = O(L)$) and the computational overhead of the entire scheme.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Hidden Stabilizers, the Isogeny To Endomorphism Ring Problem and the Cryptanalysis of pSIDH
Mingjie Chen, Muhammad Imran, Gábor Ivanyos, Péter Kutas, Antonin Leroux, and Christophe Petit
The Isogeny to Endomorphism Ring Problem (IsERP) asks to compute the endomorphism ring of the codomain of an isogeny between supersingular curves in characteristic $p$ given only a representation for this isogeny, i.e. some data and an algorithm to evaluate this isogeny on any torsion point. This problem plays a central role in isogeny-based cryptography; it underlies the security of pSIDH protocol (ASIACRYPT 2022) and it is at the heart of the recent attacks that broke the SIDH key exchange. Prior to this work, no efficient algorithm was known to solve IsERP for a generic isogeny degree, the hardest case seemingly when the degree is prime. In this paper, we introduce a new quantum polynomial-time algorithm to solve IsERP for isogenies whose degrees are odd and have $O(\log\log p)$ many prime factors. As main technical tools, our algorithm uses a quantum algorithm for computing hidden Borel subgroups, a group action on supersingular isogenies from EUROCRYPT 2021, various algorithms for the Deuring correspondence and a new algorithm to lift arbitrary quaternion order elements modulo an odd integer $N$ with $O(\log\log p)$ many prime factors to powersmooth elements. As a main consequence for cryptography, we obtain a quantum polynomial-time key recovery attack on pSIDH. The technical tools we use may also be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
How to achieve bidirectional zero-knowledge authentication?
Jin Li, Xingyu Li, Chang Chen, Guoyu Yang, Junyang Li, Qi Chen, and Hongyang Yan
Due to the completeness, reliability and zero-knowledge nature, the zero-knowledge proof is widely used to designed various protocols, including zero-knowledge authentication protocols. However, the existing zero-knowledge proof scheme cannot realize bidirectional authentication. In this paper, we design a series of bidirectional zero-knowledge protocols based on two new flavors of operations applicable to multiplicative cyclic group. The two notions are formally defined in this paper. We also provide some formal definitions and properties for the two notions. According to our definitions, any bounded polynomial function defined on multiplicative cyclic group has duality and mirror. Based on the two operations, we introduce and formally define dual commitment scheme and mirror commitment scheme. Besides, we provide two efficient constructions for dual commitment and mirror commitment respectively based on CDH assumption and RSA assumption, and named DCCDH, DCRSA, MCCDH and MCRSA respectively. We also provide the extended version supporting multiple messages in the appendix. Then, we design some efficient non-interactive as well as interactive zero-knowledge authentication protocols based on these commitments. The protocols allow two participants to submit commitments to each other so that they can achieve mutual zero-knowledge authentication only a communication initialization needed. Moreovere , similar to other commitment schemes, our schemes also can be widely used to construction of other schemes for cryptography, such as, verifiable secret sharing, zero-knowledge sets, credentials and content extraction signatures.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Lightweight Asynchronous Verifiable Secret Sharing with Optimal Resilience
Victor Shoup and Nigel P. Smart
We present new protocols for *Asynchronous Verifiable Secret Sharing* for Shamir (i.e., threshold $t<n$) sharing of secrets. Our protocols: * Use only "lightweight" cryptographic primitives, such as hash functions; * Can share secrets over rings such as $\mathbb{Z}_{p^k}$ as well as finite fields $\mathbb{F}_q$; * Provide *optimal resilience*, in the sense that they tolerate up to $t < n/3$ corruptions, where $n$ is the total number of parties; * Are *complete*, in the sense that they guarantee that if any honest party receives their share then all honest parties receive their shares; * Employ *batching* techniques, whereby a dealer shares many secrets in parallel, and achieves an amortized communication complexity that is linear in $n$, at least on the "happy path", where no party *provably* misbehaves.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Bounded Verification for Finite-Field-Blasting (In a Compiler for Zero Knowledge Proofs)
Alex Ozdemir, Riad S. Wahby, Fraser Brown, and Clark Barrett
Zero Knowledge Proofs (ZKPs) are cryptographic protocols by which a prover convinces a verifier of the truth of a statement with- out revealing any other information. Typically, statements are expressed in a high-level language and then compiled to a low-level representation on which the ZKP operates. Thus, a bug in a ZKP compiler can com- promise the statement that the ZK proof is supposed to establish. This paper takes a step towards ZKP compiler correctness by partially veri- fying a field-blasting compiler pass, a pass that translates Boolean and bit-vector logic into equivalent operations in a finite field. First, we define correctness for field-blasters and ZKP compilers more generally. Next, we describe the specific field-blaster using a set of encoding rules and de- fine verification conditions for individual rules. Finally, we connect the rules and the correctness definition by showing that if our verification conditions hold, the field-blaster is correct. We have implemented our approach in the CirC ZKP compiler and have proved bounded versions of the corresponding verification conditions. We show that our partially verified field-blaster does not hurt the performance of the compiler or its output; we also report on four bugs uncovered during verification.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Label Correlation in Deep Learning-based Side-channel Analysis
Lichao Wu, Léo Weissbart, Marina Krček, Huimin Li, Guilherme Perin, Lejla Batina, and Stjepan Picek
The efficiency of the profiling side-channel analysis can be significantly improved with machine learning techniques. Although powerful, a fundamental machine learning limitation of being data-hungry received little attention in the side-channel community. In practice, the maximum number of leakage traces that evaluators/attackers can obtain is constrained by the scheme requirements or the limited accessibility of the target. Even worse, various countermeasures in modern devices increase the conditions on the profiling size to break the target. This work demonstrates a practical approach to dealing with the lack of profiling traces. Instead of learning from a one-hot encoded label, transferring the labels to their distribution can significantly speed up the convergence of guessing entropy. By studying the relationship between all possible key candidates, we propose a new metric, denoted Label Correlation (LC), to evaluate the generalization ability of the profiling model. We validate LC with two common use cases: early stopping and network architecture search, and the results indicate its superior performance.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Ablation Analysis for Multi-device Deep Learning-based Physical Side-channel Analysis
Lichao Wu, Yoo-Seung Won, Dirmanto Jap, Guilherme Perin, Shivam Bhasin, and Stjepan Picek
Deep learning-based side-channel analysis is an effective way of performing profiling attacks on power and electromagnetic leakages, even against targets protected with countermeasures. While many research papers have reported successful results, they typically focus on profiling and attacking a single device, assuming that leakages are similar between devices of the same type. However, this assumption is not always realistic due to variations in hardware and measurement setups, creating what is known as the portability problem. Profiling multiple devices has been proposed as a solution, but obtaining access to these devices may pose a challenge for attackers. This paper proposes a new approach to overcome the portability problem by introducing a neural network layer assessment methodology based on the ablation paradigm. This methodology evaluates the sensitivity and resilience of each layer, providing valuable knowledge to create a Multiple Device Model from Single Device (MDMSD). Specifically, it involves ablating a specific neural network section and performing recovery training. As a result, the profiling model, trained initially on a single device, can be generalized to leakage traces measured from various devices. By addressing the portability problem through a single device, practical side-channel attacks could be more accessible and effective for attackers.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
A Transformation for Lifting Discrete Logarithm Based Cryptography to Post-Quantum Cryptography
Danilo Gligoroski
This is an update of the previous version of this report. While the transformation and its theoretical background remain the same as in the initial version, in this version, we introduce conditions for choosing the parameters that render the attacks (both classical and quantum algorithms attacks) proposed by Lorenz Panny in March 2023 on the first variant, inapplicable. For the classical attack, we prove that the discrete logarithms that he was basing his attack upon do not exist for the new parameters. For the quantum algorithm attacks where he proposed computing a basis of a three-dimensional lattice, as proposed in Kitaev's generalization of Shor's quantum algorithm, we prove that for our transformation, the rank of that lattice (the Abelian Stabiliser in Kitaev's terminology) has a rank one, which makes the Kitaev's quantum algorithm inapplicable. We construct algebraic structures where rising to the non-associative power indices is no longer tied with the Discrete Logarithm Problem but with a variant of a problem that has been analysed in the last two decades and does not have a quantum polynomial algorithm that solves it. The problem is called Exponential Congruences Problem (ECP). By this, \emph{we disprove} the claims presented in the ePrint report 2021/583 titled "Entropoids: Groups in Disguise" by Lorenz Panny that \emph{"all instantiations of the entropoid framework should be breakable in polynomial time on a quantum computer."} Additionally, we construct an Arithmetic for power indices and propose generic recipe guidelines that we call "Entropic-Lift" for transforming some of the existing classical cryptographic schemes that depend on the hardness of Discrete Logarithm Problem to post-quantum cryptographic schemes that will base their security on the hardness of the Entropoid variant of the Exponential Congruences Problem (EECP). As concrete examples, we show how to transform the classical Diffie-Hellman key exchange, DSA and Schnorr signature schemes. We also post several open problems in relation to EECP and the "Entropic-Lift" transformation.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
An Anonymous Multi-receiver Certificateless Hybrid Signcryption (AMCLHS) using mKEM-DEM for Broadcast Communication
Alia Umrani, Apurva K Vangujar, and Paolo Palmieri
Confidentiality, authentication, and anonymity are the fundamental security requirements in broadcast communication that can be achieved by Digital Signature (DS), encryption, and pseudo-anonymous identity techniques. Signcryption offer both DS and encryption in a single logical step with high efficiency. Similarly, anonymous multireceiver signcryption ensure receiver privacy by generating identical ciphertext for multiple receivers while keeping their identities private. While signcryption is a significant improvement over “sign then encrypt”, it still incurs higher computational and communication cost and does not provide the required level of security. In this paper, we propose a multiple-recipient Key Encapsulation Mechanism (mKEM) - Data Encapsulation Mechanism (DEM) based Anonymous Multireceiver Certificateless Hybrid Signcryption (AMCLHS). The AMCLHS uses a combination of symmetric key and asymmetric key cryptography to signcrypt an arbitrary length message in broadcast communication and has two unique settings as follows: Pseudo-Identity PID Settings: We introduce a new algorithmic step in AMCLHS construction where each user (sender and receiver) is assigned a PID to enable the sender to signcrypt identical messages for multiple receivers while keeping the identities of other receivers anonymous. The receiver anonymity is achieved by choosing random Real-Identity (ID_R) to generate PID of the users in key generation algorithm of AMCLHS scheme. Our approach relies on the Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm (ECDL) hardness assumptions, the hash function, and verification-based secret key of the Register Authority (RA), using time Delta T. mKEM-DEM Settings: We introduce the first construction that achieves optimal ciphertext from the Diffie-Hellman (DH) assumption using mKEM-DEM for Signcryption. Our scheme uses mKEM to generate a symmetric key for multiple-receivers and DEM to signcrypt message using the previously generated symmetric key and the sender's private key. mKEM for key setup and Signcryption for confidentiality and forward security, and DEM for key generation and unsigncryption for indistinguishability under Indistinguishability against Chosen Ciphertext Attack (IND-CCA2). Our scheme relies on DH and Bilinear Pairing (BP) assumption and uses a single key for all messages, which minimizes ciphertext length and ultimately reduces complexity overhead. The scheme operates in a multireceiver certificateless environment, preventing the key escrow problem, and demonstrates cryptographic notions for Indistinguishability under Chosen-Ciphertext Attack (IND-CCA2) and Existential Unforgeability against Chosen Message Attack (EUF-CMA) for Type-I and Type-II adversaries under q-Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Inversion (q-DBDHI) and ECDL hard assumptions. We compare the proposed scheme with existing multireceiver hybrid signcryption schemes in terms of computation cost, communication cost, and security requirements. We show that, compared to existing multireceiver schemes which has overall cost of O(n^2), our scheme is computationally more efficient and has optimal communication cost, with signcryption cost linear O(n) to the number of designated receivers while the unsigncryption cost remains constant O(1). Our scheme achieves confidentiality, authentication, anonymity, and simultaneously achieves unlinkability, non-repudiation, and forward security.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
$\mathsf{Skye}$: A Fast KDF based on Expanding PRF and its Application to Signal
Amit Singh Bhati, Antonin Dufka, Elena Andreeva, Arnab Roy, and Bart Preneel
A Key Derivation Function KDF generates a uniform and highly random key-stream from weakly random key material. KDFs are broadly used in various security protocols such as digital signatures and key exchange protocols. HKDF is the most deployed KDF in practice. It is based on the $\textit{extract-then-expand}$ paradigm and is presently used, among others, in the Signal Protocol for end-to-end encrypted messaging. HKDF was proposed as a generic KDF for general input sources and thus is not optimized for source-specific use cases such as key derivation from Diffie-Hellman (DH) sources (i.e. DH shared secrets as key material). Furthermore, the sequential HKDF design is unnecessarily slower on some general-purpose platforms that benefit from parallelization. In this work, we propose a novel, efficient and secure KDF called $\mathsf{Skye}$. $\mathsf{Skye}$ follows the $\textit{extract-then-expand}$ paradigm and consists of two algorithms: efficient deterministic $\textit{randomness extractor}$ and $\textit{expansion}$ functions. Instantiating our extractor for dedicated source-specific (e.g. DH sources) inputs allows us to achieve a significant efficiency speed-up over HKDF at the same security level. We provide concrete security analysis of $\mathsf{Skye}$ and both its algorithms in the standard model. We provide a software performance comparison of $\mathsf{Skye}$ with the AES-based expanding PRF $\mathsf{ButterKnife}$ and HKDF with SHA-256 (as used in Signal). Our results show that in isolation $\mathsf{Skye}$ performs from 4x to 47x faster than HKDF, depending on the platform instruction support. We further demonstrate that with such a performance gain, when $\mathsf{Skye}$ is integrated within the current Signal implementation, we can achieve significant overall improvements ranging from $38\%$ to $64\%$ relative speedup in unidirectional messaging. Even in bidirectional messaging, that includes DH computation with dominating computational cost, $\mathsf{Skye}$ still contributes to $12-36\%$ relative speedup when just 10 messages are sent and received at once.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Key-Range Attribute-Based Signatures for Range of Inner Product and Its Applications
Masahito Ishizaka
In attribute-based signatures (ABS) for range of inner product (ARIP), recently proposed by Ishizaka and Fukushima at ICISC 2022, a secret-key labeled with an $n$-dimensional vector $\mathbf{x}\in\mathbb{Z}_p^n$ for a prime $p$ can be used to sign a message under an $n$-dimensional vector $\mathbf{y}\in\mathbb{Z}_p^n$ and a range $[L,R]=\{L, L+1, \cdots, R-1, R\}$ with $L,R\in\mathbb{Z}_p$ iff their inner product is within the range, i.e., $\langle \mathbf{x}, \mathbf{y} \rangle \in [L,R]\pmod p$. We consider its key-range version, named key-range ARIP (KARIP), where the range $[L,R]$ is associated with a secret-key but not with a signature. We propose three generic KARIP constructions based on linearly homomorphic signatures and non-interactive witness-indistinguishable proof, which lead to concrete KARIP instantiations secure under standard assumptions with different features in terms of efficiency. We also show that KARIP has various applications, e.g., key-range ABS for range evaluation of polynomials/weighted averages/Hamming distance/Euclidean distance, key-range time-specific signatures, and key-range ABS for hyperellipsoid predicates.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
A flexible Snark via the monomial basis
Steve Thakur
We describe a pairing-based SNARK with a universal updateable CRS that can be instantiated with any pairing-friendly curve endowed with a sufficiently large prime scalar field. We use the monomial basis, thus sidestepping the need for large smooth order subgroups in the scalar field. In particular, the scheme can be instantiated with outer curves to widely used curves such as Ed25519, secp256k1 and BN254. This allows us to largely circumvent the overhead of non-native field arithmetic for succinct proofs of statements in these base fields. These include proofs of valid signatures in Ed25519 and secp256k1 and one layer recursion with BN254. The proof size is constant \( (10\; \mathbb{G}_1\), \(20\;\mathbb{F}_p)\), as is the verification runtime, which is dominated by a single pairing check (i.e. two pairings). The Prover time is dominated by the \(10\) multi-scalar multiplications in \(\mathbb{G}_1\) - with a combined MSM length of $22\cdot |\mathrm{Circuit}|$ - and, to a lesser extent, the computation of a single sum of polynomial products over the scalar field. The scheme supports succinct lookup arguments for subsets as well as subsequences. Our construction relies on homomorphic table commitments, which makes them amenable to vector lookups. The Prover algorithm runs in runtime $O(M\cdot \log(M))$, where $M = \max \{|\text{Circuit}| , \;|\text{Table}|\}.$ When the scalar field has low $2$-adicity - as is inevitably the case with any outer curve to Ed25519, secp256k1 or BN254 - we use the Schonhage-Strassen algorithm or the multimodular FFT algorithm to compute the sum of polynomial products that occurs in one of the steps of the proof generation. Despite the small (but discernible) slowdown compared to polynomial products in FFT-friendly fields, we empirically found that the MSMs dominate the proof generation time. To that end, we have included some benchmarks for polynomial products in FFT-unfriendly fields. Furthermore, the scheme supports custom gates, albeit at the cost of a larger proof size. As an application of the techniques in this paper, we describe a protocol that supports multiple \( \mathbf{univariate}\) custom gates $\mathcal{G}_i$ of high degree that are sparsely distributed, in the sense that \[ \sum_{i} \deg(\mathcal{G}_i)\cdot \#(\mathcal{G}_i\;\text{gates}) \; = \; O(|\text{Circuit}|). \] This comes at the cost of three additional $\mathbb{G}_1$ elements and does not blow up the proof generation time, i.e. it does not entail MSMs or FFTs of length larger than the circuit size. At the moment, Panther Protocol's Rust implementation in a 576-bit pairing-friendly outer curve to Ed25519 has a (not yet optimized) Prover time of 45 seconds for a million gate circuit on a 64 vCPU AWS machine.
Last updated:  2023-05-30
Private Proof-of-Stake Blockchains using Differentially-private Stake Distortion
Chenghong Wang, David Pujo, Kartik Nayak, and Ashwin Machanavajjhala
Safety, liveness, and privacy are three critical properties for any private proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. However, prior work (SP'21) has shown that to obtain safety and liveness, a PoS blockchain must in theory forgo privacy. Specifically, to ensure safety and liveness, PoS blockchains elect parties based on stake proportion, potentially exposing a party's stake even with private transaction processing. In this work, we make two key contributions. First, we present the first stake inference attack applicable to both deterministic and randomized PoS with exponentially less running time in comparison with SOTA designs. Second, we use differentially private stake distortion to achieve privacy in PoS blockchains and design two stake distortion mechanisms that any PoS protocol can use. We further evaluate our proposed methods using Ethereum 2.0, a widely-recognized PoS blockchain in operation. Results demonstrate effective stake inference risk mitigation, reasonable privacy, and preservation of essential safety and liveness properties.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Witness Encryption for Succinct Functional Commitments and Applications
Matteo Campanelli, Dario Fiore, and Hamidreza Khoshakhlagh
Witness encryption (WE), introduced by Garg, Gentry, Sahai, and Waters (STOC 2013) allows one to encrypt a message to a statement $\mathsf{x}$ for some NP language $\mathcal{L}$, such that any user holding a witness for $\mathsf{x} \in \mathcal{L}$ can decrypt the ciphertext. The extreme power of this primitive comes at the cost of its elusiveness: a practical construction from established cryptographic assumptions is currently out of reach. In this work we introduce and construct a new notion of encryption that has a strong flavor of WE and that, crucially, we can build from well-studied assumptions (based on bilinear pairings) for interesting classes of computation. Our new notion, witness encryption for (succinct) functional commitment, takes inspiration from a prior weakening of witness encryption introduced by Benhamouda and Lin (TCC 2020). In a nutshell, theirs is a WE where: the encryption statement consists of a (non compressible) commitment $\mathsf{cm}$, a function $G$ and a value $y$; the decryption witness consists of a (non succinct) NIZK proof about the fact that $\mathsf{cm}$ opens to $v$ such that $y=G(v)$. Benhamouda and Lin showed how to apply this primitive to obtain MPC with non-interactive and reusability properties---dubbed mrNISC---replacing the requirement of WE in existing round-collapsing techniques. Our new WE-like notion is motivated by supporting both commitments of a fixed size and fixed decryption complexity, independent $|v|$---in contrast to the work by Benhamouda and Lin where this complexity is linear. As a byproduct, our efficiency profile substantially improves the offline stage of mrNISC protocols. Our work solves the additional challenges that arise from relying on computationally binding commitments and computational soundness (of functional commitments), as opposed to statistical binding and unconditional soundness (of NIZKs), used in Benhamouda and Lin's work. To tackle them, we not only modify their basic blueprint, but also model and instantiate different types of projective hash functions as building blocks. Furthermore, as one of our main contributions, we show the first pairing-based construction of functional commitments for NC1 circuits with linear verification. Our techniques are of independent interest and may highlight new avenues to design practical variants of witness encryption. As an additional contribution, we show that our new WE-flavored primitive and its efficiency properties are versatile: we discuss its further applications and show how to extend this primitive to better suit these settings.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Triply Adaptive UC NIZK
Ran Canetti, Pratik Sarkar, and Xiao Wang
Non-interactive zero knowledge (NIZK) enables proving the validity of NP statement without leaking anything else. We study multi-instance NIZKs in the common reference string (CRS) model, against an adversary that adaptively corrupts parties and chooses statements to be proven. We construct the first such $\textit{triply adaptive}$ NIZK that provides full adaptive soundness, as well as adaptive zero-knowledge, assuming either LWE or else LPN and DDH (previous constructions rely on non-falsifiable knowledge assumptions). In addition, our NIZKs are universally composable (UC). Along the way, we: - Formulate an ideal functionality, $\mathcal{F}_\textsf{NICOM}$, which essentially captures $\textit{non-interactive}$ commitments, and show that it is realizable by existing protocols using standard assumptions. - Define and realize, under standard assumptions, Sigma protocols which satisfy triply adaptive security with access to $\mathcal{F}_\textsf{NICOM}$. - Use the Fiat-Shamir transform, instantiated with correlation intractable hash functions, to compile a Sigma protocol with triply adaptive security with access to $\mathcal{F}_\textsf{NICOM}$ into a triply adaptive UC-NIZK argument in the CRS model with access to $\mathcal{F}_\textsf{NICOM}$, assuming LWE (or else LPN and DDH). - Use the UC theorem to obtain UC-NIZK in the CRS model.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Fast Secure Multiparty ECDSA with Practical Distributed Key Generation and Applications to Cryptocurrency Custody
Iftach Haitner, Yehuda Lindell, Ariel Nof, and Samuel Ranellucci
ECDSA is a standardized signing algorithm that is widely used in TLS, code signing, cryptocurrency and more. Due to its importance, the problem of securely computing ECDSA in a distributed manner (known as threshold signing) has received considerable interest. Despite this interest, however, as of the time of publication of the conference version of this paper ([Lindel and Nof, ACM SIGSAC 18'), there had been no full threshold solution for more than two parties (meaning that any t-out-of-n parties can sign, security is preserved for any t−1 or fewer corrupted parties, and t ≤ n can be any value) that supports practical key distribution. All previous solutions for this functionality utilized Paillier homomorphic encryption, and efficient distributed Paillier key generation for more than two parties is not known. In this paper, we present the first (again, for the conference version publication time) truly practical full threshold ECDSA signing protocol that has fast signing and key generation. This solves an old open problem and opens the door to many practical uses of threshold ECDSA signing that are in demand today. One of these applications is the construction of secure cryptocurrency wallets (where key-shares are spread over multiple devices, and so are hard to steal) and cryptocurrency custody solutions (where large sums of invested cryptocurrency are strongly protected by splitting the key between a bank/financial institution, the customer who owns the currency, and possibly a third-party trustee, in multiple shares at each). There is growing practical interest in such solutions, but prior to our work, these could not be deployed due to the need for a distributed key generation.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Quantum Speed-Up for Multidimensional (Zero Correlation) Linear Distinguishers
Akinori Hosoyamada
This paper shows how to achieve a quantum speed-up for multidimensional (zero correlation) linear distinguishers. To understand the post-quantum security of symmetric-key cryptosystems, it is important to study how much quantum speed-up can be obtained for classical cryptanalytic techniques such as differential, linear, and integral cryptanalysis. A previous work by Kaplan et al. has already shown a quantum quadratic speed-up for one-dimensional linear distinguishers. However, classical linear cryptanalysis often exploits multidimensional approximations to achieve more efficient attacks, and in fact it is highly non-trivial whether Kaplan et al.'s technique can be extended into the multidimensional case. To remedy this, we investigate a new quantum technique to speed-up multidimensional linear distinguishers. Firstly, we observe that there is a close relationship between the subroutine of Simon's algorithm and linear correlations via Fourier transform. Specifically, a slightly modified version of Simon's subroutine, which we call Correlation Extraction Algorithm (CEA), can be used to speed-up multidimensional linear distinguishers. CEA also leads to a speed-up for multidimensional zero correlation distinguishers, as well as some integral distinguishers through the correspondence of zero correlation and integral properties shown by Bogdanov et al. and Sum et al. Furthermore, we observe possibility of a more than quadratic speed-ups for some special types of integral distinguishers when multiple integral properties exist. Especially, we show a single-query distinguisher on a $4$-bit cell SPN cipher with the same integral property as 2.5-round AES. Our attacks are the first to observe such a speed-up for classical cryptanalytic techniques without relying on any algebraic structures such as hidden periods or shifts. By replacing the Hadamard transform in CEA with the general quantum Fourier transform, our technique also speeds-up generalized linear distinguishers on an arbitrary finite abelian group.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Generation of two ''independent'' points on an elliptic curve of $j$-invariant $\neq 0, 1728$
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article is dedicated to a new generation method of two ``independent'' $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$-points $P_0$, $P_1$ on almost any ordinary elliptic curve $E$ over a finite field $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ of large characteristic. In particular, the method is relevant for all standardized and real-world elliptic curves of $j$-invariants different from $0$, $1728$. The points $P_0$, $P_1$ are characterized by the fact that nobody (even a generator) knows the discrete logarithm $\log_{P_0}(P_1)$ in the group $E(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$. Moreover, only one square root extraction in $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$ (instead of two ones) is required in comparison with all previous generation methods.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
History-Free Sequential Aggregate Signatures from Generic Trapdoor Functions
Alessio Meneghetti and Edoardo Signorini
A sequential aggregate signature (SAS) scheme allows multiple users to sequentially combine their respective signatures in order to reduce communication costs. Historically, early proposals required the use of trapdoor permutation (e.g., RSA). In recent years, a number of attempts have been made to extend SAS schemes to post-quantum assumptions. Many post-quantum signatures have been proposed in the hash-and-sign paradigm, which requires the use of trapdoor functions and appears to be an ideal candidate for sequential aggregation attempts. However, the hardness in achieving post-quantum one-way permutations makes it difficult to obtain similarly general constructions. Direct attempts at generalizing permutation-based schemes have been proposed, but they either lack formal security or require additional properties on the trapdoor function, which are typically not available for multivariate or code-based functions. In this paper, we propose a history-free sequential aggregate signature based on generic trapdoor functions, generalizing existing techniques. We prove the security of our scheme in the random oracle model by adopting the probabilistic hash-and-sign with retry paradigm, and we instantiate our construction with three post-quantum schemes, comparing their compression capabilities. Finally, we discuss how direct extensions of permutation-based SAS schemes are not possible without additional properties, showing the insecurity of two existing multivariate schemes when instantiated with Unbalanced Oil and Vinegar.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Curve Trees: Practical and Transparent Zero-Knowledge Accumulators
Matteo Campanelli, Mathias Hall-Andersen, and Simon Holmgaard Kamp
In this work we improve upon the state of the art for practical zero-knowledge for set membership, a building block at the core of several privacy-aware applications, such as anonymous payments, credentials and whitelists. This primitive allows a user to show knowledge of an element in a large set without leaking the specific element. One of the obstacles to its deployment is efficiency. Concretely efficient solutions exist, e.g., those deployed in Zcash Sapling, but they often work at the price of a strong trust assumption: an underlying setup that must be generated by a trusted third party. To find alternative approaches we focus on a common building block: accumulators, a cryptographic data structure which compresses the underlying set. We propose novel, more efficient and fully transparent constructions (i.e., without a trusted setup) for accumulators supporting zero-knowledge proofs for set membership. Technically, we introduce new approaches inspired by ``commit-and-prove'' techniques to combine shallow Merkle trees and 2-cycles of elliptic curves into a highly practical construction. Our basic accumulator construction---dubbed Curve Trees---is completely transparent (does not require a trusted setup) and is based on simple and widely used assumptions (DLOG and Random Oracle Model). Ours is the first fully transparent construction that obtains concretely small proof/commitment sizes for large sets and a proving time one order of magnitude smaller than proofs over Merkle Trees with Pedersen hash. For a concrete instantiation targeting 128 bits of security we obtain: a commitment to a set of any size is 256 bits; for $|S| = 2^{40}$ a zero-knowledge membership proof is 2.9KB, its proving takes $2$s and its verification $40$ms on an ordinary laptop. Using our construction as a building block we can design a simple and concretely efficient anonymous cryptocurrency with full anonymity set, which we dub $\mathbb{V}$cash. Its transactions can be verified in $\approx 80$ms or $\approx 5$ms when batch-verifying multiple ($> 100$) transactions; transaction sizes are $4$KB. Our timings are competitive with those of the approach in Zcash Sapling and trade slightly larger proofs (transactions in Zcash Sapling are 2.8KB) for a completely transparent setup.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Finding and Evaluating Parameters for BGV
Johannes Mono, Chiara Marcolla, Georg Land, Tim Güneysu, and Najwa Aaraj
Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a groundbreaking technology that allows for arbitrary computations to be performed on encrypted data. State-of-the-art schemes such as Brakerski Gentry Vaikuntanathan (BGV) are based on the Learning with Errors over rings (RLWE) assumption, and each ciphertext has an associated error that grows with each homomorphic operation. For correctness, the error needs to stay below a certain threshold, requiring a trade-off between security and error margin for computations in the parameters. Choosing the parameters accordingly, for example, the polynomial degree or the ciphertext modulus, is challenging and requires expert knowledge specific to each scheme. In this work, we improve the parameter generation process across all steps of its process. We provide a comprehensive analysis for BGV in the Double Chinese Remainder Theorem (DCRT) representation providing more accurate and better bounds than previous work on the DCRT, and empirically derive a closed formula linking the security level, the polynomial degree, and the ciphertext modulus. Additionally, we introduce new circuit models and combine our theoretical work in an easy-to-use parameter generator for researchers and practitioners interested in using BGV for secure computation. Our formula results in better security estimates than previous closed formulas, while our DCRT analysis results in reduced prime sizes of up to 42% compared to previous work.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Breaking the power-of-two barrier: noise estimation for BGV in NTT-friendly rings
Andrea Di Giusto and Chiara Marcolla
The Brakerski-Gentry-Vaikuntanathan (BGV) scheme is a Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) cryptosystem based on the Ring Learning With Error (RLWE) problem. Ciphertexts in this scheme contain an error term that grows with operations and causes decryption failure when it surpasses a certain threshold. For this reason, the parameters of BGV need to be estimated carefully, with a trade-off between security and error margin. The ciphertext space of BGV is the ring $\mathcal R_q=\mathbb Z_q[x]/(\Phi_m(x))$, where usually the degree $n$ of the cyclotomic polynomial $\Phi_m(x)$ is chosen as a power of two for efficiency reasons. However, the jump between two consecutive powers-of-two polynomials can sometimes also cause a jump of the security, resulting in parameters that are much bigger than what is needed. In this work, we explore the non-power-of-two instantiations of BGV. Although our theoretical research encompasses results applicable to any cyclotomic ring, our main investigation is focused on the case of $m=2^s 3^t$, i.e., cyclotomic polynomials with degree $n=2^s 3^{t-1}$. We provide a thorough analysis of the noise growth in this new setting using the canonical norm and compare our results with the power-of-two case considering practical aspects like NTT algorithms. We find that in many instances, the parameter estimation process yields better results for the non-power-of-two setting.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Asymmetric Trapdoor Pseudorandom Generators: Definitions, Constructions, and Applications to Homomorphic Signatures with Shorter Public Keys
Jinpeng Hou, Yansong Gao, Anmin Fu, Jie Chen, Xiaofeng Chen, Yuqing Zhang, Willy Susilo, and Josef Pieprzyk
We introduce a new primitive called the asymmetric trapdoor pseudorandom generator (ATPRG), which belongs to pseudorandom generators with two additional trapdoors (a public trapdoor and a secret trapdoor) or backdoor pseudorandom generators with an additional trapdoor (a secret trapdoor). Specifically, ATPRG can only generate public pseudorandom numbers $pr_1,\dots,pr_N$ for the users having no knowledge of the public trapdoor and the secret trapdoor; so this function is the same as pseudorandom generators. However, the users having the public trapdoor can use any public pseudorandom number $pr_i$ to recover the whole $pr$ sequence; so this function is the same as backdoor pseudorandom generators. Further, the users having the secret trapdoor can use $pr$ sequence to generate a sequence $sr_1,\dots,sr_N$ of the secret pseudorandom numbers. ATPRG can help design more space-efficient protocols where data/input/message should respect a predefined (unchangeable) order to be correctly processed in a computation or malleable cryptographic system. As for applications of ATPRG, we construct the first homomorphic signature scheme (in the standard model) whose public key size is only $O(T)$ that is independent of the dataset size. As a comparison, the shortest size of the existing public key is $O(\sqrt{N}+\sqrt{T})$, proposed by Catalano et al. (CRYPTO'15), where $N$ is the dataset size and $T$ is the dimension of the message. In other words, we provide the first homomorphic signature scheme with $O(1)$-sized public keys for the one-dimension messages.
Last updated:  2023-05-29
Coefficient Grouping for Complex Affine Layers
Fukang Liu, Lorenzo Grassi, Clémence Bouvier, Willi Meier, and Takanori Isobe
Designing symmetric-key primitives for applications in Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) has become important to address the issue of the ciphertext expansion. In such a context, cryptographic primitives with a low-AND-depth decryption circuit are desired. Consequently, quadratic nonlinear functions are commonly used in these primitives, including the well-known $\chi$ function over $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ and the power map over a large finite field $\mathbb{F}_{p^n}$. In this work, we study the growth of the algebraic degree for an SPN cipher over $\mathbb{F}_{2^n}^{m}$, whose S-box is defined as the combination of a power map $x\mapsto x^{2^d+1}$ and an $\mathbb{F}_2$-linearized affine polynomial $x\mapsto c_0+\sum_{i=1}^{w}c_ix^{2^{h_i}}$ where $c_1,\ldots,c_w\neq0$. Specifically, motivated by the fact that the original coefficient grouping technique published at EUROCRYPT 2023 becomes less efficient for $w>1$, we develop a variant technique that can efficiently work for arbitrary $w$. With this new technique to study the upper bound of the algebraic degree, we answer the following questions from a theoretic perspective: 1. can the algebraic degree increase exponentially when $w=1$? 2. what is the influence of $w$, $d$ and $(h_1,\ldots,h_w)$ on the growth of the algebraic degree? Based on this, we show (i) how to efficiently find $(h_1,\ldots,h_w)$ to achieve the exponential growth of the algebraic degree and (ii) how to efficiently compute the upper bound of the algebraic degree for arbitrary $(h_1,\ldots,h_w)$. Therefore, we expect that these results can further advance the understanding of the design and analysis of such primitives.
Last updated:  2023-05-28
Classical substitution ciphers and group theory
Thomas Kaeding
Show abstract
We explore some connections between classical substitution ciphers, both monoalphabetic and polyalphabetic, and mathematical group theory. We try to do this in a way that is accessible to cryptographers who are not familiar with group theory, and to mathematicians who are not familiar with classical ciphers.
Last updated:  2023-05-28
A Two-Party Hierarchical Deterministic Wallets in Practice
ChihYun Chuang, IHung Hsu, and TingFang Lee
The applications of Hierarchical Deterministic Wallet are rapidly growing in various areas such as cryptocurrency exchanges and hardware wallets. Improving privacy and security is more important than ever. In this study, we proposed a protocol that fully support a two-party computation of BIP32. Our protocol, similar to the distributed key generation, can generate each party’s secret share, the common chain-code, and the public key without revealing a seed and any descendant private keys. We also provided a simulation-based proof of our protocol assuming a rushing, static, and malicious adversary in the hybrid model. Our master key generation protocol produces up to total of two bit leakages from a honest party given the feature that the seeds will be re-selected after each execution. The proposed hardened child key derivation protocol leads up to a one bit leakage in the worst situation of simulation from a honest party and will be accumulated with each execution. Fortunately, in reality, this issue can be largely mitigated by adding some validation criteria of boolean circuits and masking the input shares before each execution. We then implemented the proposed protocol and ran in a single thread on a laptop which turned out with practically acceptable execution time. Lastly, the outputs of our protocol can be easily integrated with many threshold sign protocols.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Additional Modes for ASCON
Rhys Weatherley
NIST selected the A SCON family of cryptographic primitives for standardization in February 2023 as the final step in the Lightweight Cryptography Competition. The ASCON submission to the competition provided Authenticated Encryption with Associated Data (AEAD), hashing, and Extensible Output Function (XOF) modes. Real world cryptography systems often need more than packet encryption and simple hashing. Keyed message authentication, key derivation, cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generation (CSPRNG), password hashing, and encryption of sensitive values in memory are also important. This paper defines additional modes that can be deployed on top of ASCON based on proven designs from the literature.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Satisfiability Modulo Finite Fields
Alex Ozdemir, Gereon Kremer, Cesare Tinelli, and Clark Barrett
We study satisfiability modulo the theory of finite fields and give a decision procedure for this theory. We implement our procedure for prime fields inside the cvc5 SMT solver. Using this theory, we con- struct SMT queries that encode translation validation for various zero knowledge proof compilers applied to Boolean computations. We evalu- ate our procedure on these benchmarks. Our experiments show that our implementation is superior to previous approaches (which encode field arithmetic using integers or bit-vectors).
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Flamingo: Multi-Round Single-Server Secure Aggregation with Applications to Private Federated Learning
Yiping Ma, Jess Woods, Sebastian Angel, Antigoni Polychroniadou, and Tal Rabin
This paper introduces Flamingo, a system for secure aggregation of data across a large set of clients. In secure aggregation, a server sums up the private inputs of clients and obtains the result without learning anything about the individual inputs beyond what is implied by the final sum. Flamingo focuses on the multi-round setting found in federated learning in which many consecutive summations (averages) of model weights are performed to derive a good model. Previous protocols, such as Bell et al. (CCS ’20), have been designed for a single round and are adapted to the federated learning setting by repeating the protocol multiple times. Flamingo eliminates the need for the per-round setup of previous protocols, and has a new lightweight dropout resilience protocol to ensure that if clients leave in the middle of a sum the server can still obtain a meaningful result. Furthermore, Flamingo introduces a new way to locally choose the so-called client neighborhood introduced by Bell et al. These techniques help Flamingo reduce the number of interactions between clients and the server, resulting in a significant reduction in the end-to-end runtime for a full training session over prior work. We implement and evaluate Flamingo and show that it can securely train a neural network on the (Extended) MNIST and CIFAR-100 datasets, and the model converges without a loss in accuracy, compared to a non-private federated learning system.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
BAKSHEESH: Similar Yet Different From GIFT
Anubhab Baksi, Jakub Breier, Anupam Chattopadhyay, Tomáš Gerlich, Sylvain Guilley, Naina Gupta, Kai Hu, Takanori Isobe, Arpan Jati, Petr Jedlicka, Hyunjun Kim, Fukang Liu, Zdeněk Martinásek, Kosei Sakamoto, Hwajeong Seo, Rentaro Shiba, and Ritu Ranjan Shrivastwa
We propose a lightweight block cipher named BAKSHEESH, which follows up on the popular cipher GIFT-128 (CHES'17). BAKSHEESH runs for 35 rounds, which is 12.50 percent smaller compared to GIFT-128 (runs for 40 rounds) while maintaining the same security claims against the classical attacks. The crux of BAKSHEESH is to use a 4-bit SBox that has a non-trivial Linear Structure (LS). An SBox with one or more non-trivial LS has not been used in a cipher construction until DEFAULT (Asiacrypt'21). DEFAULT is pitched to have inherent protection against the Differential Fault Attack (DFA), thanks to its SBox having 3 non-trivial LS. BAKSHEESH, however, uses an SBox with only 1 non-trivial LS; and is a traditional cipher just like GIFT-128. The SBox requires a low number of AND gates, making BAKSHEESH suitable for side channel countermeasures (when compared to GIFT-128) and other niche applications. Indeed, our study on the cost of the threshold implementation shows that BAKSHEESH offers a few-fold advantage over other lightweight ciphers. The design is not much deviated from its predecessor (GIFT-128), thereby allowing for easy implementation (such as fix-slicing in software). However, BAKSHEESH opts for the full-round key XOR, compared to the half-round key XOR in GIFT. Thus, when taking everything into account, we show how a cipher construction can benefit from the unique vantage point of using 1 LS SBox, by combining the state-of-the-art progress in classical cryptanalysis and protection against device-dependent attacks. We, therefore, create a new paradigm of lightweight ciphers, by adequate deliberation on the design choice, and solidify it with appropriate security analysis and ample implementation/benchmark.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Too Many Hints - When LLL Breaks LWE
Alexander May and Julian Nowakowski
All modern lattice-based schemes build on variants of the LWE problem. Information leakage of the LWE secret $\mathbf s \in \mathbb{Z}_q^n$ is usually modeled via so-called hints, i.e., inner products of $\mathbf s$ with some (random, but known) vector. At Crypto`20, Dachman-Soled, Ducas, Gong and Rossi (DDGR) defined among other so-called perfect hints and modular hints. The trailblazing DDGR framework allows to integrate and combine hints successively into lattices, and estimates the resulting LWE security loss. We introduce a new methodology to integrate and combine an arbitrary number of perfect and modular in a single stroke. As opposed to DDGR, our methodology is significantly more efficient in constructing lattice bases, and thus easily allows for a large number of hints up to cryptographic dimensions, a regime that is impractical in DDGR. The efficiency of our method defines a large LWE parameter regime, in which we can fully carry out attacks faster than DDGR can solely estimate them. A key component of our new method is dimension reduction of $\mathbf s$, which significantly reduces LWE security. The benefits of our approach allow us to practically determine which number of hints is sufficient to efficiently break LWE-based lattice schemes in practice. For mod-$q$ hints, i.e., modular hints defined over $\mathbb{Z}_q$, we reconstruct Kyber-512 secret keys via LLL reduction (only!) with an amount of $449$ hints. For Falcon-512, NTRU-HRSS-701, Kyber-768 and Dilithium-1024 we need $452$, $622$, $702$ and $876$ modular hints, respectively. Our results for perfect hints significantly improve over these numbers, requiring for LWE dimension $n$ roughly $n/2$ perfect hints. Namely, we reconstruct via LLL reduction Kyber-512 keys with merely $234$ perfect hints. For secret keys of Falcon-512, NTRU-HRSS-701, Kyber-768 and Dilithium-1024 we require $233$, $332$, $390$ and $463$ perfect hints, respectively. We find such a small amount of perfect hints quite remarkable. If we resort to stronger lattice reduction techniques like BKZ, we need even fewer hints. For mod-$q$ hints our method is extremely efficient, taking total time for constructing our lattice bases and secret key recovery via LLL of around 20 mins for dimension 512, 40 mins for dimensions 701 and 768, and less than 10 hours for dimension 1024. For perfect hints we require around 3 hours (dim 512), 11 hours (dim 701), 1 day (dim 768), and one week (dim 1024). Our results demonstrate that especially perfect hints are powerful in practice, and stress the necessity to properly protect lattice schemes against leakage.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Quantum Attacks on Type-1 Generalized Feistel Schemes
Hong-Wei Sun, Bin-Bin Cai, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fei Gao
Generalized Feistel schemes (GFSs) are extremely important and extensively researched cryptographic schemes. In this paper, we investigate the security of Type-1 GFS in quantum circumstances. On the one hand, in the qCCA setting, we give a new quantum polynomial time distinguisher on (d^2 -1)-round Type-1 GFS with branches d >3, which extends the previous results by d-2 rounds. This leads to a more efficient analysis of type-1 GFS, that is, the complexity of some previous key-recovery attacks is reduced by a factor of 2^(((d-2)k)/2), where k is the key length of the internal round function. On the other hand, for CAST-256, which is a certain block cipher based on Type-1 GFS, we give a 17-round quantum distinguisher in the qCPA setting. As a result, we construct an r(r > 17) round quantum key-recovery attack with complexity O(2^(37(r-17))/2 ).
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Exact Security Analysis of ASCON
Bishwajit Chakraborty, Chandranan Dhar, and Mridul Nandi
The Ascon cipher suite, offering both authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) and hashing functionality, has recently emerged as the winner of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography (LwC) standardization process. The AEAD schemes within Ascon, namely Ascon-128 and Ascon-128a, have also been previously selected as the preferred lightweight authenticated encryption solutions in the CAESAR competition. In this paper, we present a tight and comprehensive security analysis of the Ascon AEAD schemes within the random permutation model. Existing integrity analyses of Ascon (and any Duplex AEAD scheme in general) commonly include the term $DT/2^c$, where $D$ and $T$ represent data and time complexities respectively, and $c$ denotes the capacity of the underlying sponge. In this paper, we demonstrate that Ascon achieves AE security when $T$ is bounded by $\min\{2^{\kappa}, 2^c\}$ (where $\kappa$ is the key size), and $DT$ is limited to $2^b$ (with $b$ being the size of the underlying permutation, which is 320 for Ascon). Our findings indicate that in accordance with NIST requirements, Ascon allows for a tag size as low as 64 bits while enabling a higher rate of 192 bits, surpassing the recommended rate.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Tagged Chameleon Hash from Lattice and Application to Redactable Blockchain
Yiming Li and Shengli Liu
Chameleon hash (CH) is a trapdoor hash function. Generally it is hard to find collisions, but with the help of trapdoor, finding collisions becomes easy. CH plays an important role in converting a conventional blockchain to a redactable one. However, most of the existing CH schemes are too weak to support redactable blockchain. The currently known CH schemes serving for redactable blockchain have the best security of so-called “full collision resistance (f-CR)”, but they are built either on random oracle model or rely on heavy tools like the simulation-sound extractable non-interactive zero-knowledge (SSE-NIZK) proof system. Moreover, up to now there is no CH scheme with post-quantum f-CR security in the standard model. Therefore, no CH can support redactable blockchain in a post-quantum way without relying on random oracles. In this paper, we introduce a variant of CH, namely tagged chameleon hash (tCH). Tagged chameleon hash takes a tag into hash evaluations and collision finding algorithms. We define two security notions for tCH, collision resistance (CR) and full collision resistance (f-CR), and prove the equivalence between CR and f-CR when tCH works in the one-time tag mode. We propose a tCH scheme from lattice without using any NIZK proof, and prove that its collision resistance is (almost) tightly reduced to the Short Integer Solution (SIS) assumption in the standard model. We also show how to apply tCH to a blockchain in one-time tag mode so that the blockchain can be compiled to a redactable one. Our tCH scheme provides the first post-quantum solution for redactable blockchains, without resorting to random oracles or NIZK proofs. Besides, we also construct a more efficient tCH scheme with CR tightly reduced to SIS in the random oracle model, which may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
An update on Keccak performance on ARMv7-M
Alexandre Adomnicai
This note provides an update on Keccak performance on the ARMv7-M processors. Starting from the XKCP implementation, we have applied architecture-specific optimizations that have yielded a performance gain of up to 21% for the largest permutation instance.
Last updated:  2023-05-27
Classical and Quantum Meet-in-the-Middle Nostradamus Attacks on AES-like Hashing
Zhiyu Zhang, Siwei Sun, Caibing Wang, and Lei Hu
At EUROCRYPT 2006, Kelsey and Kohno proposed the so-called chosen target forced-prefix (CTFP) preimage attack, where for any challenge prefix $P$, the attacker can generate a suffix $S$ such that $H(P\|S) = y$ for some hash value $y$ published in advance by the attacker. Consequently, the attacker can pretend to predict some event represented by $P$ she did not know before, and thus this type of attack is also known as the Nostradamus attack. At ASIACRYPT 2022, Benedikt et al. convert Kelsey et al.'s attack to a quantum one, reducing the time complexity from $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{n}\cdot 2^{2n/3})$ to $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt[3]{n} \cdot 2^{3n/7})$. CTFP preimage attack is less investigated in the literature than (second-)preimage and collision attacks and lacks dedicated methods. In this paper, we propose the first dedicated Nostradamus attack based on the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack, and the MITM Nostradamus attack could be up to quadratically accelerated in the quantum setting. According to the recent works on MITM preimage attacks on AES-like hashing, we build an automatic tool to search for optimal MITM Nostradamus attacks and model the tradeoff between the offline and online phases. We apply our method to AES-MMO and Whirlpool, and obtain the first dedicated attack on round-reduced version of these hash functions. Our method and automatic tool are applicable to other AES-like hashings.
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