Paper 2022/1716

Area-time Efficient Implementation of NIST Lightweight Hash Functions Targeting IoT Applications

Safiullah Khan, Gachon University
Wai-Kong Lee, Gachon University
Angshuman Karmakar, KU Leuven
Jose Maria Bermudo Mera, KU Leuven
Abdul Majeed, Gachon University
Seong Oun Hwang, Gachon University

To mitigate cybersecurity breaches, secure communication is crucial for the Internet of Things (IoT) environment. Data integrity is one of the most significant characteristics of security, which can be achieved by employing cryptographic hash functions. In view of the demand from IoT applications, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a standardization process for lightweight hash functions. This work presents field-programmable gate array (FPGA) implementations and carefully worked out optimizations of four Round-3 finalists in the NIST standardization process. A novel compact PHOTON-Beetle implementation is proposed wherein the underlying matrix multiplication is executed in serialized fashion to achieve a small hardware footprint. SPARKLE implementations are carried out by implementing the ARX-box in serialized, parallelized, and hybrid approaches. For Ascon and XOODYAK, the proposed implementations compute certain permutation rounds in one clock cycle in order to explore the trade-off between computation time and hardware area. As a result, this work achieves the smallest hardware footprint for PHOTON-Beetle consuming an area 3.4× smaller than state-of-the-art implementations. Ascon and XOODYAK are implemented in a flexible manner that achieves throughput-to-area (TP/A) ratios 1.8× and 3.9× higher, respectively, compared to implementations found in the literature. In addition, we propose the first FPGA implementations for the SPARKLE hash function. These efficient implementations provide guidelines for choosing a suitable architecture for applications in demand that can be employed in the IoT environment to achieve data integrity for various applications.

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Publication info
Published elsewhere. IEEE Internet of Things Journal
Hash Functions IoT Lightweight Cryptography FPGA NIST.
Contact author(s)
safi @ gachon ac kr
waikong lee @ gmail com
angshuman karmakar @ esat kuleuven be
jose bermudo @ esat kuleuven be
ab09 @ gachon ac kr
sohwang @ gachon ac kr
2022-12-13: approved
2022-12-12: received
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      author = {Safiullah Khan and Wai-Kong Lee and Angshuman Karmakar and Jose Maria Bermudo Mera and Abdul Majeed and Seong Oun Hwang},
      title = {Area-time Efficient Implementation of NIST Lightweight Hash Functions Targeting IoT Applications},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/1716},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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