All papers in 2022 (857 results)

Last updated:  2022-06-28
Succinct Classical Verification of Quantum Computation
James Bartusek, Yael Tauman Kalai, Alex Lombardi, Fermi Ma, Giulio Malavolta, Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Thomas Vidick, and Lisa Yang
We construct a classically verifiable succinct interactive argument for quantum computation (BQP) with communication complexity and verifier runtime that are poly-logarithmic in the runtime of the BQP computation (and polynomial in the security parameter). Our protocol is secure assuming the post-quantum security of indistinguishability obfuscation (iO) and Learning with Errors (LWE). This is the first succinct argument for quantum computation in the plain model; prior work (Chia-Chung-Yamakawa, TCC '20) requires both a long common reference string and non-black-box use of a hash function modeled as a random oracle. At a technical level, we revisit the framework for constructing classically verifiable quantum computation (Mahadev, FOCS '18). We give a self-contained, modular proof of security for Mahadev's protocol, which we believe is of independent interest. Our proof readily generalizes to a setting in which the verifier's first message (which consists of many public keys) is compressed. Next, we formalize this notion of compressed public keys; we view the object as a generalization of constrained/programmable PRFs and instantiate it based on indistinguishability obfuscation. Finally, we compile the above protocol into a fully succinct argument using a (sufficiently composable) succinct argument of knowledge for NP. Using our framework, we achieve several additional results, including - Succinct arguments for QMA (given multiple copies of the witness), - Succinct non-interactive arguments for BQP (or QMA) in the quantum random oracle model, and - Succinct batch arguments for BQP (or QMA) assuming post-quantum LWE (without iO).
Last updated:  2022-06-28
Mix-Nets from Re-Randomizable and Replayable CCA-secure Public-Key Encryption
Antonio Faonio and Luigi Russo
Mix-nets are protocols that allow a set of senders to send messages anonymously. Faonio et al. (ASIACRYPT’19) showed how to instantiate mix-net protocols based on Public-Verifiable Re-randomizable Replayable CCA-secure (Rand-RCCA) PKE schemes. The bottleneck of their approach is that public-verifiable Rand-RCCA PKEs are less efficient than typical CPA-secure re-randomizable PKEs. In this paper, we revisit their mix-net protocol, showing how to get rid of the cumbersome public-verifiability property, and we give a more efficient instantiation for the mix-net protocol based on a (non publicly-verifiable) Rand-RCCA scheme. Additionally, we give a more careful security analysis of their mix-net protocol.
Last updated:  2022-06-28
Tightness Subtleties for Multi-user PKE Notions
Hans Heum and Martijn Stam
Public key encryption schemes are increasingly being studied concretely, with an emphasis on tight bounds even in a multi-user setting. Here, two types of formalization have emerged, one with a single challenge bit and one with multiple challenge bits. Another modelling choice is whether to allow key corruptions or not. How tightly the various notions relate to each other has hitherto not been studied in detail. We show that in the absence of corruptions, single-bit left-or-right indistinguishability is the preferred notion, as it tightly implies the other (corruption-less) notions. However, in the presence of corruptions, this implication no longer holds; we suggest the use of a more general notion that tightly implies both existing options. Furthermore, for completeness we study how the relationship between left-or-right versus real-or-random evolves in the multi-user PKE setting.
Last updated:  2022-06-28
On Access Control Encryption without Sanitization
Cecilia Boschini, Ivan Damgård, and Claudio Orlandi
Access Control Encryption (ACE) allows to control information flow between parties by enforcing a policy that specifies which user can send messages to whom. The core of the scheme is a sanitizer, i.e., an entity that ''sanitizes'' all messages by essentially re-encrypting the ciphertexts under its key. In this work we investigate the natural question of whether it is still possible to achieve some meaningful security properties in scenarios when such a sanitization step is not possible. We answer positively by showing that it is possible to limit corrupted users to communicate only through insecure subliminal channels, under the necessary assumption that parties do not have pre-shared randomness. Moreover, we show that the bandwidth of such channels can be limited to be O(log(n)) by adding public ciphertext verifiability to the scheme under computational assumptions. In particular, we rely on a new security definition for obfuscation, Game Specific Obfuscation (GSO), which is a weaker definition than VBB, as it only requires the obfuscator to obfuscate programs in a specific family of programs, and limited to a fixed security game.
Last updated:  2022-06-28
Hashing to Prime in Zero-Knowledge
Thomas Groß
We establish a set of zero-knowledge arguments that allow for the hashing of a committed secret $a$-bit input $x$ to a committed secret $(k+1)$-bit prime number $p_x$. The zero-knowledge arguments can convince a verifier that a commitment indeed is the correctly generated prime number derived from $x$ with a soundness error probability of at most $2^{-k}+ 2^{-t}$ dependent on the number of zero-knowledge argument rounds $k$ and the number of primality bases $t$ to establish primality. Our constructions offer a range of contributions including enabling dynamic encodings for prime-based accumulator, signature and attribute-based credential schemes allowing to reduce these schemes' public key size and setup requirements considerably and rendering them extensible. While our new primality zero-knowledge arguments are of independent interest, we also show improvements on proving that a secret number is the product of two secret safe primes significantly more efficient than previously known results, with applications to setting up secure special RSA moduli.
Last updated:  2022-06-28
Making Biased DL Models Work: Message and Key Recovery Attacks on Saber Using Amplitude-Modulated EM Emanations
Ruize Wang, Kalle Ngo, and Elena Dubrova
Creating a good deep learning (DL) model is an art which requires expertise in DL and a large set of labeled data for training neural networks. Neither is readily available. In this paper, we introduce a method which enables us to achieve good results with bad DL models. We use simple multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks, trained on a small dataset, which make strongly biased predictions if used without the proposed method. The core idea is to extend the attack dataset so that at least one of its traces has the ground truth label to which the models are biased towards. The effectiveness of the presented method is demonstrated by attacking an ARM Cortex-M4 CPU implementation of Saber KEM, a finalist of the NIST post-quantum cryptography standardization project, on a nRF52832 system-on-chip supporting Bluetooth 5, using amplitude-modulated EM emanations. Previous amplitude-modulated EM emanation-based attacks on Saber KEM could not recover its messages with a sufficiently high probability. We recover messages with the probability 1 from the profiling device and with the probability 0.74 from a different device. Using messages recovered from chosen ciphertexts, we extract the secret key of Saber KEM.
Last updated:  2022-06-28
NIWI and New Notions of Extraction for Algebraic Languages
Chaya Ganesh, Hamidreza Khoshakhlagh, and Roberto Parisella
We give an efficient construction of a computational non-interactive witness indistinguishable (NIWI) proof in the plain model, and investigate notions of extraction for NIZKs for algebraic languages. Our starting point is the recent work of Couteau and Hartmann (CRYPTO 2020) who developed a new framework (CH framework) for constructing non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and arguments under falsifiable assumptions for a large class of languages called algebraic languages. In this paper, we construct an efficient NIWI proof in the plain model for algebraic languages based on the CH framework. In the plain model, our NIWI construction is more efficient for algebraic languages than state-of-the-art Groth-Ostrovsky-Sahai (GOS) NIWI (JACM 2012). Next, we explore knowledge soundness of NIZK systems in the CH framework. We define a notion of strong f-extractability, and show that the CH proof system satisfies this notion. We then put forth a new definition of knowledge soundness called semantic extraction. We explore the relationship of semantic extraction with existing knowledge soundness definitions and show that it is a general definition that recovers black-box and non-black-box definitions as special cases. Finally, we show that NIZKs for algebraic languages in the CH framework cannot satisfy semantic extraction. We extend this impossibility to a class of NIZK arguments over algebraic languages, namely quasi-adaptive NIZK arguments that are constructed from smooth projective hash functions.
Last updated:  2022-06-28
Privacy-aware Secure Region-based Handover for Small Cell Networks in 5G-enabled Mobile Communication
Rabiah Alnashwan, Prosanta Gope, and Benjamin Dowling
The 5G mobile communication network provides seamless communications between users and service providers and promises to achieve several stringent requirements, such as seamless mobility and massive connectivity. Although 5G can offer numerous benefits, security and privacy issues still need to be addressed. For example, the inclusion of small cell networks (SCN) into 5G brings the network closer to the connected users, providing a better quality of services (QoS), resulting in a significant increase in the number of Handover procedures (HO), which will affect the security, latency and efficiency of the network. It is then crucial to design a scheme that supports seamless handovers through secure authentication to avoid the consequences of SCN. To address this issue, this article proposes a secure region-based handover scheme with user anonymity and an efficient revocation mechanism that supports seamless connectivity for SCNs in 5G. In this context, we introduce three privacy-preserving authentication protocols, i.e., initial authentication protocol, intra-region handover protocol and inter-region handover protocol, for dealing with three communication scenarios. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper to consider the privacy and security in both the intra-region and inter-region handover scenarios in 5G communication. Detailed security and performance analysis of our proposed scheme is presented to show that it is resilient against many security threats, is cost-effective in computation and provides an efficient solution for the 5G enabled mobile communication.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
Formal Verification of Arithmetic Masking in Hardware and Software
Barbara Gigerl, Robert Primas, and Stefan Mangard
Masking is a popular secret-sharing technique that is used to protect cryptographic implementations against physical attacks like differential power analysis. So far, most research in this direction has focused on finding efficient Boolean masking schemes for well-known symmetric cryptographic algorithms like AES and Keccak. However, especially with the advent of post-quantum cryptography (PQC), arithmetic masking has received increasing attention from the research community. In practice, many PQC algorithms require a combination of arithmetic and Boolean masking, which makes the search for secure and efficient conversion algorithms between these domains (A2B/B2A) an interesting but very challenging research topic. While there already exist lots of tools that can help with the formal verification of Boolean masked implementations, the same cannot be said about arithmetic masking and accompanying mask conversion algorithms. In this work, we demonstrate the first formal verification approach for (any-order) Boolean and arithmetic masking which can be applied to both hardware and software, while considering side-effects such as glitches and transitions. First, we show how a formal verification approach for Boolean masking can be used in the context of arithmetic masking such that we can verify A2B/B2A conversions for arbitrary masking orders. We investigate various conversion algorithms in hardware and software, and point out several new findings such as glitch-based issues for straightforward implementations of [CGV14]-A2B in hardware, transition-based leakage in Goubin-A2B in software, and more general implementation pitfalls when utilizing common optimization techniques in PQC. We provide the first formal analysis of table-based A2Bs from a probing security perspective and point out that they might not be easy to implement securely on processors that use of memory buffers or caches.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
Symmetrical Disguise: Realizing Homomorphic Encryption Services from Symmetric Primitives (extended version)
Alexandros Bakas, Eugene Frimpong, and Antonis Michalas
Homomorphic Encryption (HE) is a modern cryptographic technique that allows direct computations on encrypted data. While relatively new to the mainstream debate, HE has been a solid topic in research for decades. However, despite the technological advances of the past years, HE’s inefficiencies render it impractical for deployment in realistic scenarios. Hence research in the field is still in its initial phase. To overcome certain challenges and bring HE closer to a realization phase, researchers recently introduced the promising concept of Hybrid Homomorphic Encryption (HHE) – a primitive that combines symmetric cryptography with HE. Using HHE, users perform local data encryptions using a symmetric encryption scheme and then outsource them to the cloud. Upon reception, the cloud can transform the symmetrically encrypted data into homomorphic ciphertexts without decrypting them. Such an approach can be seen as an opportunity to build new, privacy-respecting cloud services, as the most expensive operations of HE can be moved to the cloud. In this work, we undertake the task of designing a secure cryptographic protocol based on HHE. In particular, we show how HHE can be used as the main building block of a protocol that allows an analyst to collect data from multiple sources and compute specific functions over them, in a privacy-preserving way. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that aims at demonstrating how HHE can be utilized in realistic scenarios, through the design of a secure protocol.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
A note on key control in CSIDH
Antonio Sanso
In this short note we explore a particular behaviour of the CSIDH key exchange that leads to a very special form of (shared) key control via the use of the quadratic twists. This peculiarity contained in CSIDH with regard to quadratic twists was already noted in the original CSDIH work and used in several subsequent papers but we believe spelling out this in the form of an attack might be useful to the wider community.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
A Long Tweak Goes a Long Way: High Multi-user Security Authenticated Encryption from Tweakable Block Ciphers
Benoît Cogliati, Jérémy Jean, Thomas Peyrin, and Yannick Seurin
We analyze the multi-user (mu) security of a family of nonce-based authentication encryption (nAE) schemes based on a tweakable block cipher (TBC). The starting point of our work is an analysis of the mu security of the SCT-II mode which underlies the nAE scheme Deoxys-II, winner of the CAESAR competition for the defense-in-depth category. We extend this analysis in two directions, as we detail now. First, we investigate the mu security of several TBC-based variants of the counter encryption mode (including CTRT, the encryption mode used within SCT-II) that differ by the way a nonce, a random value, and a counter are combined as tweak and plaintext inputs to the TBC to produce the keystream blocks that will mask the plaintext blocks. Then, we consider the authentication part of SCT-II and study the mu security of the nonce-based MAC Nonce-as-Tweak (NaT) built from a TBC and an almost universal (AU) hash function. We also observe that the standard construction of an AU hash function from a (T)BC can be proven secure under the assumption that the underlying TBC is unpredictable rather than pseudorandom, allowing much better conjectures on the concrete AU advantage. This allows us to derive the mu security of the family of nAE modes obtained by combining these encryption/MAC building blocks through the NSIV composition method. Some of these modes require an underlying TBC with a larger tweak length than what is usually available for existing ones. We then show the practicality of our modes by instantiating them with two new TBC constructions, Deoxys-TBC-512 and Deoxys-TBC-640, which can be seen as natural extensions of the Deoxys-TBC family to larger tweak input sizes. Designing such TBCs with unusually large tweaks is prone to pitfalls: Indeed, we show that a large-tweak proposal for SKINNY published at EUROCRYPT 2020 presents an inherent construction flaw. We therefore provide a sound design strategy to construct large-tweak TBCs within the Superposition Tweakey (STK) framework, leading to new Deoxys-TBC and SKINNY variants. We provide software benchmarks indicating that while ensuring a very high security level, the performances of our proposals remain very competitive.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
Key Structures: Improved Related-Key Boomerang Attack against the Full AES-256
Jian Guo, Ling Song, and Haoyang Wang
This paper introduces structure to key, in the related-key attack settings. While the idea of structure has been long used in keyrecovery attacks against block ciphers to enjoy the birthday effect, the same had not been applied to key materials due to the fact that key structure results in uncontrolled differences in key and hence affects the validity or probabilities of the differential trails. We apply this simple idea to improve the related-key boomerang attack against AES-256 by Biryukov and Khovratovich in 2009. Surprisingly, it turns out to be effective, i.e., both data and time complexities are reduced by a factor of about 2^8, to 2^92 and 2^91 respectively, at the cost of the amount of required keys increased from 4 to 2^19. There exist some tradeoffs between the data/time complexity and the number of keys. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first essential improvement of the attack against the full AES-256 since 2009. It will be interesting to see if the structure technique can be applied to other AES-like block ciphers, and to tweaks rather than keys of tweakable block ciphers so the amount of required keys of the attack will not be affected.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
Security Analysis of a Recent Pairing-based Certificateless Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Blockchain-based WBANs
Yong-Jin Kim, Dok-Jun An, Kum-Sok Sin, and Son-Gyong Kim
In this paper, we proposed some vulnerabilities of a recent pairing-based certificateless authenticated key agreement protocol for blockchain-based wireless body area networks (WBAN). According to our analysis, this protocol is insecure against key offset attack (KOA), basic impersonation attack (BIA), and man-in-the-middle attack (MMA) of the malicious key generation center (KGC) administrators. We also found and pointed out some errors in the description of the protocol.
Last updated:  2022-06-26
Predicting BKZ Z-Shapes on q-ary Lattices
Martin R. Albrecht and Jianwei Li
Primal attacks against the Learning With Errors (LWE) problem rely on reducing \(q\)-ary lattices. These reduced bases have been observed to exhibit a so-called ``Z-shape'' on their Gram--Schmidt vectors. We propose an efficient simulator to accurately predict this Z-shape behaviour, which we back up with extensive simulations and experiments. We also formalise (under standard heuristics) the intuition that the presence of a Z-shape makes enumeration-based primal lattice attacks faster. Furthermore, we upgrade the LWE or lattice estimator with our simulator to assess and then rule out the impact of the \(q\)-ary Z-shape on solving LWE instances derived from parameter sets for NIST PQC candidates. We consider this improved estimator to be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Nearly Optimal Property Preserving Hashing
Justin Holmgren, Minghao Liu, LaKyah Tyner, and Daniel Wichs
Property-preserving hashing (PPH) consists of a family of compressing hash functions $h$ such that, for any two inputs $x,y$, we can correctly identify whether some property $P(x,y)$ holds given only the digests $h(x),h(y)$. In a basic PPH, correctness should hold with overwhelming probability over the choice of $h$ when $x,y$ are worst-case values chosen a-priori and independently of $h$. In an adversarially robust PPH (RPPH), correctness must hold even when $x,y$ are chosen adversarially and adaptively depending on $h$. Here, we study (R)PPH for the property that the Hamming distance between $x$ and $y$ is at most $t$. The notion of (R)PPH was introduced by Boyle, LaVigne and Vaikuntanathan (ITCS '19), and further studied by Fleischhacker, Simkin (Eurocrypt '21) and Fleischhacker, Larsen, Simkin (Eurocrypt '22). In this work, we obtain improved constructions that are conceptually simpler, have nearly optimal parameters, and rely on more general assumptions than prior works. Our results are: * We construct information-theoretic non-robust PPH for Hamming distance via syndrome list-decoding of linear error-correcting codes. We provide a lower bound showing that this construction is essentially optimal. * We make the above construction robust with little additional overhead, by relying on homomorphic collision-resistant hash functions, which can be constructed from either the discrete-logarithm or the short-integer-solution assumptions. The resulting RPPH achieves improved compression compared to prior constructions, and is nearly optimal. * We also show an alternate construction of RPPH for Hamming distance under the minimal assumption that standard collision-resistant hash functions exist. The compression is slightly worse than our optimized construction using homomorphic collision-resistance, but essentially matches the prior state of the art constructions from specific algebraic assumptions. * Lastly, we study a new notion of randomized robust PPH (R2P2H) for Hamming distance, which relaxes RPPH by allowing the hashing algorithm itself to be randomized. We give an information-theoretic construction with optimal parameters.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Faster Yet Safer: Logging System Via Fixed-Key Blockcipher
Viet Tung Hoang, Cong Wu, and Xin Yuan
System logs are crucial for forensic analysis, but to be useful, they need to be tamper-proof. To protect the logs, a number of secure logging systems have been proposed from both academia and the industry. Unfortunately, except for the recent KennyLoggings construction, all other logging systems are broken by an attack of Paccagnella et al. (CCS 2020). In this work, we build a secure logging system that improves KennyLoggings in several fronts: adoptability, security, and performance. Our key insight for performance gain is to use AES on a fixed, known key. While this trick is widely used in secure distributed computing, this is the first time it has found an application in the area of symmetric-key cryptography.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Anemoi: Exploiting the Link between Arithmetization-Orientation and CCZ-Equivalence
Clémence Bouvier, Pierre Briaud, Pyrros Chaidos, Léo Perrin, and Vesselin Velichkov
Advanced cryptographic protocols such as Zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs of knowledge, widely used in cryptocurrency applications such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Zcash, demand new cryptographic hash functions that are efficient not only over the binary field $\mathbb{F}_2$, but also over large fields of prime characteristic $\mathbb{F}_p$. This need has been acknowledged by the wider community and new so-called Arithmetization-Oriented (AO) hash functions have been proposed in response, e.g. MiMC-Hash, Rescue and Poseidon to name a few. In this paper we propose Anemoi: a new family of ZK-friendly AO hash functions. The main features that set Anemoi apart from other such families are that 1) it is designed to be efficient within multiple proof systems (e.g. Groth16, Plonk, etc.), 2) it contains dedicated functions optimised for specific applications (namely Merkle tree hashing and general purpose hashing), 3) has competitive performance e.g. about a factor of 2 improvement over Poseidon and Rescue in terms of R1CS constraints, and a 10%-28% improvement over a highly optimized Poseidon implementation in Plonk constraints. On the theoretical side, Anemoi pushes further the frontier in understating the design principles that are truly entailed by arithmetization-orientation. In particular, we identify and exploit a previously unknown relationship between CCZ-equivalence and arithmetization-orientation. In addition, we propose two new standalone components that can be easily reused in new designs. One is a new S-box called Flystel, based on the well-studied butterfly structure, and the second is Jive -- a new mode of operation, inspired by the "Latin dance'' symmetric algorithms (Salsa, ChaCha and derivatives).
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Structure-Preserving Threshold Signatures
Mahdi Sedaghat, Daniel Slamanig, Markulf Kohlweiss, and Bart Preneel
The by now broadly accepted reliance of society on online services, led to a push for decentralization to mitigate the societal and technical risks caused by single points of failure (PoF). One such PoF are cryptographic keys. Thus there is renewed interest in threshold cryptography to distribute the generation and use of such keys. Structure-preserving signatures (SPS) are an important building block for privacy-preserving cryptographic protocols such as electronic cash and (delegatable) anonymous credentials. However, to date, no structure-preserving threshold signatures (SPTS) are available. This is unfortunate, as another PoF is centralized identity management, which could be mitigated by anonymous credentials. In this work we aim to close this gap by introducing a notion and constructions of (non-) interactive SPTS. While it is relatively easy to devise interactive SPTS supporting static corruptions, e.g., based on the SPS of Ghadafi (CT-RSA'16), constructing non-interactive SPTS is a much more delicate task. Due to their structural properties, starting from existing SPS does not yield secure schemes. Thus, we take a different path and first introduce the notion of message-indexed SPS, a variant of SPS that is parameterized by a message indexing function. Inspired by Pointcheval-Sanders (PS) signatures (CT-RSA'16) and the SPS of Ghadafi, we then present a message-indexed SPS, which is non-interactive threshold-friendly. We prove its security in the random oracle model based on a variant of the generalized PS assumption. Based on our message-indexed SPS we then propose the first non-interactive message-indexed SPTS, which we prove to be secure under adaptive corruption. Finally, we discuss applications of SPTS to privacy-preserving primitives.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
An Efficient Query Recovery Attack Against a Graph Encryption Scheme
Francesca Falzon and Kenneth G. Paterson
Ghosh, Kamara and Tamassia (ASIA CCS 2021) presented a Graph Encryption Scheme supporting shortest path queries. We show how to perform a query recovery attack against this GKT scheme when the adversary is given the original graph together with the leakage of certain subsets of queries. Our attack falls within the security model used by Ghosh et al., and is the first targeting schemes supporting shortest path queries. Our attack uses classical graph algorithms to compute the canonical names of the single-destination shortest path spanning trees of the underlying graph and uses these canonical names to pre-compute the set of candidate queries that match each response. Then, when all shortest path queries to a single node have been observed, the canonical names for the corresponding query tree are computed and the responses are matched to the candidate queries from the offline phase. The output is guaranteed to contain the correct query. For a graph on $n$ vertices, our attack runs in time $O(n^3)$ and matches the time complexity of the GKT scheme's setup. We evaluate the attack's performance using the real world datasets used in the original paper and on random graphs, and show that for the real-world datasets as many as 21.9% of the queries can be uniquely recovered and as many as 50% of the queries result in sets of only three candidates.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Differential Cryptanalysis in the Fixed-Key Model
Tim Beyne and Vincent Rijmen
Show abstract
A systematic approach to the fixed-key analysis of differential probabilities is proposed. It is based on the propagation of 'quasidifferential trails', which keep track of probabilistic linear relations on the values satisfying a differential characteristic in a theoretically sound way. It is shown that the fixed-key probability of a differential can be expressed as the sum of the correlations of its quasidifferential trails. The theoretical foundations of the method are based on an extension of the difference-distribution table, which we call the quasidifferential transition matrix. The role of these matrices is analogous to that of correlation matrices in linear cryptanalysis. This puts the theory of differential and linear cryptanalysis on an equal footing. The practical applicability of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by analyzing several differentials for RECTANGLE, KNOT, Speck and Simon. The analysis is automated and applicable to other SPN and ARX designs. Several attacks are shown to be invalid, most others turn out to work only for some keys but can be improved for weak-keys.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Authenticated Garbling from Simple Correlations
Samuel Dittmer, Yuval Ishai, Steve Lu, and Rafail Ostrovsky
We revisit the problem of constant-round malicious secure two-party computation by considering the use of simple correlations, namely sources of correlated randomness that can be securely generated with sublinear communication complexity and good concrete efficiency. The current state-of-the-art protocol of Katz et al. (Crypto 2018) achieves malicious security by realizing a variant of the authenticated garbling functionality of Wang et al. (CCS 2017). Given oblivious transfer correlations, the communication cost of this protocol (with 40 bits of statistical security) is comparable to roughly $10$ garbled circuits (GCs). This protocol inherently requires more than 2 rounds of interaction. In this work, we use other kinds of simple correlations to realize the authenticated garbling functionality with better efficiency. Concretely, we get the following reduced costs in the random oracle model: - Using variants of both vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE) and multiplication triples (MT), we reduce the cost to $1.31$ GCs. - Using only variants of VOLE, we reduce the cost to $2.25$ GCs. - Using only variants of MT, we obtain a non-interactive (i.e., 2-message) protocol with cost comparable to $8$ GCs. Finally, we show that by using recent constructions of pseudorandom correlation generators (Boyle et al., CCS 2018, Crypto 2019, 2020), the simple correlations consumed by our protocols can be securely realized without forming an efficiency bottleneck.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Covert Authentication from Lattices
Rajendra Kumar and Khoa Nguyen
Introduced by von Ahn et al. (STOC’05), covert two-party computation is an appealing cryptographic primitive that allows Al- ice and Bob to securely evaluate a function on their secret inputs in a steganographic manner, i.e., even the existence of a computation is oblivious to each party - unless the output of the function is favourable to both. A prominent form of covert computation is covert authentica- tion, where Alice and Bob want to authenticate each other based on their credentials, in a way such that the party who does not hold the appro- priate credentials cannot pass the authentication and is even unable to distinguish a protocol instance from random noise. Jarecki (PKC’14) put forward a blueprint for designing covert authentication protocols, which relies on a covert conditional key-encapsulation mechanism, an identity escrow scheme, a covert commitment scheme and a Σ-protocol satisfying several specific properties. He also proposed an instantiation based on the Strong RSA, the Decisional Quadratic Residuosity and the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumptions. Despite being very efficient, Jarecki’s con- struction is vulnerable against quantum adversaries. In fact, designing covert authentication protocols from post-quantum assumptions remains an open problem. In this work, we present several contributions to the study of covert authentication protocols. First, we identify several technical obstacles in realizing Jarecki’s blueprint under lattice assumptions. To remedy, we then provide a new generic construction of covert Mutual Authentica- tion (MA) protocol, that departs from given blueprint and that requires somewhat weaker properties regarding the employed cryptographic ingre- dients. Next, we instantiate our generic construction based on commonly used lattice assumptions. The protocol is proven secure in the random oracle model, assuming the hardness of the Module Learning With Errors (M-LWE) and Module Short Integer Solution (M-SIS) and the NTRU problems, and hence, is potentially quantum-safe. In the process, we also develop an approximate smooth projective hashing function associated with a covert commitment, based on the M-LWE assumption. We then demonstrate that this new ingredient can be smoothly combined with existing lattice-based techniques to yield a secure covert MA scheme.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
A New Framework For More Efficient Round-Optimal Lattice-Based (Partially) Blind Signature via Trapdoor Sampling
Rafael del Pino and Shuichi Katsumata
Blind signatures, proposed by Chaum (CRYPTO'82), are interactive protocols between a signer and a user, where a user can obtain a signature without revealing the message to be signed. Recently, Hauck et al. (EUROCRYPT'20) observed that all efficient lattice-based blind signatures following the blueprint of the original blind signature by Rükert (ASIACRYPT'10) have a flawed security proof. This puts us in a situation where all known lattice-based blind signatures have at least two of the following drawbacks: heuristic security; 1 MB or more signature size; only supporting bounded polynomially many signatures, or being based on non-standard assumptions. In this work, we construct the first round-optimal (i.e., two-round) lattice-based blind signature with a signature size of roughly 100 KB that supports unbounded polynomially many signatures and is provably secure under standard assumptions. Even if we allow non-standard assumptions and more rounds, ours provide the shortest signature size while simultaneously supporting unbounded polynomially many signatures. The main idea of our work is revisiting the generic blind signature construction by Fischlin (CRYPTO'06) and optimizing the commit-then-open proof using techniques tailored to lattices. Our blind signature is also the first to have a formal security proof in the quantum random oracle model. Finally, our blind signature extends naturally to partially blind signatures, where the user and signer can include an agreed-upon public string in the message.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Stronger Security for Non-Interactive Threshold Signatures: BLS and FROST
Mihir Bellare, Stefano Tessaro, and Chenzhi Zhu
We give a unified syntax, and a hierarchy of definitions of security of increasing strength, for non-interactive threshold signature schemes. They cover both fully non-interactive schemes (these are ones that have a single-round signing protocol, the canonical example being threshold-BLS) and ones, like FROST, that have a prior round of message-independent pre-processing. The definitions in the upper echelon of our hierarchy ask for security that is well beyond any currently defined, let alone proven to be met by the just-mentioned schemes, yet natural, and important for modern applications like securing digital wallets. We prove that BLS and FROST are better than advertised, meeting some of these stronger definitions. Yet, they fall short of meeting our strongest definition, a gap we fill for FROST via a simple enhancement to the scheme. We also surface subtle differences in the security achieved by variants of FROST.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Sustained Space and Cumulative Complexity Trade-offs for Data-Dependent Memory-Hard Functions
Jeremiah Blocki and Blake Holman
Memory-hard functions (MHFs) are a useful cryptographic primitive which can be used to design egalitarian proof of work puzzles and to protect low entropy secrets like passwords against brute-force attackers. Intuitively, a memory-hard function is a function whose evaluation costs are dominated by memory costs even if the attacker uses specialized hardware (FPGAs/ASICs), and several cost metrics have been proposed to quantify this intuition. For example, space-time cost looks at the product of running time and the maximum space usage over the entire execution of an algorithm. Alwen and Serbinenko (STOC 2015) observed that the space-time cost of evaluating a function multiple times may not scale linearly in the number of instances being evaluated and introduced the stricter requirement that a memory-hard function has high cumulative memory complexity (CMC) to ensure that an attacker's amortized space-time costs remain large even if the attacker evaluates the function on multiple different inputs in parallel. Alwen et al. (EUROCRYPT 2018) observed that the notion of CMC still gives the attacker undesirable flexibility in selecting space-time tradeoffs e.g., while the MHF scrypt has maximal CMC $\Omega(N^2)$, an attacker could evaluate the function with constant $O(1)$ memory in time $O(N^2)$. Alwen et al. introduced an even stricter notion of Sustained Space complexity and designed an MHF which has $s=\Omega(N/\log N)$ sustained complexity $t=\Omega(N)$ i.e., any algorithm evaluating the function in the parallel random oracle model must have at least $t=\Omega(N)$ steps where the memory usage is at least $\Omega(N/\log N)$. In this work, we use dynamic pebbling games and dynamic graphs to explore tradeoffs between sustained space complexity and cumulative memory complexity for data-dependent memory-hard functions such as Argon2id and scrypt. We design our own dynamic graph (dMHF) with the property that {\em any} dynamic pebbling strategy either (1) has $\Omega(N)$ rounds with $\Omega(N)$ space, or (2) has CMC $\Omega(N^{3-\epsilon})$ --- substantially larger than $N^2$. For Argon2id we show that {\em any} dynamic pebbling strategy either(1) has $\Omega(N)$ rounds with $\Omega(N^{1-\epsilon})$ space, or (2) has CMC $\omega(N^2)$. We also present a dynamic version of DRSample (Alwen et al. 2017) for which {\em any} dynamic pebbling strategy either (1) has $\Omega(N)$ rounds with $\Omega(N/\log N)$ space, or (2) has CMC $\Omega(N^3/\log N)$.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Sharing Transformation and Dishonest Majority MPC with Packed Secret Sharing
Vipul Goyal, Antigoni Polychroniadou, and Yifan Song
In the last few years, the efficiency of secure multi-party computation (MPC) in the dishonest majority setting has increased by several orders of magnitudes starting with the SPDZ protocol family which offers a speedy information-theoretic online phase in the prepossessing model. However, state-of-the-art $n$-party MPC protocols in the dishonest majority setting incur online communication complexity per multiplication gate which is linear in the number of parties, i.e. $O(n)$, per gate across all parties. In this work, we construct the first MPC protocols in the preprocessing model for dishonest majority with sub-linear communication complexity per gate in the number of parties $n$. To achieve our results, we extend the use of packed secret sharing to the dishonest majority setting. For a constant fraction of corrupted parties (i.e. if 99 percent of the parties are corrupt), we can achieve a communication complexity of $O(1)$ field elements per multiplication gate across all parties. At the crux of our techniques lies a new technique called sharing transformation. The sharing transformation technique allows us to transform shares under one type of linear secret sharing scheme into another, and even perform arbitrary linear maps on the secrets of (packed) secret sharing schemes with optimal communication complexity. This technique can be of independent interest since transferring shares from one type of scheme into another (e.g., for degree reduction) is ubiquitous in MPC. Furthermore, we introduce what we call sparsely packed Shamir sharing which allows us to address the issue of network routing efficiently, and packed Beaver triples which is an extension of the widely used technique of Beaver triples for packed secret sharing (for dishonest majority).
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Single Server PIR with Sublinear Amortized Time and Polylogarithmic Bandwidth
Arthur Lazzaretti and Charalampos Papamanthou
In Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a client wishes to access an index $i$ from a public $n$-bit database without revealing any information about this index. Recently, a series of works starting with the seminal paper of Corrigan-Gibbs et al. (Eurocrypt 2020) have introduced offline-online PIR schemes with $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ (amortized) server time, $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ (amortized) bandwidth and no additional storage at the server, in both the single-server and two-server models. As a followup to this work, Shi et al. (CRYPTO 2021) further decreased the bandwidth to polylogarithmic, but only in the two-server model. In this paper we fill this gap by constructing the first single-server PIR with $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ amortized server time and polylogarithmic bandwidth. Central to our approach is a new cryptographic primitive that we call extended puncturable pseudorandomn set: With an extended puncturable pseudorandom set, one can represent a random set succinctly (e.g., with a fixed-size key), and can, at the same time both add and remove elements from the set, by manipulating the key. This extension improves previously-proposed constructions that supported only removal, and could have further applications. We acknowledge our work has limitations; more work is required to bring our ideas closer to practice, due to the use of cryptographic primitives such as FHE (only in the offline phase) and LWE-based privately-puncturable PRFs. However, our protocol yields the best asymptotic complexities in single-server PIR to date and we believe it is an important step towards eventually building a practical PIR scheme.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
TERSE: Tiny Encryptions and Really Speedy Execution for Post-Quantum Private Stream Aggregation
Jonathan Takeshita, Zachariah Carmichael, Ryan Karl, and Taeho Jung
The massive scale and performance demands of privacy-preserving data aggregation make integration of security and privacy difficult. Traditional tools in private computing are not well-suited to handle these challenges, especially for more limited client devices. Efficient primitives and protocols for secure and private data aggregation are a promising approach for private data analytics with resource-constrained devices. However, even such efficient primitives may be much slower than computation with plain data (i.e., without security/privacy guarantees). In this paper, we present TERSE, a new Private Stream Aggregation (PSA) protocol for quantum-secure time-series additive data aggregation. Due to its simplicity, low latency, and low communication overhead, TERSE is uniquely well-suited for real-world deployment. In our implementation, TERSE shows very low latency for both clients and servers, achieving encryption latency on a smartphone of 0.0003 ms and aggregation latency of 0.006 ms for 1000 users. TERSE also shows significant improvements in latency over other state-of-the-art quantum-secure PSA, achieving improvements of 1796x to 12406x for encryption at the client's end and 848x to 5433x for aggregation and decryption at the server's end.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Batch Private Information Retrieval with Private Preprocessing
Kevin Yeo
In this paper, we study batch private information retrieval with private preprocessing. Private information retrieval (PIR) is the problem where one or more servers hold a database of $n$ bits and a client wishes to retrieve the $i$-th bit in the database from the server(s). In PIR with private preprocessing (also known as offline-online PIR), the client is able to compute a private $r$-bit hint in an offline stage that may be leveraged to perform retrievals in $t$ online time. For privacy, the client wishes to hide index $i$ from an adversary that has compromised some of the servers. We will focus on the batch PIR setting where the client performs queries to retrieve the contents of multiple entries simultaneously. We present a tight characterization for the trade-offs between hint size and online query time. For any $\ell = O(1)$ and $\ell$-server PIR scheme that enables clients to perform batch retrievals of $k$ entries, we prove a lower bound of $tr = \Omega(nk)$ when $r \ge k$. When $r < k$, we prove that $t = \Omega(n)$. Our lower bounds hold when the scheme errs with probability at most $1/15$ and against PPT adversaries that only compromise one server. Our results also improve the best known lower bounds for the single query setting by a logarithmic factor. On the positive side, we show there exists a construction with a single-round query algorithm such that $tr = \tilde{O}(nk)$ that matches our lower bound up to logarithmic factors.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Privacy-Preserving IP Verification
Dimitris Mouris, Charles Gouert, and Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos
The rapid growth of the globalized integrated circuit (IC) supply chain has drawn the attention of numerous malicious actors that try to exploit it for profit. One of the most prominent targets of such parties is the third-party intellectual property (3PIP) vendors and their circuit designs. With the increasing number of transactions between vendors and system integrators, the threat of IP reuse and piracy has become a significant consideration for the IC industry. What is more, the correctness of 3PIP designs should be verified before integration, imposing another challenge for 3PIP vendors since they have to prove the functionality of their designs to system integrators while protecting the privacy of the circuit implementations. To eliminate this deadlock, we utilize the cryptographic technique of 'zero-knowledge proofs' to enable 3PIP vendors to convince system integrators about various functional properties of a circuit (e.g., area, power, frequency) without disclosing its netlist (i.e., in zero-knowledge). Our approach comprises a circuit compiler that transforms arbitrary netlists into a zero knowledge-friendly format and a library of modules that provide cryptographic guarantees for various properties of the netlist while hiding the actual gates. We evaluate our method using combinational and sequential circuits from the ISCAS and ITC benchmark suites.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Pika: Secure Computation using Function Secret Sharing over Rings
Sameer Wagh
Machine learning algorithms crucially depend on non-linear mathematical functions such as division (for normalization), exponentiation (for softmax and sigmoid), tanh (as an activation function), logarithm (for cross-entropy loss), and square root (for back-propagation of normalization layers). However, when machine learning is performed over secure computation, these protocols incur a large communication overhead and high round complexity. In this work, we propose new multi-party computation (MPC) protocols for such functions. Our protocols achieve constant round complexity (3 for semi-honest, 4 for malicious), an order of magnitude lower communication (54-121x lower than prior art), and high concrete efficiency (2-1163x faster runtime). We rely on recent advances in function secret sharing (FSS) to construct these protocols. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: (1) A constant round protocol to securely evaluate non-linear functions such as division, exponentiation, logarithm, and tanh (in comparison to prior art which uses round complexity proportional to the rounds of iterative methods/required precision) with high accuracy. This construction largely follows prior work in look-up style secure computation. (2) Our main contribution is the extension of the above protocol to be secure in the presence of malicious adversaries in the honest majority setting. We provide a malicious sketching protocol for FSS schemes that works over rings and in order to prove its security, we extend (and prove) a corresponding form of Schwartz-Zippel lemma over rings. This is the first such extension of the lemma and it can be of independent interest in other domains of secure computation. (3) We implement our protocol and showcase order of magnitude improvements in runtime and communication. Given the low round complexity and substantially lower communication, our protocols achieve even better performance over network constrained environments such as WAN. Finally, we showcase how such functions can lead to scalability in machine learning. Note that techniques presented are applicable beyond the application of machine learning as the protocols effectively present an efficient 1-out-of-N oblivious transfer or an efficient private information retrieval protocol.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Romeo: Conversion and Evaluation of HDL Designs in the Encrypted Domain
Charles Gouert and Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos
As cloud computing becomes increasingly ubiquitous, protecting the confidentiality of data outsourced to third parties becomes a priority. While encryption is a natural solution to this problem, traditional algorithms may only protect data at rest and in transit, but do not support encrypted processing. In this work we introduce Romeo, which enables easy-to-use privacy-preserving processing of data in the cloud using homomorphic encryption. Romeo automatically converts arbitrary programs expressed in Verilog HDL into equivalent homomorphic circuits that are evaluated using encrypted inputs. For our experiments, we employ cryptographic circuits, such as AES, and benchmarks from the ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 suites.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Fiddling the Twiddle Constants - Fault Injection Analysis of the Number Theoretic Transform
Prasanna Ravi, Bolin Yang, Shivam Bhasin, Fan Zhang, and Anupam Chattopadhyay
In this work, we present the first fault injection analysis of the Number Theoretic Transform (NTT). The NTT is an integral computation unit, widely used for polynomial multiplication in several structured lattice-based key encapsulation mechanisms (KEMs) and digital signature schemes. We identify a critical single fault vulnerability in the NTT, which severely reduces the entropy of its output. This in turn enables us to perform a wide-range of attacks applicable to lattice-based KEMs as well as signature schemes. In particular, we demonstrate novel key recovery and message recovery attacks targeting the key generation and encryption procedure of Kyber KEM. We also propose novel existential forgery attacks targeting deterministic and probabilistic signing procedure of Dilithium, followed by a novel verification bypass attack targeting its verification procedure. All proposed exploits are demonstrated with high success rate using electromagnetic fault injection on state-of-the-art implementations of Kyber and Dilithium, from the open-source pqm4 library on the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller.
Last updated:  2022-06-27
Round Efficient Byzantine Agreement from VDFs
Poulami Das, Lisa Eckey, Sebastian Faust, Julian Loss, and Monosij Maitra
Byzantine agreement (BA) is a fundamental primitive in distributed systems and has received huge interest as an important building block for blockchain systems. Classical byzantine agreement considers a setting where $n$ parties with fixed, known identities want to agree on an output in the presence of an adversary. Motivated by blockchain systems, the assumption of fixed identities is weakened by using a \emph{resource-based model}. In such models, parties do not have fixed known identities but instead have to invest some expensive resources to participate in the protocol. Prominent examples for such resources are computation (measured by, e.g., proofs-of-work) or money (measured by proofs-of-stake). Unlike in the classical setting where BA without trusted setup (e.g., a PKI or an unpredictable beacon) is impossible for $t \geq n/3$ corruptions, in such resource-based models, BA can be constructed for the optimal threshold of $t <n/2$. In this work, we investigate BA without a PKI in the model where parties have restricted computational resources. Concretely, we consider sequential computation modeled via computing a verifiable delay function (VDF) and establish the following results: Positive Result: We present the first protocol for BA with expected constant round complexity and termination under adaptive corruption, honest majority and without a PKI. Earlier work achieved round complexity $O(n\kappa^2)$ (CRYPTO'15) or $O(\kappa)$ (PKC'18), where $\kappa$ is the security parameter. Negative Result: We give the first lower bound on the communication complexity of BA in a model where parties have restricted computational resources. Concretely, we show that a multicast complexity of $O(\sqrt{n})$ is necessary even if the parties have access to a VDF oracle.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Traceable Receipt-Free Encryption
Henri Devillez, Olivier Pereira, and Thomas Peters
CCA-like game-based security definitions capture confidentiality by asking an adversary to distinguish between honestly computed encryptions of chosen plaintexts. In the context of voting systems, such guarantees have been shown to be sufficient to prove ballot privacy (Asiacrypt'12). In this paper, we observe that they fall short when one seeks to obtain receipt-freeness, that is, when corrupted voters who submit chosen ciphertexts encrypting their vote must be prevented from proving how they voted to a third party. Since no known encryption security notion can lead to a receipt-free ballot submission process, we address this challenge by proposing a novel publicly verifiable encryption primitive coined Traceable Receipt-free Encryption (TREnc) and a new notion of traceable CCA security filling the definitional gap underlined above. We propose two TREnc instances, one generic achieving stronger guarantees for the purpose of relating it to existing building blocks, and a dedicated one based on SXDH. Both support the encryption of group elements in the standard model, while previously proposed encryption schemes aiming at offering receipt-freeness only support a polynomial-size message space, or security in the generic group model. Eventually, we demonstrate how a TREnc can be used to build receipt-free voting protocols, by following a standard blueprint.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
MPC for Group Reconstruction Circuits
Lúcás Críostóir Meier
In this work, we generalize threshold Schnorr signatures, ElGamal encryption, and a wide variety of other functionalities, using a novel formalism of group reconstruction circuits (GRC)s. We construct a UC secure MPC protocol for computing these circuits on secret shared inputs, even in the presence of malicious parties. Applied to concrete circuits, our protocol yields threshold signature and encryption schemes with similar round complexity and concrete efficiency to functionality-specific protocols. Our formalism also generalizes to other functionalities, such as polynomial commitments and openings.
Last updated:  2022-06-24
Public-Coin 3-Round Zero-Knowledge from Learning with Errors and Keyless Multi-Collision-Resistant Hash
Susumu Kiyoshima
We construct a public-coin 3-round zero-knowledge argument for NP assuming (i) the sub-exponential hardness of the learning with errors (LWE) problem and (ii) the existence of keyless multi-collision-resistant hash functions against slightly super-polynomial-time adversaries. These assumptions are almost identical to those that were used recently to obtain a private-coin 3-round zero-knowledge argument [Bitansky et al., STOC 2018]. (The difference is that we assume sub-exponential hardness instead of quasi-polynomial hardness for the LWE problem.)
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Moz$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$arella: Efficient Vector-OLE and Zero-Knowledge Proofs Over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$
Carsten Baum, Lennart Braun, Alexander Munch-Hansen, and Peter Scholl
Zero-knowledge proof systems are usually designed to support computations for circuits over $\mathbb{F}_2$ or $\mathbb{F}_p$ for large $p$, but not for computations over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$, which all modern CPUs operate on. Although $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$-arithmetic can be emulated using prime moduli, this comes with an unavoidable overhead. Recently, Baum et al. (CCS 2021) suggested a candidate construction for a designated-verifier zero-knowledge proof system that natively runs over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Unfortunately, their construction requires preprocessed random vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE) to be instantiated over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Currently, it is not known how to efficiently generate such random VOLE in large quantities. In this work, we present a maliciously secure, VOLE extension protocol that can turn a short seed-VOLE over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ into a much longer, pseudorandom VOLE over the same ring. Our construction borrows ideas from recent protocols over finite fields, which we non-trivially adapt to work over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Moreover, we show that the approach taken by the QuickSilver zero-knowledge proof system (Yang et al. CCS 2021) can be generalized to support computations over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. This new VOLE-based proof system, which we call QuarkSilver, yields better efficiency than the previous zero-knowledge protocols suggested by Baum et al. Furthermore, we implement both our VOLE extension and our zero-knowledge proof system, and show that they can generate 13-50 million VOLEs per second for 64 to 256 bit rings, and evaluate 1.3 million 64 bit multiplications per second in zero-knowledge.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Provably Secure Reflection Ciphers
Tim Beyne and Yu Long Chen
This paper provides the first analysis of reflection ciphers such as PRINCE from a provable security viewpoint. As a first contribution, we initiate the study of key-alternating reflection ciphers in the ideal permutation model. Specifically, we prove the security of the two-round case and give matching attacks. The resulting security bound takes form \(O(qp^2/2^{2n}+q^2/2^n)\), where \(q\) is the number of construction evaluations and \(p\) is the number of direct adversarial queries to the underlying permutation. Since the two-round construction already achieves an interesting security lower bound, this result can also be of interest for the construction of reflection ciphers based on a single public permutation. Our second contribution is a generic key-length extension method for reflection ciphers. It provides an attractive alternative to the $FX$ construction, which is used by PRINCE and other concrete key-alternating reflection ciphers. We show that our construction leads to better security with minimal changes to existing designs. The security proof is in the ideal cipher model and relies on a reduction to the two-round Even-Mansour cipher with a single round key. In order to obtain the desired result, we sharpen the bad-transcript analysis and consequently improve the best-known bounds for the single-key Even-Mansour cipher with two rounds. This improvement is enabled by a new sum-capture theorem that is of independent interest.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Overloading the Nonce: Rugged PRPs, Nonce-Set AEAD, and Order-Resilient Channels
Jean Paul Degabriele and Vukašin Karadžić
We introduce a new security notion that lies right in between pseudorandom permutations (PRPs) and strong pseudorandom permutations (SPRPs). We call this new security notion and any (tweakable) cipher that satisfies it a $\textit{rugged pseudorandom permutation}$ (RPRP). Rugged pseudorandom permutations lend themselves to some interesting applications, have practical benefits, and lead to novel cryptographic constructions. Our focus is on variable-length tweakable RPRPs, and analogous to the encode-then-encipher paradigm of Bellare and Rogaway, we can generically transform any such cipher into different AEAD schemes with varying security properties. However, the benefit of RPRPs is that they can be constructed more efficiently as they are weaker primitives than SPRPs (the notion traditionally required by the encode-then-encipher paradigm). We can construct RPRPs using only two layers of processing, whereas SPRPs typically require three layers of processing over the input data. We also identify a new transformation that yields RUP-secure AEAD schemes with more compact ciphertexts than previously known. Further extending this approach, we arrive at a new generalized notion of authenticated encryption and a matching construction, which we refer to as $\textit{nonce-set AEAD}$. Nonce-set AEAD is particularly well-suited in the context of secure channels, like QUIC and DTLS, that operate over unreliable transports and employ a window mechanism at the receiver's end of the channel. We conclude by presenting a generic construction for transforming a nonce-set AEAD scheme into an order-resilient secure channel. Our channel construction sheds new light on order-resilient channels and additionally leads to more compact ciphertexts when instantiated from RPRPs.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Securing Approximate Homomorphic Encryption Using Differential Privacy
Baiyu Li, Daniele Micciancio, Mark Schultz, and Jessica Sorrell
Recent work of Li and Micciancio (Eurocrypt 2021) has shown that the traditional formulation of indistinguishability under chosen plaintext attack (INDCPA) is not adequate to capture the security of approximate homomorphic encryption against passive adversaries, and identified a stronger INDCPA^D security definition (INDCPA with decryption oracles) as the appropriate security target for approximate encryption schemes. We show how to any approximate homomorphic encryption scheme achieving the weak INDCPA security definition, into one which is provably INDCPA^D secure, offering strong guarantees against realistic passive attacks. The method works by post-processing the output of the decryption function with a mechanism satisfying an appropriate notion of differential privacy (DP), adding an amount of noise tailored to the worst-case error growth of the homomorphic computation. We apply these results to the approximate homomorphic encryption scheme of Cheon, Kim, Kim, and Song (CKKS, Asiacrypt 2017), proving that adding Gaussian noise to the output of CKKS decryption suffices to achieve INDCPA^D security. We precisely quantify how much Gaussian noise must be added by proving nearly matching upper and lower bounds, showing that one cannot hope to significantly reduce the amount of noise added in this post-processing step. As an additional contribution, we present and use a finer-grained definition of bit security that distinguishes between a computational security parameter (c) and a statistical one (s). Based on our upper and lower bounds, we propose parameters for the counter-measures recently adopted by open-source libraries implementing CKKS. Lastly, we investigate the plausible claim that smaller DP noise parameters might suffice to achieve INDCPA^D-security for schemes supporting more accurate (dynamic, key dependent) estimates of ciphertext noise during decryption. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that this claim is false, and that DP mechanisms with noise parameters tailored to the error present in a given ciphertext, rather than worst-case error, are vulnerable to INDCPA^D attacks.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
More Efficient Dishonest Majority Secure Computation over $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ via Galois Rings
Daniel Escudero, Chaoping Xing, and Chen Yuan
In this work we present a novel actively secure multiparty computation protocol in the dishonest majority setting, where the computation domain is a ring of the type $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$. Instead of considering an "extension ring" of the form $\mathbb{Z}_{2^{k+\kappa}}$ as in SPD$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ (Cramer et al, CRYPTO 2018) and its derivatives, we make use of an actual ring extension, or more precisely, a Galois ring extension $\mathbb{Z}_{p^k}[\mathtt{X}]/(h(\mathtt{X}))$ of large enough degree, in order to ensure that the adversary cannot cheat except with negligible probability. These techniques have been used already in the context of honest majority MPC over $\mathbb{Z}_{p^k}$, and to the best of our knowledge, our work constitutes the first study of the benefits of these tools in the dishonest majority setting. Making use of Galois ring extensions requires great care in order to avoid paying an extra overhead due to the use of larger rings. To address this, reverse multiplication-friendly embeddings (RMFEs) have been used in the honest majority setting (e.g. Cascudo et al, CRYPTO 2018), and more recently in the dishonest majority setting for computation over $\mathbb{Z}_2$ (Cascudo and Gundersen, TCC 2020). We make use of the recent RMFEs over $\mathbb{Z}_{p^k}$ from (Cramer et al, CRYPTO 2021), together with adaptations of some RMFE optimizations introduced in (Abspoel et al, ASIACRYPT 2021) in the honest majority setting, to achieve an efficient protocol that only requires in its online phase $12.4k(n-1)$ bits of amortized communication complexity and one round of communication for each multiplication gate. We also instantiate the necessary offline phase using Oblivious Linear Evaluation (OLE) by generalizing the approach based on Oblivious Transfer (OT) proposed in MASCOT (Keller et al, CCS 2016). To this end, and as an additional contribution of potential independent interest, we present a novel technique using Multiplication-Friendly Embeddings (MFEs) to achieve OLE over Galois ring extensions using black-box access to an OLE protocol over the base ring $\mathbb{Z}_{p^k}$ without paying a quadratic cost in terms of the extension degree. This generalizes the approach in MASCOT based on Correlated OT Extension. Finally, along the way we also identify a bug in a central proof in MASCOT, and we implicitly present a fix in our generalized proof.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Suborn Channels: Incentives Against Timelock Bribes
Zeta Avarikioti and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos
As the Bitcoin mining landscape becomes more competitive, analyzing potential attacks under the assumption of rational miners becomes increasingly relevant. In the rational setting, blockchain users can bribe miners to reap an unfair benefit. Established protocols such as Duplex Micropayment Channels and Lightning Channels are susceptible to bribery, which upends their financial guarantees. Indeed, we prove that in a two-party contract in which the honest party can spend an output right away, whereas the malicious can only spend the same output after a timelock, the latter party can promise a high fee to the miners, who then intentionally ignore the transaction of the honest party in anticipation of the higher fee. This effectively prevents a valid transaction from ever entering the blockchain, resulting in potentially severe financial losses for the honest and considerable gains for the malicious party. We expand previous results on timelock bribes to more realistic blockchains, proving that a general class of contracts are susceptible. We then apply our results to Duplex Micropayment Channels and Lightning Channels, providing exact bounds on their safe operating region. Furthermore, we enhance the Bitcoin Script of Duplex Micropayment Channels so that the coins of a party that attempts to bribe are given to the miners as fees, therefore effectively disincentivizing bribes. Our solution, named Suborn channels, is implemented as a proof-of-concept. We also propose a small change to Lightning Channels that achieves a similar effect. Moreover, we formally express the exact circumstances under which our two proposals ensure alignment of miner incentives with the prescribed protocol outcome.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Quadratic Multiparty Randomized Encodings Beyond Honest Majority and Their Applications
Benny Applebaum, Yuval Ishai, Or Karni, and Arpita Patra
Multiparty randomized encodings (Applebaum, Brakerski, and Tsabary, SICOMP 2021) reduce the task of securely computing a complicated multiparty functionality $f$ to the task of securely computing a simpler functionality $g$. The reduction is non-interactive and preserves information-theoretic security against a passive (semi-honest) adversary, also referred to as privacy. The special case of a degree-2 encoding $g$ (2MPRE) has recently found several applications to secure multiparty computation (MPC) with either information-theoretic security or making black-box access to cryptographic primitives. Unfortunately, as all known constructions are based on information-theoretic MPC protocols in the plain model, they can only be private with an honest majority. In this paper, we break the honest-majority barrier and present the first construction of general 2MPRE that remains secure in the presence of a dishonest majority. Our construction encodes every $n$-party functionality $f$ by a 2MPRE that tolerates at most $t=\lfloor 2n/3\rfloor$ passive corruptions. We derive several applications including: (1) The first non-interactive client-server MPC protocol with perfect privacy against any coalition of a minority of the servers and up to $t$ of the $n$ clients; (2) Completeness of 3-party functionalities under non-interactive $t$-private reductions; and (3) A single-round $t$-private reduction from general-MPC to an ideal oblivious transfer (OT). These positive results partially resolve open questions that were posed in several previous works. We also show that $t$-private 2MPREs are necessary for solving (2) and (3), thus establishing new equivalence theorems between these three notions. Finally, we present a new approach for constructing fully-private 2MPREs based on multi-round protocols in the OT-hybrid model that achieve \emph{perfect privacy} against active attacks. Moreover, by slightly restricting the power of the active adversary, we derive an equivalence between these notions. This forms a surprising, and quite unique, connection between a non-interactive passively-private primitive to an interactive actively-private primitive.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Secret Can Be Public: Low-Memory AEAD Mode for High-Order Masking
Yusuke Naito, Yu Sasaki, and Takeshi Sugawara
We propose a new AEAD mode of operation for an efficient countermeasure against side-channel attacks. Our mode achieves the smallest memory with high-order masking, by minimizing the states that are duplicated in masking. An $s$-bit key-dependent state is necessary for achieving $s$-bit security, and the conventional schemes always protect the entire $s$ bits with masking. We reduce the protected state size by introducing an unprotected state in the key-dependent state: we protect only a half and give another half to a side-channel adversary. Ensuring independence between the unprotected and protected states is the key technical challenge since mixing these states reveals the protected state to the adversary. We propose a new mode $\mathsf{HOMA}$ that achieves $s$-bit security using a tweakable block cipher with the $s/2$-bit block size. We also propose a new primitive for instantiating $\mathsf{HOMA}$ with $s=128$ by extending the SKINNY tweakable block cipher to a 64-bit plaintext block, a 128-bit key, and a $(256+3)$-bit tweak. We make hardware performance evaluation by implementing $\mathsf{HOMA}$ with high-order masking for $d \le 5$. For any $d > 0$, $\mathsf{HOMA}$ outperforms the current state-of-the-art $\mathsf{PFB\_Plus}$ by reducing the circuit area larger than that of the entire S-box.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
EZEE: Epoch Parallel Zero Knowledge for ANSI C
Yibin Yang, David Heath, Vladimir Kolesnikov, and David Devecsery
Recent work has produced interactive Zero Knowledge (ZK) proof systems that can express proofs as arbitrary C programs (Heath et al., 2021, henceforth referred to as ZEE); these programs can be executed by a simulated ZK processor that runs in the 10KHz range. In this work, we demonstrate that such proof systems are amenable to high degrees of parallelism. Our epoch parallelism-based approach allows the prover and verifier to divide the ZK proof into pieces such that each piece can be executed on a different machine. These proof snippets can then be glued together, and the glued parallel proofs are equivalent to the original sequential proof. We implemented and we experimentally evaluate an epoch parallel version of the ZEE proof system. By running the prover and verifier each across 31 2-core machines, we achieve a ZK processor that runs at up to 394KHz. This allowed us to run a benchmark involving the Linux program bzip2, which would have required at least 11 days with the former ZEE system, in only 8.5 hours.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Zero Knowledge for Everything and Everyone: Fast ZK Processor with Cached RAM for ANSI C Programs
David Heath, Yibin Yang, David Devecsery, and Vladimir Kolesnikov
We build a complete and efficient ZK toolchain that handles proof statements encoded as arbitrary ANSI C programs. Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs are foundational in cryptography. Recent ZK research has focused intensely on non-interactive proofs of small statements, useful in blockchain scenarios. We instead target large statements that are useful, e.g., in proving properties of programs. Recent work (Heath and Kolesnikov, CCS 2020 [HK20a]) designed a proof-of-concept ZK machine (ZKM). Their machine executes arbitrary programs over a minimal instruction set, authenticating in ZK the program execution. In this work, we significantly extend this research thrust, both in terms of efficiency and generality. Our contributions include: • A rich and performance-oriented architecture for representing arbitrary ZK proofs as programs. • A complete compiler toolchain providing full support for ANSI C95 programs. We ran off-the-shelf buggy versions of sed and gzip, proving in ZK that each program has a bug. To our knowledge, this is the first ZK system capable of executing standard Linux programs. • Improved ZK RAM. [HK20a] introduced an efficient ZK-specific RAM BubbleRAM that consumes $O(\log^2 n)$ communication per access. We extend BubbleRAM with multi-level caching, decreasing communication to $O(\log n)$ per access. This introduces the possibility of a cache miss, which we handle cheaply. Our experiments show that cache misses are rare; in isolation, i.e., ignoring other processor costs, BubbleCache improves communication over BubbleRAM by more than $8\times$. Using BubbleCache improves our processor’s total communication (including costs of cache misses) by $\approx 25-30$%. • Numerous low-level optimizations, resulting in a CPU that is both more expressive and $\approx 5.5\times$ faster than [HK20a]’s. • Attention to user experience. Our engineer-facing ZK instrumentation and extensions are minimal and easy to use. Put together, our system is efficient and general, and can run many standard Linux programs. The resultant machine runs at up to 11KHz on a 1Gbps LAN and supports MBs of RAM.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
A 2.1 KHz Zero-Knowledge Processor with BubbleRAM
David Heath and Vladimir Kolesnikov
Zero-Knowledge (ZK) proofs (ZKP) are foundational in cryptography. Most recent ZK research focuses on non-interactive proofs (NIZK) of small statements, useful in blockchain scenarios. Another line, and our focus, instead targets proofs of large statements that are useful, e.g., in proving properties of programs in ZK. We specify a zero-knowledge processor that executes arbitrary programs written in a simple instruction set and proves in ZK the correctness of the execution. Such an approach is well-suited for constructing ZK proofs of large statements as it efficiently supports complex programming constructs, such as loops and RAM access. We propose several novel ZK improvements that make our approach concretely efficient: (1) an efficient arithmetic representation with conversions to/from Boolean, (2) an efficient read-only memory that uses $2 \log n$ OTs per access, and (3) an efficient read-write memory, BubbleRAM, which uses $1/2 \log^2 n$ OTs per access. BubbleRAM beats linear scan for RAM of size > 3 elements! Prior ZK systems used generic ORAM costing orders of magnitude more. We cast our system as a garbling scheme that can be plugged into the ZK protocol of [Jawurek et al, CCS’13]. Put together, our system is concretely efficient: for a processor instantiated with 512KB of main memory, each processor cycle costs 24KB of communication. We implemented our approach in C++. On a 1Gbps LAN, our implementation realizes a 2.1KHz processor.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Secret key generation from Gaussian sources using lattice-based extractors
Laura Luzzi, Cong Ling, and Matthieu R. Bloch
We propose a lattice-based scheme for secret key generation from Gaussian sources in the presence of an eavesdropper, and show that it achieves the strong secret key capacity in the case of degraded source models, as well as the optimal secret key / public communication rate trade-off. The key ingredients of our scheme are a lattice extractor to extract the channel intrinsic randomness, based on the notion of flatness factor, together with a randomized lattice quantization technique to quantize the continuous source. Compared to previous works, we introduce two new notions of flatness factor based on $L^1$ distance and KL divergence, respectively, which are of independent interest. We prove the existence of secrecy-good lattices under $L^1$ distance and KL divergence, whose $L^1$ and KL flatness factors vanish for volume-to-noise ratios up to $2\pi e$. This improves upon the volume-to-noise ratio threshold $2\pi$ of the $L^{\infty}$ flatness factor.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Side-Channel Analysis of Saber KEM Using Amplitude-Modulated EM Emanations
Ruize Wang, Kalle Ngo, and Elena Dubrova
In the ongoing last round of NIST’s post-quantum cryptography standardization competition, side-channel analysis of finalists is a main focus of attention. While their resistance to timing, power and near field electromagnetic (EM) side-channels has been thoroughly investigated, amplitude-modulated EM emanations has not been considered so far. The attacks based on amplitude-modulated EM emanations are more stealthy because they exploit side-channels intertwined into the signal transmitted by an on-chip antenna. Thus, they can be mounted on a distance from the device under attack. In this paper, we present the first results of an amplitude-modulated EM side-channel analysis of one of the NIST PQ finalists, Saber key encapsulation mechanism (KEM), implemented on the nRF52832 (ARM Cortex-M4) system-on-chip supporting Bluetooth 5. By capturing amplitude-modulated EM emanations during decapsulation, we can recover each bit of the session key with 0.91 probability on average.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Multi-key and Multi-input Predicate Encryption from Learning with Errors
Danilo Francati, Daniele Friolo, Giulio Malavolta, and Daniele Venturi
We put forward two natural generalizations of predicate encryption (PE) dubbed multi-key and multi-input PE. More in details, our contributions are threefold. - Definitions. We formalize security of multi-key PE and multi-input PE following the standard indistinguishability paradigm, and modeling security both against malicious senders (i.e., corruption of encryption keys) and malicious receivers (i.e., collusions). - Constructions. We construct multi-key and multi-input PE supporting the conjunction of poly-many arbitrary single-input predicates, assuming the hardness of the standard learning with errors (LWE) problem. - Applications. We show that multi-key and multi-input PE for expressive enough predicates suffices for interesting cryptographic applications, including matchmaking encryption (ME) and non-interactive multi-party computation (NI-MPC). As a corollary, plugging in our concrete constructions of multi-key and multi-input PE, we obtain the first construction of ME for arbitrary policies, as well as NI-MPC with partial re-usability for all-or-nothing functions and a constant number of parties, under the standard LWE assumption. Prior to our work, all of these applications required much heavier tools such as indistinguishability obfuscation or compact functional encryption.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Authenticated Consensus in Synchronous Systems with Mixed Faults
Ittai Abraham, Danny Dolev, Alon Kagan, and Gilad Stern
Protocols solving authenticated consensus in synchronous networks with Byzantine faults have been widely researched and known to exists if and only if $n>2f$ for $f$ Byzantine faults. Similarly, protocols solving authenticated consensus in partially synchronous networks are known to exist if $n>3f+2k$ for $f$ Byzantine faults and $k$ crash faults. In this work we fill a natural gap in our knowledge by presenting MixSync, an authenticated consensus protocol in synchronous networks resilient to $f$ Byzantine faults and $k$ crash faults if $n>2f+k$. As a basic building block, we first define and then construct a publicly verifiable crusader agreement protocol with the same resilience. The protocol uses a simple double-send round to guarantee non-equivocation, a technique later used in the MixSync protocol. We then discuss how to construct a state machine replication protocol using these ideas, and how they can be used in general to make such protocols resilient to crash faults. Finally, we prove lower bounds showing that $n>2f+k$ is optimally resilient for consensus and state machine replication protocols.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Review of the White-Box Encodability of NIST Lightweight Finalists
Alex Charlès and Chloé Gravouil
One of the main challenges cryptography needs to deal with is balancing the performances of a cryptographic primitive with its security. That is why in 2015, the National Institute of Standards and Technologies (NIST) has begun a standardization process to solicit the creation of new lightweight cryptographic algorithms. We then wondered which of this standardization finalists would suit the best to a white-box implementation. To this end, we studied different algorithms structures on their encodability to later develop our white-box encoding solution. Afterwards, we reviewed the standardization finalists on the applicability of our solution to those algorithms, and finally apply it to GIFT, the permutation of GIFT-COFB.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Lattice-based Interactive Zero-Knowledge without Aborts
Xavier Arnal, Tamara Finogina, and Javier Herranz
Interactive zero-knowledge systems are a very important cryptographic primitive, used in many applications, especially when non-transferability is desired. In the setting of lattice-based cryptography, the currently most efficient interactive zero-knowledge systems employ the technique of rejection sampling, which implies that the interaction does not always finish correctly in the first execution; the whole interaction must be re-run until abort does not happen. While aborts and repetitions are acceptable in theory, in some practical applications of such interactive systems it is desirable to avoid re-runs, for usability reasons. In this work, we present a generic transformation that departs from an interactive zero-knowledge system (maybe with aborts) and obtains a 3-moves zero-knowledge system (without aborts). The transformation combines the well-known Fiat-Shamir technique with a couple of initially exchanged messages. %, needed to get the (honest-verifier) zero-knowledge property. The resulting 3-moves system enjoys (honest-verifier) zero-knowledge and soundness, in the random oracle model. We finish the work by showing some practical scenarios where our transformation can be useful.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
VERI-ZEXE: Decentralized Private Computation with Universal Setup
Alex Luoyuan Xiong, Binyi Chen, Zhenfei Zhang, Benedikt Bünz, Ben Fisch, Fernando Krell, and Philippe Camacho
Traditional blockchain systems execute program state transitions on-chain, requiring each network node participating in state-machine replication to re-compute every step of the program when validating transactions. This limits both scalability and privacy. Recently, Bowe et al. introduced a primitive called decentralized private computation (DPC) and provided an instantiation called ZEXE, which allows users to execute arbitrary computations off-chain without revealing the program logic to the network. Moreover, transaction validation takes only constant time, independent of the off-chain computation. However, ZEXE required a separate trusted setup for each application, which is highly impractical. Prior attempts to remove this per-application setup incurred significant performance loss. We propose a new DPC instantiation VERI-ZEXE that is highly efficient and requires only a single universal setup to support an arbitrary number of applications. Our benchmark improves the state-of-the-art by 9x in transaction generation time and by 2.6x in memory usage. Along the way, we also design efficient gadgets for variable-base multi-scalar multiplication and modular arithmetic within the plonk constraint system, leading to a Plonk verifier gadget using only ∼ 21k plonk constraints.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Secure and Robust Key-Trapped Design-for-Security Architecture for Protecting Obfuscated Logic
Hadi Mardani Kamali
Show abstract
Having access to the scan chain of Integrated Circuits (ICs) is an integral requirement of the debug/testability process within the supply chain. However, the access to the scan chain raises big concerns regarding the security of the chip, particularly when the secret information, such as the key of logic obfuscation, is embedded/stored inside the chip. Hence, to relieve such concerns, numerous secure scan chain architectures have been proposed in the literature to show not only how to prevent any unauthorized access to the scan chain but also how to keep the availability of the scan chain for debug/testability. In this paper, we first provide a holistic overview of all secure scan chain architectures. Then, we discuss the key leakage possibility and some substantial architectural drawbacks that moderately affect both test flow and design constraints in the state-of-the-art published design-for-security (DFS) architectures. Then, we propose a new key-trapped DFS (kt-DFS) architecture for building a secure scan chain architecture while addressing the potential of key leakage. The proposed kt-DFS architecture allows the designer to perform the structural test with no limitation, enabling an untrusted foundry to utilize the scan chain for manufacturing fault testing without needing to access the scan chain. Finally, we evaluate and compare the proposed architecture with state-of-the-art ones in terms of security, testability time and complexity, and area/power/delay overhead.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
BarnOwl: Secure Comparisons using Silent Pseudorandom Correlation Generators
Sameer Wagh
Recent advances in function secret sharing (FSS) have led to new possibilities in multi-party computation in the pre-processing model. Silent Pseudorandom Correlation Generators (Crypto '19, CCS '19, CCS '19, CCS '20) have demonstrated the ability to generate large quantities of pre-processing material such as oblivious transfers and Beaver triples through a non-interactive offline phase (with an initial set-up). However, there has been limited protocols for pre-processing material such as doubly authenticated bits (daBits, IndoCrypt'19) and extended doubly authenticated bits (edaBits, Crypto '20) which are critical for state-of-the-art secure comparison protocols over arithmetic secret sharing. In this work, we propose new protocols in a 3-party computation model for these two cryptographic primitives -- daBits and edaBits. We explore how advances in silent PCGs can be used to construct efficient protocols for daBits and edaBits. Our protocols are secure against a single corruption in both the semi-honest and malicious security models. Our contributions can be summarized as follows: (1) New constant round protocols for generating daBits and edaBits. We achieve this by constructing an efficient 3-party oblivious transfer protocol (using just 2 rounds of computation) and using it to build efficient protocols for daBit and edaBit generation. (2) We extend the above semi-honest protocol to achieve malicious security against an honest majority. We use a standard cut-and-choose approach for this. This improves the round complexity of prior edaBit protocols from O(log2 l) to a constant, where l is the bit-length of the inputs. (3) Finally, to understand when the above protocols provide concrete efficiency, we implement and benchmark the performance of our protocols against state-of-the-art implementation of these primitives in MP-SDPZ. Our protocols improve the throughput of daBit generation by up to 10x in the LAN setting and 5x in the WAN setting. Comparing the performance of edaBit generation, our protocols achieve 4x higher throughput in the LAN setting and 32x higher throughput in the WAN setting. It is known that silent PCGs are compute intense and thus the performance of these new protocols can further be improved using works such as CryptGPU (S\&P '21), Piranha (USENIX '22) that significantly improve the local computation in MPC protocols.
Last updated:  2022-06-22
Tight Bounds on the Randomness Complexity of Secure Multiparty Computation
Vipul Goyal, Yuval Ishai, and Yifan Song
We revisit the question of minimizing the randomness complexity of protocols for secure multiparty computation (MPC) in the setting of perfect information-theoretic security. Kushilevitz and Mansour (SIAM J. Discret. Math., 1997) studied the case of $n$-party semi-honest MPC for the XOR function with security threshold $t<n$, showing that $O(t^2\log(n/t))$ random bits are sufficient and $\Omega(t)$ random bits are necessary. Their positive result was obtained via a non-explicit protocol, whose existence was proved using the probabilistic method. We essentially close the question by proving an $\Omega(t^2)$ lower bound on the randomness complexity of XOR, matching the previous upper bound up to a logarithmic factor (or constant factor when $t=\Omega(n)$). We also obtain an explicit protocol that uses $O(t^2\cdot\log^2n)$ random bits, matching our lower bound up to a polylogarithmic factor. We extend these results from XOR to general symmetric Boolean functions and to addition over a finite Abelian group, showing how to amortize the randomness complexity over multiple additions. Finally, combining our techniques with recent randomness-efficient constructions of private circuits, we obtain an explicit protocol for evaluating a general circuit $C$ using only $O(t^2\cdot\log |C|)$ random bits, by employing additional ``helper parties'' who do not contribute any inputs. This upper bound too matches our lower bound up to a logarithmic factor.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
One Hot Garbling
David Heath and Vladimir Kolesnikov
Garbled Circuit (GC) is the main practical 2PC technique, yet despite great interest in its performance, GC notoriously resists improvement. Essentially, we only know how to evaluate GC functions gate-by-gate using encrypted truth tables; given input labels, the GC evaluator decrypts the corresponding output label. Interactive protocols enjoy more sophisticated techniques. For example, we can expose to a party a (masked) private value. The party can then perform useful local computation and feed the resulting cleartext value back into the MPC. Such techniques are not known to work for GC. We show that it is, in fact, possible to improve GC efficiency, while keeping its round complexity, by exposing masked private values to the evaluator. Our improvements use garbled one-hot encodings of values. By using this encoding we improve a number of interesting functions, e.g., matrix multiplication, integer multiplication, field element multiplication, field inverses and AES S-Boxes, integer exponents, and more. We systematize our approach by providing a framework for designing such GC modules. Our constructions are concretely efficient. E.g., we improve binary matrix multiplication inside GC by more than $6\times$ in terms of communication and by more than $4\times$ in terms of WAN wall-clock time. Our improvement circumvents an important GC lower bound and may open GC to further improvement.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Garbled Circuits With Sublinear Evaluator
Abida Haque, David Heath, Vladimir Kolesnikov, Steve Lu, Rafail Ostrovsky, and Akash Shah
Arecentlineofwork, Stacked Garbled Circuit(SGC), showed that Garbled Circuit (GC) can be improved for functions that include conditional behavior. SGC relieves the communication bottleneck of 2PC by only sending enough garbled material for a single branch out of the b total branches. Hence, communication is sublinear in the circuit size. However, both the evaluator and the generator pay in computation and perform at least factor $\log b$ extra work as compared to standard GC. We extend the sublinearity of SGC to also include the work performed by the GC evaluator E; thus we achieve a fully sublinear E, which is essential when optimizing for the online phase. We formalize our approach as a garbling scheme called GCWise: GC WIth Sublinear Evaluator. We show one attractive and immediate application, Garbled PIR, a primitive that marries GC with Private Information Retrieval. Garbled PIR allows the GC to non-interactively and sublinearly access a privately indexed element from a publicly known database, and then use this element in continued GC evaluation.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Safe Permissionless Consensus
Youer Pu, Lorenzo Alvisi, and Ittay Eyal
Nakamoto's consensus protocol works in a permissionless model, where nodes can join and leave without notice. However, it guarantees agreement only probabilistically. Is this weaker guarantee a necessary concession to the severe demands of supporting a permissionless model? This paper shows that, at least in a benign failure model, it is not. It presents Sandglass, the first permissionless consensus algorithm that guarantees deterministic agreement and termination with probability 1 under general omission failures. Like Nakamoto, Sandglass adopts a hybrid synchronous communication model, where, at all times, a majority of nodes (though their number is unknown) are correct and synchronously connected, and allows nodes to join and leave at any time.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Efficient Generic Arithmetic for KKW Practical Linear: MPC-in-the-Head NIZK on Commodity Hardware without Trusted Setup
David Heath, Vladimir Kolesnikov, and Jiahui Lu
Katz et al., CCS 2018 (KKW) is a popular and efficient MPC-in-the-head non-interactive ZKP (NIZK) scheme, which is the technical core of the post-quantum signature scheme Picnic, currently considered for standardization by NIST. The KKW approach simultaneously is concretely efficient, even on commodity hardware, and does not rely on trusted setup. Importantly, the approach scales linearly in the circuit size with low constants with respect to proof generation time, proof verification time, proof size, and RAM consumption. However, KKW works with Boolean circuits only and hence incurs significant cost for circuits that include arithmetic operations. In this work, we extend KKW with a suite of efficient arithmetic operations over arbitrary rings and Boolean conversions. Rings $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ are important for NIZK as they naturally match the basic operations of modern programs and CPUs. In particular, we: * present a suitable ring representation consistent with KKW, * construct efficient conversion operators that translate between arith- metic and Boolean representations, and * demonstrate how to efficiently operate over the arithmetic representation, including a vector dot product of length-n vectors with cost equal to that of a single multiplication. These improvements substantially improve KKW for circuits with arithmetic. As one example, we can multiply 100 × 100 square matrices of 32-bit numbers using a 3200x smaller proof size than standard KKW (100x improvement from our dot product construction and 32x from moving to an arithmetic representation). We discuss in detail proof size and resource consumption and argue the practicality of running large proofs on commodity hardware.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
Generation of ``independent'' points on elliptic curves by means of Mordell--Weil lattices
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article develops a novel method of generating ``independent'' points on an ordinary elliptic curve $E$ over a finite field. Such points are actively used in the Pedersen vector commitment scheme and its modifications. In particular, the new approach is relevant for Pasta curves (of $j$-invariant $0$), which are very popular in the given type of elliptic cryptography. These curves are defined over highly $2$-adic fields, hence successive generation of points via a hash function to $E$ is an expensive solution. Our method also satisfies the NUMS (Nothing Up My Sleeve) principle, but it works faster on average. More precisely, instead of finding each point separately in constant time, we suggest to sample several points at once with some probability.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
LLAMA: A Low Latency Math Library for Secure Inference
Kanav Gupta, Deepak Kumaraswamy, Nishanth Chandran, and Divya Gupta
Secure machine learning (ML) inference can provide meaningful privacy guarantees to both the client (holding sensitive input) and the server (holding sensitive weights of the ML model) while realizing inference-as-a-service. Although many specialized protocols exist for this task, including those in the preprocessing model (where a majority of the overheads are moved to an input independent offline phase), they all still suffer from large online complexity. Specifically, the protocol phase that executes once the parties know their inputs, has high communication, round complexity, and latency. Function Secret Sharing (FSS) based techniques offer an attractive solution to this in the trusted dealer model (where a dealer provides input independent correlated randomness to both parties), and 2PC protocols obtained based on these techniques have a very lightweight online phase. Unfortunately, current FSS-based 2PC works (AriaNN, PoPETS 2022; Boyle et al. Eurocrypt 2021; Boyle et al. TCC 2019) fall short of providing a complete solution to secure inference. First, they lack support for math functions (e.g., sigmoid, and reciprocal square root) and hence, are insufficient for a large class of inference algorithms (e.g. recurrent neural networks). Second, they restrict all values in the computation to be of the same bitwidth and this prevents them from benefitting from efficient float-to-fixed converters such as Tensorflow Lite that crucially use low bitwidth representations and mixed bitwidth arithmetic. In this work, we present LLAMA -- an end-to-end, FSS based, secure inference library supporting precise low bitwidth computations (required by converters) as well as provably precise math functions; thus, overcoming all the drawbacks listed above. We perform an extensive evaluation of LLAMA and show that when compared with non-FSS based libraries supporting mixed bitwidth arithmetic and math functions (SIRNN, IEEE S&P 2021), it has at least an order of magnitude lower communication, rounds, and runtimes. We integrate LLAMA with the EzPC framework (IEEE EuroS&P 2019) and demonstrate its robustness by evaluating it on large benchmarks (such as ResNet-50 on the ImageNet dataset) as well as on benchmarks considered in AriaNN -- here too LLAMA outperforms prior work.
Last updated:  2022-06-30
Reliable Password Hardening Service with Opt-Out
Chunfu Jia, Shaoqiang Wu, and Ding Wang
As the most dominant authentication mechanism, password-based authentication suffers catastrophic offline password guessing attacks once the authentication server is compromised and the password database is leaked. Password hardening (PH) service, an external/third-party crypto service, has been recently proposed to strengthen password storage and reduce the damage of authentication server compromise. However, all existing schemes are unreliable because they overlook the important restorable property: PH service opt-out. In existing PH schemes, once the authentication server has subscribed to a PH service, it must adopt this service forever, even if it wants to stop the external/third-party PH service and restore its original password storage (or subscribe to another PH service). To fill the gap, we propose a new PH service called PW-Hero that equips its PH service with an option to terminate its use (i.e., opt-out). In PW-Hero, password authentication is strengthened against offline attacks by adding external secret spices to password records. With the opt-out property, authentication servers can proactively request to end the PH service after successful authentications. Then password records can be securely migrated to their traditional salted hash state, ready for subscription to other PH services. Besides, PW-Hero achieves all existing desirable properties, such as comprehensive verifiability, rate limits against online attacks, and user privacy. We define PW-Hero as a suite of protocols that meet desirable properties and build a simple, secure, and efficient instance. Moreover, we develop a prototype implementation and evaluate its performance, which shows the practicality of our PW-Hero service.
Last updated:  2022-06-23
log*-Round Game-Theoretically-Fair Leader Election
Ilan Komargodski, Shin’ichiro Matsuo, Elaine Shi, and Ke Wu
It is well-known that in the presence of majority coalitions, strongly fair coin toss is impossible. A line of recent works have shown that by relaxing the fairness notion to game theoretic, we can overcome this classical lower bound. In particular, Chung et al. (CRYPTO'21) showed how to achieve approximately (game-theoretically) fair leader election in the presence of majority coalitions, with round complexity as small as $O(\log \log n)$ rounds. In this paper, we revisit the round complexity of game-theoretically fair leader election. We construct $O(\log^* n)$ rounds leader election protocols that achieve $(1-o(1))$-approximate fairness in the presence of $(1-o(1)) n$-sized coalitions. Our protocols achieve the same round-fairness trade-offs as Chung et al.'s and have the advantage of being conceptually simpler. Finally, we also obtain game-theoretically fair protocols for committee election which might be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
A Toolbox for Barriers on Interactive Oracle Proofs
Gal Arnon, Amey Bhangale, Alessandro Chiesa, and Eylon Yogev
Interactive oracle proofs (IOPs) are a proof system model that combines features of interactive proofs (IPs) and probabilistically checkable proofs (PCPs). IOPs have prominent applications in complexity theory and cryptography, most notably to constructing succinct arguments. In this work, we study the limitations of IOPs, as well as their relation to those of PCPs. We present a versatile toolbox of IOP-to-IOP transformations containing tools for: (i) length and round reduction; (ii) improving completeness; and (iii) derandomization. We use this toolbox to establish several barriers for IOPs: -- Low-error IOPs can be transformed into low-error PCPs. In other words, interaction can be used to construct low-error PCPs; alternatively, low-error IOPs are as hard to construct as low-error PCPs. This relates IOPs to PCPs in the regime of the sliding scale conjecture for inverse-polynomial soundness error. -- Limitations of quasilinear-size IOPs for 3SAT with small soundness error. -- Limitations of IOPs where query complexity is much smaller than round complexity. -- Limitations of binary-alphabet constant-query IOPs. We believe that our toolbox will prove useful to establish additional barriers beyond our work.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Mind the TWEAKEY Schedule: Cryptanalysis on SKINNYe-64-256
Lingyue Qin, Xiaoyang Dong, Anyu Wang, Jialiang Hua, and Xiaoyun Wang
Designing symmetric ciphers for particular applications becomes a hot topic. At EUROCRYPT 2020, Naito, Sasaki and Sugawara invented the threshold implementation friendly cipher SKINNYe-64-256 to meet the requirement of the authenticated encryption PFB_Plus. Soon, Thomas Peyrin pointed out that SKINNYe-64-256 may lose the security expectation due the new tweakey schedule. Although the security issue of SKINNYe-64-256 is still unclear, Naito et al. decided to introduce SKINNYe-64-256 v2 as a response. In this paper, we give a formal cryptanalysis on the new tweakey schedule of SKINNYe-64-256 and discover unexpected differential cancellations in the tweakey schedule. For example, we find the number of cancellations can be up to 8 within 30 consecutive rounds, which is significantly larger than the expected 3 cancellations. Moreover, we take our new discoveries into rectangle, MITM and impossible differential attacks, and adapt the corresponding automatic tools with new constraints from our discoveries. Finally, we find a 41-round related-tweakey rectangle attack on SKINNYe-64-256 and leave a security margin of 3 rounds only. As STK accepts arbitrary tweakey size, but SKINNYe-64-256 and SKINNYe-64-256 v2 only support up to 4n tweakey size. We introduce a new design of tweakey schedule for SKINNY-64 to further extend the supported tweakey size. We give a formal proof that our new tweakey schedule inherits the security requirement of STK and Skinny.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Improved Preimage Attacks on Round-Reduced Keccak-384/512 via Restricted Linear Structures
Le He, Xiaoen Lin, and Hongbo Yu
This paper provides improved preimage analysis on round-reduced Keccak-384/512. Unlike low-capacity versions, Keccak-384/512 outputs from two planes of its inner state: an entire 320-bit plane and a second plane containing 64/192 bits. Due to lack of degrees of freedom, most existing preimage analysis can only control the 320-bit plane and cannot achieve good results. In this paper, we find out a method to construct linear relations between corresponding bits from the two planes, which means attacker can control two output planes simultaneously with degrees of freedom much less than 320. Besides, we design several linear structures for each different version with additional restrictions that can leave more degrees of freedom. As a result, the complexity of preimage attacks on 2-round Keccak-384/512 and 3-round Keccak-384/512 can be decreased to $2^{28}$/$2^{252}$ and $2^{271}$/$2^{426}$ respectively, which are all the best known results so far. To support the analysis, this paper also provides the first preimage of all `0' digest for 2-round Keccak-384, which can be obtained in hours level by a personal computer. It is worth noting that although our structures contain non-linear parts, the attack algorithms only involve the solution of linear equation systems.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Block Cipher's Substitution Box Generation Based on Natural Randomness in Underwater Acoustics and Knight's Tour Chain
Muhammad Fahad Khan, Khalid Saleem, Tariq Shah, Mohmmad Mazyad Hazzazi, Ismail Bahkali, and Piyush Kumar Shukla
The protection of confidential information is a global issue and block encryption algorithms are the most reliable option for securing data. The famous information theorist, Claude Shannon has given two desirable characteristics that should exist in a strong cipher which are substitution and permutation in their fundamental research on "Communication Theory of Secrecy Systems.” block ciphers strictly follow the substitution and permutation principle in an iterative manner to generate a ciphertext. The actual strength of the block ciphers against several attacks is entirely based on its substitution characteristic, which is gained by using the substitution box(S-Box). In the current literature, algebraic structure-based and chaos-based techniques are highly used for the construction of S-boxes because both these techniques have favourable features for S-box construction, but also various attacks of these techniques have been identified including SAT solver,Linear and differential attacks,Gröbner-based attacks,XSL attacks,Interpolation attacks,XL based-attacks,Finite precision effect, chaotic systems degradation, predictability,weak randomness, chaotic discontinuity, Limited control parameters. The main objective of this research is to design a novel technique for the dynamic generation of S-boxes that are safe against the cryptanalysis techniques of algebraic structure-based and chaos-based approaches. True randomness has been universally recognized as the ideal method for cipher primitives design because true random numbers are unpredictable, irreversible, and unreproducible. The biggest challenge we faced during this research was how can we generate the true random numbers and how can true random numbers utilized for strengthening the s-box construction technique. The basic concept of the proposed technique is the extraction of true random bits from underwater acoustic waves and to design a novel technique for the dynamic generation of S-boxes using the chain of knight’s tour. Rather than algebraic structure and chaos-based, our proposed technique depends on inevitable high-quality randomness which exists in underwater acoustics waves. The proposed method satisfies all standard evaluation tests of S-boxes construction and true random numbers generation. Two million bits have been analyzed using the NIST randomness test suite, and the results show that underwater sound waves are an impeccable entropy source for true randomness. Additionally, our dynamically generated S-boxes have better or equal strength, over the latest published S-boxes (2020 to 2021). According to our knowledge first time, this type of research has been done, in which natural randomness of underwater acoustic waves has been used for the construction of block cipher's Substitution Box.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
On the necessity of collapsing
Marcel Dall'Agnol and Nicholas Spooner
Collapsing and collapse binding were proposed by Unruh (Eurocrypt '16) as post-quantum strengthenings of collision resistance and computational binding (respectively). These notions have been very successful in facilitating the "lifting" of classical security proofs to the quantum setting. A natural question remains, however: is collapsing is the weakest notion that suffices for such lifting? In this work we answer this question in the affirmative by giving a classical commit-and-open protocol which is post-quantum secure if and only if the commitment scheme (resp. hash function) used is collapse binding (resp. collapsing). This result also establishes that a variety of "weaker" post-quantum computational binding notions (sum binding, CDMS binding and unequivocality) are in fact equivalent to collapse binding. Finally, we establish a "win-win" result, showing that a post-quantum collision resistant hash function that is not collapsing can be used to build an equivocal hash function (which can, in turn, be used to build one-shot signatures and other useful quantum primitives). This strengthens a result due to Zhandry (Eurocrypt '19) showing that the same object yields quantum lightning. For this result we make use of recent quantum rewinding techniques.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
Shorter Hash-and-Sign Lattice-Based Signatures
Thomas Espitau, Mehdi Tibouchi, Alexandre Wallet, and Yang Yu
Lattice-based digital signature schemes following the hash-and-sign design paradigm of Gentry, Peikert and Vaikuntanathan (GPV) tend to offer an attractive level of efficiency, particularly when instantiated with structured compact trapdoors. In particular, NIST postquantum finalist Falcon is both quite fast for signing and verification and quite compact: NIST notes that it has the smallest bandwidth (as measured in combined size of public key and signature) of all round 2 digital signature candidates. Nevertheless, while Falcon--512, for instance, compares favorably to ECDSA--384 in terms of speed, its signatures are well over 10 times larger. For applications that store large number of signatures, or that require signatures to fit in prescribed packet sizes, this can be a critical limitation. In this paper, we explore several approaches to further improve the size of hash-and-sign lattice-based signatures, particularly instantiated over NTRU lattices like Falcon and its recent variant Mitaka. In particular, while GPV signatures are usually obtained by sampling lattice points according to some \emph{spherical} discrete Gaussian distribution, we show that it can be beneficial to sample instead according to a suitably chosen \emph{ellipsoidal} discrete Gaussian: this is because only half of the sampled Gaussian vector is actually output as the signature, while the other half is recovered during verification. Making the half that actually occurs in signatures shorter reduces signature size at essentially no security loss (in a suitable range of parameters). Similarly, we show that reducing the modulus $q$ with respect to which signatures are computed can improve signature size as well as verification key size almost ``for free''; this is particularly true for constructions like Falcon and Mitaka that do not make substantial use of NTT-based multiplication (and rely instead on transcendental FFT). Finally, we show that the Gaussian vectors in signatures can be represented in a more compact way with appropriate coding-theoretic techniques, improving signature size by an additional 7 to 14%. All in all, we manage to reduce the size of, e.g., Falcon signatures by 30--40% at the cost of only 4--6 bits of Core-SVP security.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Fully Privacy-Preserving Federated Representation Learning via Secure Embedding Aggregation
Jiaxiang Tang, Jinbao Zhu, Songze Li, Kai Zhang, and Lichao Sun
We consider a federated representation learning framework, where with the assistance of a central server, a group of $N$ distributed clients train collaboratively over their private data, for the representations (or embeddings) of a set of entities (e.g., users in a social network). Under this framework, for the key step of aggregating local embeddings trained at the clients in a private manner, we develop a secure embedding aggregation protocol named SecEA, which provides information-theoretical privacy guarantees for the set of entities and the corresponding embeddings at each client $simultaneously$, against a curious server and up to $T < N/2$ colluding clients. As the first step of SecEA, the federated learning system performs a private entity union, for each client to learn all the entities in the system without knowing which entities belong to which clients. In each aggregation round, the local embeddings are secretly shared among the clients using Lagrange interpolation, and then each client constructs coded queries to retrieve the aggregated embeddings for the intended entities. We perform comprehensive experiments on various representation learning tasks to evaluate the utility and efficiency of SecEA, and empirically demonstrate that compared with embedding aggregation protocols without (or with weaker) privacy guarantees, SecEA incurs negligible performance loss (within 5%); and the additional computation latency of SecEA diminishes for training deeper models on larger datasets.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Augmented Random Oracles
Mark Zhandry
We propose a new paradigm for justifying the security of random oracle-based protocols, which we call the Augmented Random Oracle Model (AROM). We show that the AROM captures a wide range of important random oracle impossibility results. Thus a proof in the AROM implies some resiliency to such impossibilities. We then consider three ROM transforms which are subject to impossibilities: Fiat-Shamir (FS), Fujisaki-Okamoto (FO), and Encrypt-with-Hash (EwH). We show in each case how to obtain security in the AROM by strengthening the building blocks or modifying the transform. Along the way, we give a couple other results. We improve the assumptions needed for the FO and EwH impossibilities from indistinguishability obfuscation to circularly secure LWE; we argue that our AROM still captures this improved impossibility. We also demonstrate that there is no "best possible" hash function, by giving a pair of security properties, both of which can be instantiated in the standard model separately, which cannot be simultaneously satisfied by a single hash function.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Simon’s Algorithm and Symmetric Crypto: Generalizations and Automatized Applications
Federico Canale, Gregor Leander, and Lukas Stennes
In this paper we deepen our understanding of how to apply Simon’s algorithm to break symmetric cryptographic primitives. On the one hand, we automate the search for new attacks. Using this approach we automatically find the first efficient key-recovery attacks against constructions like 5-round MISTY L-FK or 5-round Feistel-FK (with internal permutation) using Simon’s algorithm. On the other hand, we study generalizations of Simon’s algorithm using non-standard Hadamard matrices, with the aim to expand the quantum symmetric cryptanalysis toolkit with properties other than the periods. Our main conclusion here is that none of these generalizations can ac- complish that, and we conclude that exploiting non-standard Hadamard matrices with quantum computers to break symmetric primitives will require fundamentally new attacks.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Linear Communication in Malicious Majority MPC
S. Dov Gordon, Phi Hung Le, and Daniel McVicker
The SPDZ multiparty computation protocol allows $n$ parties to securely compute arithmetic circuits over a finite field, while tolerating up to $n − 1$ active corruptions. A line of work building upon SPDZ have made considerable improvements to the protocol’s performance, typically focusing on concrete efficiency. However, the communication complexity of each of these protocols is $\Omega(n^2 |C|)$. In this paper, we present a protocol that achieves $O(n|C|)$ communication. Our construction is very similar to those in the SPDZ family of protocols, but for one modular sub-routine for computing a verified sum. There are a handful of times in the SPDZ protocols in which the $n$ parties wish to sum $n$ public values. Rather than requiring each party to broadcast their input to all other parties, clearly it is cheaper to use some designated "dealer" to compute and broadcast the sum. In prior work, it was assumed that the cost of verifying the correctness of these sums is $O(n^2 )$, erasing the benefit of using a dealer. We show how to amortize this cost over the computation of multiple sums, resulting in linear communication complexity whenever the circuit size is $|C| > n$.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
An Efficient Threshold Access-Structure for RLWE-Based Multiparty Homomorphic Encryption
Christian Mouchet, Elliott Bertrand, and Jean-Pierre Hubaux
We propose and implement a multiparty homomorphic encryption (MHE) scheme with a $t$-out-of-$N$-threshold access-structure that is efficient and does not require a trusted dealer in the common reference-string model. We construct this scheme from the ring-learning-with-error (RLWE) assumptions, and as an extension of the MHE scheme of Mouchet et al. (PETS 21). By means of a specially adapted share-resharing procedure, this extension can be used to relax the $N$-out-of-$N$-threshold access structure of the original scheme into a $t$-out-of-$N$-threshold one. This procedure introduces only a single round of communication during the setup phase to instantiate the $t$-out-of-$N$-threshold access structure. Then, the procedure requires only local operations for any set of $t$ parties to compute a $t$-out-of-$t$ additive sharing of the secret key; this sharing can be used directly in the scheme of Mouchet et al. We show that, by performing the re-sharing over the MHE ciphertext-space with a carefully chosen exceptional set, this reconstruction procedure can be made secure and has negligible memory and CPU-time overhead. Hence, in addition to fault tolerance, lowering the corruption threshold also yields considerable efficiency benefits, by enabling the distribution of batched secret-key operations among the online parties. We implemented and open-sourced our scheme in the Lattigo library.
Last updated:  2022-06-17
New Lattice Two-Stage Sampling Technique and its Applications to Functional Encryption -- Stronger Security and Smaller Ciphertexts
Qiqi Lai, Feng-Hao Liu, and Zhedong Wang
This work proposes a new two-stage lattice two-stage sampling technique, generalizing the prior two-stage sampling method of Gentry, Peikert, and Vaikuntanathan (STOC '08). By using our new technique as a key building block, we can significantly improve security and efficiency of the current state of the arts of simulation-based functional encryption. Particularly, our functional encryption achieves $(Q,\poly)$ simulation-based semi-adaptive security that allows arbitrary pre- and post-challenge key queries, and has succinct ciphertexts with only an additive $O(Q)$ overhead. Additionally, our two-stage sampling technique can derive new feasibilities of indistinguishability-based adaptively-secure $\IB$-$\FE$ for inner products and semi-adaptively-secure $\AB$-$\FE$ for inner products, breaking several technical limitations of the recent work by Abdalla, Catalano, Gay, and Ursu (Asiacrypt '20).
Last updated:  2022-06-16
SPHINCS+C: Compressing SPHINCS+ With (Almost) No Cost
Eyal Ronen and Eylon Yogev
The SPHINCS+~[CCS '19] proposal is one of the alternate candidates for digital signatures in NIST's post-quantum standardization process. The scheme is a hash-based signature and is considered one of the most secure and robust proposals. The proposal includes a fast (but large) variant and a small (but costly) variant for each security level. The main problem that might hinder its adoption is its large signature size. Although SPHICS+ supports a tradeoff between signature size and the computational cost of the signature, further reducing the signature size (below the small variants) results in a prohibitively high computational cost for the signer (as well as the verification cost). This paper presents several novel methods for further compressing the signature size while requiring negligible added computational costs for the signer and faster verification time. Moreover, our approach enables a much more efficient tradeoff curve between signature size and the computational costs of the signer. In many parameter settings, we achieve small signatures and faster running times simultaneously. For example, for $128$-bit security, the small signature variant of SPHINCS+ is $7856$ bytes long, while our variant is only $6304$ bytes long: a compression of approximately $20$\% while still reducing the signer's running time. The main insight behind our scheme is that there are predefined specific subsets of messages for which the WOTS+ and FORS signatures (that SPHINCS+ uses) can be compressed and made faster (while maintaining the same security guarantees). Although most messages will not come from these subsets, we can search for suitable hashed values to sign. We sign a hash of the message concatenated with a counter that was chosen such that the hashed value is in the subset. The resulting signature is both smaller and faster to sign and verify. Our schemes are simple to describe and implement. We provide an implementation and benchmark results.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Arithmetization of Σ¹₁ relations in Halo 2
Morgan Thomas
Orbis Labs presents a method for compiling (“arithmetizing”) relations, expressed as Σ11 formulas in the language of rings, into Halo 2 arithmetic circuits. This method offers the possibility of creating arithmetic circuits without laborious and error-prone manual circuit design and implementation, by instead expressing the relation to be arithmetized in a concise mathematical notation and generating the circuit based on that expression.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Balanced Byzantine Reliable Broadcast with Near-Optimal Communication and Improved Computation
Nicolas Alhaddad, Sourav Das, Sisi Duan, Ling Ren, Mayank Varia, Zhuolun Xiang, and Haibin Zhang
This paper studies Byzantine reliable broadcast (BRB) under asynchronous networks, and improves the state-of-the-art protocols from the following aspects. Near-optimal communication cost: We propose two new BRB protocols for $n$ nodes and input message $M$ that has communication cost $O(n|M|+n^2\log n)$, which is near-optimal due to the lower bound of $\Omega(n|M|+n^2)$. The first RBC protocol assumes threshold signature but is easy to understand, while the second RBC protocol is error-free but less intuitive. Improved computation: We propose a new construction that improves the computation cost of the state-of-the-art BRB by avoiding the expensive online error correction on the input message, while achieving the same communication cost. Balanced communication: We propose a technique named balanced multicast that can balance the communication cost for BRB protocols where the broadcaster needs to multicast the message $M$ while other nodes only needs to multicast coded fragments of size $O(|M|/n + \log n)$. The balanced multicast technique can be applied to many existing BRB protocols as well as all our new constructions in this paper, and can make every node incur about the same communication cost. Finally, we present a lower bound to show the near optimality of our protocol in terms of communication cost at each node.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Asynchronous Verifiable Information Dispersal with Near-Optimal Communication
Nicolas Alhaddad, Sourav Das, Sisi Duan, Ling Ren, Mayank Varia, Zhuolun Xiang, and Haibin Zhang
We present a near-optimal asynchronous verifiable information dispersal (AVID) protocol. The total dispersal cost of our AVID protocol is $O(|M|+\kappa n^2)$, and the retrieval cost per client is $O(|M|+\kappa n)$. Unlike prior works, our AVID protocol only assumes the existence of collision-resistant hash functions. Also, in our AVID protocol, the dispersing client incurs a communication cost of $O(|M|+\kappa n)$ in comparison to $O(|M|+\kappa n\log n)$ of prior best. Moreover, each node in our AVID protocol incurs a storage cost of $O(|M|/n+\kappa)$ bits, in comparison to $O(|M|/n+\kappa \log n)$ bits of prior best. Finally, we present lower bound results on communication cost and show that our AVID protocol has near-optimal communication costs -- only a factor of $O(\kappa)$ gap from the lower bounds.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Complexity Analysis of the SAT Attack on Logic Locking
Yadi Zhong and Ujjwal Guin
Due to the adoption of the horizontal business model with the globalization of semiconductor manufacturing, the overproduction of integrated circuits (ICs) and the piracy of intellectual properties (IPs) have become a significant threat to the semiconductor supply chain. Logic locking has emerged as a primary design-for-security measure to counter these threats. In logic locking, ICs become fully functional after fabrication only when unlocked with the correct key. However, Boolean satisfiability-based attacks have rendered most locking schemes ineffective. This gives rise to the numerous defenses and new locking methods to achieve SAT resiliency. This paper provides a unique perspective on the SAT attack efficiency based on conjunctive normal form (CNF) stored in the SAT solver. First, we show that the attack learns a new relation between key bits upon every distinguishing pattern. After each iteration, these additional clauses appended to the solver could significantly decrease the key search complexity. Second, we demonstrate that the SAT attack can break the locking scheme within the linear complexity of key size. The deviation away from linear search can be explained by the oracle's output and different logic gate types. This helps to answer how different distinguishing input eliminates fewer or more incorrect keys. Moreover, we show how key constraints on point functions affect the complexity of SAT attack. The proper key constraint on AntiSAT locking can effectively reduce the SAT attack complexity to constant 1. The same constraint minimizes the complexity of breaking CAS-Lock down to the linear range. Our analysis provides fresh perspectives on the capabilities of SAT attack, and we offer new directions to achieve SAT resiliency.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Adaptive versus Static Multi-oracle Algorithms, and Quantum Security of a Split-key PRF
Jelle Don, Serge Fehr, and Yu-Hsuan Huang
In the first part of the paper, we show a generic compiler that transforms any oracle algorithm that can query multiple oracles adaptively, i.e., can decide on which oracle to query at what point dependent on previous oracle responses, into a static algorithm that fixes these choices at the beginning of the execution. Compared to naive ways of achieving this, our compiler controls the blow-up in query complexity for each oracle individually, and causes a very mild blow-up only. In the second part of the paper, we use our compiler to show the security of the very efficient hash-based split-key PRF proposed by Giacon, Heuer and Poettering (PKC 2018), in the quantum random-oracle model. Using a split-key PRF as the key-derivation function gives rise to a secure KEM combiner. Thus, our result shows that the hash-based construction of Giacon et al. can be safely used in the context of quantum attacks, for instance to combine a well-established but only classically-secure KEM with a candidate KEM that is believed to be quantum-secure. Our security proof for the split-key PRF crucially relies on our adaptive-to-static compiler, but we expect our compiler to be useful beyond this particular application. Indeed, we discuss a couple of other, known results from the literature that would have profitted from our compiler, in that these works had to go though serious complications in oder to deal with adaptivity.
Last updated:  2022-06-20
Maliciously Secure Multi-Party PSI with Lower Bandwidth and Faster Computation
Zhi Qiu, Kang Yang, Yu Yu, and Lijing Zhou
Private Set Intersection (PSI) allows a set of mutually distrustful parties, each holds a private data set, to compute the intersection of all sets, such that no information is revealed except for the intersection. The state-of-the-art PSI protocol (Garimella et al., CRYPTO'21) in the multi-party setting tolerating any number of malicious corruptions requires the communication bandwidth of $O(n\ell|\mathbb{F}|)$ bits for the central party $P_0$ due to the star architecture, where $n$ is the number of parties, $\ell$ is the size of each set and $|\mathbb{F}|$ is the size of an exponentially large field $\mathbb{F}$. When $n$ and $\ell$ are large, this forms an efficiency bottleneck (especially for networks with restricted bandwidthes). In this paper, we present a new multi-party PSI protocol in dishonest-majority malicious setting, which reduces the communication bandwidth of the central party $P_0$ from $O(n\ell|\mathbb{F}|)$ bits to $O(\ell|\mathbb{F}|)$ bits using a tree architecture. Furthermore, our PSI protocol reduces the expensive LPN encoding operations performed by $P_0$ by a factor of $n$ as well as the computational cost by $2n\ell$ hash operations in total. Additionally, while the multi-party PSI protocol (Garimella et al., CRYPTO'21) with a single output is secure, we present a simple attack against its multi-output extension, which allows an adversary to learn more information on the sets of honest parties beyond the intersection of all sets.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Field Instruction Multiple Data
Khin Mi Mi Aung, Enhui Lim, Jun Jie Sim, Benjamin Hong Meng Tan, Huaxiong Wang, and Sze Ling Yeo
Fully homomorphic encryption~(FHE) has flourished since it was first constructed by Gentry~(STOC 2009). Single instruction multiple data~(SIMD) gave rise to efficient homomorphic operations on vectors in \((\mathbb{F}_{t^d})^\ell\), for prime \(t\). RLWE instantiated with cyclotomic polynomials of the form \(X^{2^N}+1\) dominate implementations of FHE due to highly efficient fast Fourier transformations. However, this choice yields very short SIMD plaintext vectors and high degree extension fields, e.g. \(\ell < 100, d > 100\) for small primes~(\(t = 3, 5, \dots\)). In this work, we describe a method to encode more data on top of SIMD, \emph{Field Instruction Multiple Data}, applying reverse multiplication friendly embedding~(RMFE) to FHE. With RMFE, length-\(k\) \(\mathbb{F}_{t}\) vectors can be encoded into \(\mathbb{F}_{t^d}\) and multiplied once. The results have to be recoded~(decoded and then re-encoded) before further multiplications can be done. We introduce an FHE-specific technique to additionally evaluate arbitrary linear transformations on encoded vectors for free during the FHE recode operation. On top of that, we present two optimizations to unlock high degree extension fields with small \(t\) for homomorphic computation: \(r\)-fold RMFE, which allows products of up to \(2^r\) encoded vectors before recoding, and a three-stage recode process for RMFEs obtained by composing two smaller RMFEs. Experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of FIMD from various RMFEs compared to standard SIMD operations. Overall, we found that FIMD generally had \(>2\times\) better (amortized) multiplication times compared to FHE for the same amount of data, while using almost \(k/2 \times\) fewer ciphertexts required.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Password-Authenticated Key Exchange from Group Actions
Michel Abdalla, Thorsten Eisenhofer, Eike Kiltz, Sabrina Kunzweiler, and Doreen Riepel
We present two provably secure password-authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols based on a commutative group action. To date the most important instantiation of isogeny-based group actions is given by CSIDH. To model the properties more accurately, we extend the framework of cryptographic group actions (Alamati et al., ASIACRYPT 2020) by the ability of computing the quadratic twist of an elliptic curve. This property is always present in the CSIDH setting and turns out to be crucial in the security analysis of our PAKE protocols. Despite the resemblance, the translation of Diffie-Hellman based PAKE protocols to group actions either does not work with known techniques or is insecure ("How not to create an isogeny-based PAKE", Azarderakhsh et al., ACNS 2020). We overcome the difficulties mentioned in previous work by using a "bit-by-bit" approach, where each password bit is considered separately. Our first protocol $\mathsf{X\text{-}GA\text{-}PAKE}_\ell$ can be executed in a single round. Both parties need to send two set elements for each password bit in order to prevent offline dictionary attacks. The second protocol $\mathsf{Com\text{-}GA\text{-}PAKE}_\ell$ requires only one set element per password bit, but one party has to send a commitment on its message first. We also discuss different optimizations that can be used to reduce the computational cost. We provide comprehensive security proofs for our base protocols and deduce security for the optimized versions.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Faster Beta Weil Pairing on BLS Pairing Friendly Curves with Odd Embedding Degree
Azebaze Guimagang Laurian, Fouotsa Emmanuel, El Mrabet Nadia, and Pecha Njiahouo Aminatou
Since the advent of pairing-based cryptography, various optimization methods that increase the speed of pairing computations have been exploited, as well as new types of pairings. This paper extends the work of Kinoshita and Suzuki who proposed a new formula for the $ \beta$-Weil pairing on curves with even embedding degree by eliminating denominators and exponents during the computation of the Weil pairing. We provide novel formulas suitable for the parallel computation for the $\beta$-Weil pairing on curves with odd embedding degree which involve vertical line functions useful for sparse multiplications. For computations we used Miller's algorithm combined with storage and multifunction methods. Applying our framework to BLS-$27$, BLS-$15$ and BLS-$9$ curves at respectively the $256$ bit, the $192$ bit and the $128$ bit security level, we obtain faster $\beta$-Weil pairings than the previous state-of-the-art constructions. The correctness of all the formulas and bilinearity of pairings obtained in this work is verified by a SageMath code.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Public-Key Watermarking Schemes for Pseudorandom Functions
Rupeng Yang, Zuoxia Yu, Man Ho Au, and Willy Susilo
A software watermarking scheme can embed a message into a program while preserving its functionality. The embedded message can be extracted later by an extraction algorithm, and no one could remove it without significantly changing the functionality of the program. A watermarking scheme is public key if neither the marking procedure nor the extraction procedure needs a watermarking secret key. Prior constructions of watermarking schemes mainly focus on watermarking pseudorandom functions (PRFs), and the major open problem in this direction is to construct a public-key watermarkable PRF. In this work, we solve the open problem via constructing public-key watermarkable PRFs with different trade-offs from various assumptions, ranging from standard lattice assumptions to the existence of indistinguishability obfuscation. To achieve the results, we first construct watermarking schemes in a weaker model, where the extraction algorithm is provided with a “hint” about the watermarked PRF key. Then we upgrade the constructions to standard watermarking schemes using a robust unobfuscatable PRF. We also provide the first construction of robust unobfuscatable PRF in this work, which is of independent interest.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
A New Approach to Efficient Non-Malleable Zero-Knowledge
Allen Kim, Xiao Liang, and Omkant Pandey
Show abstract
Non-malleable zero-knowledge, originally introduced in the context of man-in-the-middle attacks, serves as an important building block to protect against concurrent attacks where different protocols may coexist and interleave. While this primitive admits almost optimal constructions in the plain model, they are several orders of magnitude slower in practice than standalone zero-knowledge. This is in sharp contrast to non-malleable commitments where practical constructions (under the DDH assumption) have been known for a while. We present a new approach for constructing efficient non-malleable zero-knowledge for all languages in NP, based on a new primitive called instance-based non-malleable commitment (IB-NMC). We show how to construct practical IB-NMC by leveraging the fact that simulators of sub-linear zero-knowledge protocols can be much faster than the honest prover algorithm. With an efficient implementation of IB-NMC, our approach yields the first general-purpose non-malleable zero-knowledge protocol that achieves practical efficiency in the plain model. All of our protocols can be instantiated from symmetric primitives such as block-ciphers and hash functions, have reasonable efficiency in practice, and are general-purpose. Our techniques also yield the first efficient non-malleable commitment scheme without public-key assumptions.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
The Cost of Statistical Security in Interactive Proofs for Repeated Squaring
Cody Freitag and Ilan Komargodski
In recent years, the number of applications of the repeated squaring assumption has been growing rapidly. The assumption states that, given a group element $x$, an integer $T$, and an RSA modulus $N$, it is hard to compute $x^{2^T} \mod N$---or even decide whether $y\stackrel{?}{=}x^{2^T} \mod N$---in parallel time less than the trivial approach of computing $T$ sequential squarings. This rise has been driven by efficient interactive proofs for repeated squaring, opening the door to more efficient constructions of verifiable delay functions, various secure computation primitives, and proof systems for more general languages. In this work, we study the complexity of statistically-sound interactive proofs for the repeated squaring relation. Technically, we consider interactive proofs where the prover sends at most $k \ge 0$ elements per round and the verifier performs generic group operations over the group $\mathbb{Z}_N^\star$. As our main contribution, we show that for any one-round proof with a randomized verifier (i.e., an MA proof) the verifier either runs in parallel time $\Omega(T/(k+1))$ with high probability, or is able to factor $N$ given the proof provided by the prover. This shows that either the prover essentially sends $p,q$ such that $N = p\cdot q$ (which is infeasible or undesirable in most applications), or a variant of Pietrzak's proof of repeated squaring (ITCS 2019) has optimal verifier complexity $O(T/(k+1))$. In particular, it is impossible to obtain a statistically-sound one-round proof of repeated squaring with efficiency on par with the computationally-sound protocol of Wesolowski (EUROCRYPT 2019), with a generic group verifier. We further extend our one-round lower bound to a natural class of recursive (multi-round) interactive proofs for repeated squaring.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Rotational Differential-Linear Distinguishers of ARX Ciphers with Arbitrary Output Linear Masks
Zhongfeng Niu, Siwei Sun, Yunwen Liu, and Chao Li
The rotational differential-linear attacks, proposed at EUROCRYPT 2021, is a generalization of differential-linear attacks by replacing the differential part of the attacks with rotational differentials. At EUROCRYPT 2021, Liu et al. presented a method based on Morawiecki et al.’s technique (FSE 2013) for evaluating the rotational differential-linear correlations for the special cases where the output linear masks are unit vectors. With this method, some powerful (rotational) differential-linear distinguishers with output linear masks being unit vectors against Friet, Xoodoo, and Alzette were discovered. However, how to compute the rotational differential-linear correlations for arbitrary output masks was left open. In this work, we partially solve this open problem by presenting an efficient algorithm for computing the (rotational) differential-linear correlation of modulo additions for arbitrary output linear masks, based on which a technique for evaluating the (rotational) differential-linear correlation of ARX ciphers is derived. We apply the technique to Alzette, Siphash, Chacha, and Speck. As a result, significantly improved (rotational) differential-linear distinguishers including deterministic ones are identified. All results of this work are practical and experimentally verified to confirm the validity of our methods. In addition, we try to explain the experimental distinguishers employed in FSE 2008, FSE 2016, and CRYPTO 2020 against Chacha. The predicted correlations are close to the experimental ones.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Efficient Proofs of Retrievability using Expander Codes
Françoise Levy-dit-Vehel and Maxime Roméas
Proofs of Retrievability (PoR) protocols ensure that a client can fully retrieve a large outsourced file from an untrusted server. Good PoRs should have low communication complexity, small storage overhead and clear security guarantees. We design a good PoR based on a family of graph codes called expander codes. We use expander codes based on graphs derived from point-line incidence relations of finite affine planes. Høholdt et al. showed that, when using Reed-Solomon codes as inner codes, these codes have good dimension and minimum distance over a relatively small alphabet. Moreover, expander codes possess very efficient unique decoding algorithms. We take advantage of these results to de- sign a PoR scheme that extracts the outsourced file in quasi-linear time and features better concrete parameters than state-of-the-art schemes w.r.t storage overhead and size of the outsourced file. Using the Con- structive Cryptography framework of Maurer, we get sharper and more rigourous security guarantees for our scheme than the ones given by the usual epsilon-adversary model. We follow an unbounded-use audit procedure to ensure that the extraction of the outsourced file will succeed w.h.p.. The properties of our expander codes yield an audit with communication complexity comparable to other code-based PoRs.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
SoK: Assumptions Underlying Cryptocurrency Deanonymizations -- A Taxonomy for Scientific Experts and Legal Practitioners
Dominic Deuber, Viktoria Ronge, and Christian Rückert
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In recent years, cryptocurrencies have increasingly been used in cybercrime and have become the key means of payment in darknet marketplaces, partly due to their alleged anonymity. Furthermore, the research attacking the anonymity of even those cryptocurrencies that claim to offer anonymity by design is growing and is being applied by law enforcement agencies in the fight against cybercrime. Their investigative measures require a certain degree of suspicion and it is unclear whether findings resulting from attacks on cryptocurrencies' anonymity can indeed establish that required degree of suspicion. The reason for this is that these attacks are partly based upon uncertain assumptions which are often not properly addressed in the corresponding papers. To close this gap, we extract the assumptions in papers that are attacking Bitcoin, Monero and Zcash, major cryptocurrencies used in darknet markets which have also received the most attention from researchers. We develop a taxonomy to capture the different nature of those assumptions in order to help investigators to better assess whether the required degree of suspicion for specific investigative measures could be established. We found that assumptions based on user behaviour are in general the most unreliable and thus any findings of attacks based on them might not allow for intense investigative measures such as pre-trial detention. We hope to raise awareness of the problem so that in the future there will be fewer unlawful investigations based upon uncertain assumptions and thus fewer human rights violations.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
The Price of Verifiability: Lower Bounds for Verifiable Random Functions
Nicholas Brandt, Dennis Hofheinz, Julia Kastner, and Akin Ünal
Verifiable random functions (VRFs) are a useful extension of pseudorandom functions for which it is possible to generate a proof that a certain image is indeed the correct function value (relative to a public verification key). Due to their strong soundness requirements on such proofs, VRFs are notoriously hard to construct, and existing constructions suffer either from complex proofs (for function images), or rely on complex and non-standard assumptions. In this work, we attempt to explain this phenomenon. We show that for a large class of pairing-based VRFs, it is not possible to obtain short proofs and a reduction to a simple assumption simultaneously. Since the class of "consecutively verifiable" VRFs we consider contains in particular the VRF of Lysyanskaya and that of Dodis-Yampolskiy, our results explain the large proof size, resp. the complex assumption of these VRFs.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
A Quantum Analysis of Nested Search Problems with Applications in Cryptanalysis
André Schrottenloher and Marc Stevens
In this paper we study search problems that arise very often in cryptanalysis: nested search problems, where each search layer has known degrees of freedom as well as constraints. Classical nested searches can be transformed into quantum algorithms, using Grover's quantum search or amplitude amplification by Brassard et al., obtaining up to a square-root speedup. However, the nesting introduces technicalities in the quantum complexity analysis that are complex to handle and have been so far analyzed in previous works in a case-by-case manner. In this paper, we aim to simplify the quantum transformation and corresponding analysis. We introduce a framework to transform classical nested searches into a quantum procedure and to analyze its complexity. The resulting quantum procedure is easier to describe and analyze compared to previous works, both in the asymptotic setting and for concrete instantiations. Its time complexity and success probability can be bounded using a generic formula, or more precisely with numerical optimization. Along the way to this result, we introduce an algorithm for variable-time amplitude amplification of independent interest. It allows to obtain essentially the same asymptotic complexity as a previous algorithm by Ambainis (STACS 2012) using only several layers of amplitude amplification, and without relying on amplitude estimation. Moreover, we present some direct applications of our results in cryptanalysis.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Privacy Preserving Opinion Aggregation
Aggelos Kiayias, Vanessa Teague, and Orfeas Stefanos Thyfronitis Litos
There are numerous settings in which people's preferences are aggregated outside of formal elections, and where privacy and verification are important but the stringent authentication and coercion-resistant properties of government elections do not apply, a prime example being social media platforms. These systems are often iterative and have no trusted authority, in contrast to the centrally organised, single-shot elections on which most of the literature is focused. Moreover, they require a continuous flow of aggregation to take place and become available even as input is still collected from the participants which is in contrast to "fairness" in classical elections where partial results should never be revealed. In this work, we explore opinion aggregation in a decentralised, iterative setting by proposing a novel protocol in which randomly-chosen participants take turns to act in an incentive-driven manner as decryption authorities. Our construction provides public verifiability, robust vote privacy and liveness guarantees, while striving to minimise the resources each participant needs to contribute.
Last updated:  2022-06-21
SwiftEC: Shallue–van de Woestijne Indifferentiable Function To Elliptic Curves
Jorge Chávez-Saab, Francisco Rodrı́guez-Henrı́quez, and Mehdi Tibouchi
Hashing arbitrary values to points on an elliptic curve is a required step in many cryptographic constructions, and a number of techniques have been proposed to do so over the years. One of the first ones was due to Shallue and van de Woestijne (ANTS-VII), and it had the interesting property of applying to essentially all elliptic curves over finite fields. It did not, however, have the desirable property of being indifferentiable from a random oracle when composed with a random oracle to the base field. Various approaches have since been considered to overcome this limitation, starting with the foundational work of Brier et al. (CRYPTO 2011). For example, if $f\colon \mathbb{F}_q\to E(\mathbb{F}_q)$ is the Shallue--van de Woestijne (SW) map and $\mathfrak{h}_1,\mathfrak{h}_2$ are two independent random oracles to $\mathbb{F}_q$, we now know that $m\mapsto f\big(\mathfrak{h}_1(m)\big)+f\big(\mathfrak{h}_2(m)\big)$ is indifferentiable from a random oracle. Unfortunately, this approach has the drawback of being twice as expensive to compute than the straightforward, but not indifferentiable, $m\mapsto f\big(\mathfrak{h}_1(m)\big)$. Most other solutions so far have had the same issue: they are at least as costly as two base field exponentiations, whereas plain encoding maps like $f$ cost only one exponentiation. Recently, Koshelev (DCC 2022) provided the first construction of indifferentiable hashing at the cost of one exponentiation, but only for a very specific class of curves (some of those with $j$-invariant $0$), and using techniques that are unlikely to apply more broadly. In this work, we revisit this long-standing open problem, and observe that the SW map actually fits in a one-parameter family $(f_u)_{u\in\mathbb{F}_q}$ of encodings, such that for independent random oracles $\mathfrak{h}_1, \mathfrak{h}_2$ to $\mathbb{F}_q$, $F\colon m\mapsto f_{\mathfrak{h}_2(m)}\big(\mathfrak{h}_1(m)\big)$ is indifferentiable. Moreover, on a very large class of curves (essentially those that are either of odd order or of order divisible by 4), the one-parameter family admits a rational parametrization, which let us compute $F$ at almost the same cost as small $f$, and finally achieve indifferentiable hashing to most curves with a single exponentiation. Our new approach also yields an improved variant of the Elligator Squared technique of Tibouchi (FC 2014) that represents points of arbitrary elliptic curves as close-to-uniform random strings.
Last updated:  2022-06-16
Static vs. Adaptive Security in Perfect MPC: A Separation and the Adaptive Security of BGW
Gilad Asharov, Ran Cohen, and Oren Shochat
Adaptive security is a highly desirable property in the design of secure protocols. It tolerates adversaries that corrupt parties as the protocol proceeds, as opposed to static security where the adversary corrupts the parties at the onset of the execution. The well-accepted folklore is that static and adaptive securities are equivalent for perfectly secure protocols. Indeed, this folklore is backed up by a transformation by Canetti et al. (EUROCRYPT'01), showing that any perfectly secure protocol that is statically secure and satisfies some basic requirements is also adaptively secure. Yet, the transformation results in an adaptively secure protocol with inefficient simulation (i.e., where the simulator might run in super-polynomial time even if the adversary runs just in polynomial time). Inefficient simulation is problematic when using the protocol as a sub-routine in the computational setting. Our main question is whether an alternative efficient transformation from static to adaptive security exists. We show an inherent difficulty in achieving this goal generically. In contrast to the folklore, we present a protocol that is perfectly secure with efficient static simulation (therefore also adaptively secure with inefficient simulation), but for which efficient adaptive simulation does not exist (assuming the existence of one-way permutations). In addition, we prove that the seminal protocol of Ben-Or, Goldwasser, and Wigderson (STOC'88) is secure against adaptive, semi-honest corruptions with efficient simulation. Previously, adaptive security of the protocol, as is, was only known either for a restricted class of circuits or for all circuits but with inefficient simulation.
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