Papers updated in last 31 days (Page 4 of 341 results)

Last updated:  2023-09-01
Revisiting the Differential Meet-In-The-Middle Cryptanalysis
Ling Song, Qianqian Yang, and Huimin Liu
The differential meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack is a new cryptanalysis technique proposed at Crypto 2023 recently. It led to greatly improved attacks on round-reduced SKINNY-128-384 and AES-256. In this paper, we revisit the differential MITM attack and propose several variants by absorbing techniques widely used in the classical differential attack. In particular, we present a new differential MITM attack that generalizes the basic differential MITM attack in several aspects. As for applications, we make refinements to the 24-round attack on SKINNY-128-384; on 12-round AES-256, we show that the classical differential attack and the generalized differential MITM attack perform better than the basic differential MITM attack.
Last updated:  2023-09-01
Efficient Hybrid Exact/Relaxed Lattice Proofs and Applications to Rounding and VRFs
Muhammed F. Esgin, Ron Steinfeld, Dongxi Liu, and Sushmita Ruj
In this work, we study hybrid exact/relaxed zero-knowledge proofs from lattices, where the proved relation is exact in one part and relaxed in the other. Such proofs arise in important real-life applications such as those requiring verifiable PRF evaluation and have so far not received significant attention as a standalone problem. We first introduce a general framework, LANES+, for realizing such hybrid proofs efficiently by combining standard relaxed proofs of knowledge RPoK and the LANES framework (due to a series of works in Crypto'20, Asiacrypt'20, ACM CCS'20). The latter framework is a powerful lattice-based proof system that can prove exact linear and multiplicative relations. The advantage of LANES+ is its ability to realize hybrid proofs more efficiently by exploiting RPoK for the high-dimensional part of the secret witness while leaving a low-dimensional secret witness part for the exact proof that is proven at a significantly lower cost via LANES. Thanks to the flexibility of LANES+, other exact proof systems can also be supported. We apply our LANES+ framework to construct substantially shorter proofs of rounding, which is a central tool for verifiable deterministic lattice-based cryptography. Based on our rounding proof, we then design an efficient long-term verifiable random function (VRF), named LaV. LaV leads to the shortest VRF outputs among the proposals of standard (i.e., long-term and stateless) VRFs based on quantum-safe assumptions. Of independent interest, we also present generalized results for challenge difference invertibility, a fundamental soundness security requirement for many proof systems.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
Accountable Safety Implies Finality
Joachim Neu, Ertem Nusret Tas, and David Tse
Motivated by proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchains such as Ethereum, two key desiderata have recently been studied for Byzantine-fault tolerant (BFT) state-machine replication (SMR) consensus protocols: Finality means that the protocol retains consistency, as long as less than a certain fraction of validators are malicious, even in partially-synchronous environments that allow for temporary violations of assumed network delay bounds. Accountable safety means that in any case of inconsistency, a certain fraction of validators can be identified to have provably violated the protocol. Earlier works have developed impossibility results and protocol constructions for these properties separately. We show that accountable safety implies finality, thereby unifying earlier results.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
Device-Oriented Group Messaging: A Formal Cryptographic Analysis of Matrix’ Core
Martin R. Albrecht, Benjamin Dowling, and Daniel Jones
Focusing on its cryptographic core, we provide the first formal description of the Matrix secure group messaging protocol. Observing that no existing secure messaging model in the literature captures the relationships (and shared state) between users, their devices and the groups they are a part of, we introduce the Device-Oriented Group Messaging model to capture these key characteristics of the Matrix protocol. Utilising our new formalism, we determine that Matrix achieves the basic security notions of confidentiality and authentication, provided it introduces authenticated group membership. On the other hand, while the state sharing functionality in Matrix conflicts with advanced security notions in the literature – forward and post-compromise security – it enables features such as history sharing and account recovery, provoking broader questions about how such security notions should be conceptualised.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
A New RSA Variant Based on Elliptic Curves
Maher Boudabra and Abderrahmane Nitaj
We propose a new scheme based on ephemeral elliptic curves over the ring $\mathbb{Z}/n\mathbb{Z}$ where $n=pq$ is an RSA modulus with $p=u_p^2+v_p^2$, $q=u_q^2+v_q^2$, $u_p\equiv u_q\equiv 3\pmod 4$. The new scheme is a variant of both the RSA and the KMOV cryptosystems. The scheme can be used for both signature and encryption. We study the security of the new scheme and show that is immune against factorization attacks, discrete logarithm problem attacks, sum of two squares attacks, sum of four squares attacks, isomorphism attacks, and homomorphism attacks. Moreover, we show that the private exponents can be much smaller than the ordinary exponents for RSA and KMOV, which makes the decryption phase in the new scheme more efficient.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
Quantum Security of TNT
Shuping Mao, Zhiyu Zhang, Lei Hu, Luying Li, and Peng Wang
Many classical secure structures are broken by quantum attacks. Evaluating the quantum security of a structure and providing a tight security bound is a challenging research area. As a tweakable block cipher structure based on block ciphers, $\mathsf{TNT}$ was proven to have $O(2^{3n/4})$ CPA and $O(2^{n/2})$ CCA security in the classical setting. We prove that $\mathsf{TNT}$ is a quantum-secure tweakable block cipher with a bound of $O(2^{n/6})$. In addition, we show the tight quantum PRF security bound of $O(2^{n/3})$ when $\mathsf{TNT}$ is based on random functions, which is better than $O(2^{n/4})$ given by Bhaumik et al. and solves their open problem. Our proof uses the recording standard oracle with errors technique of Hosoyamada and Iwata based on Zhandry’s compressed oracle technique.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
Dually Computable Cryptographic Accumulators and Their Application to Attribute Based Encryption
Anaïs Barthoulot, Olivier Blazy, and Sébastien Canard
In 1993, Benaloh and De Mare introduced cryptographic accumulator, a primitive that allows the representation of a set of values by a short object (the accumulator) and offers the possibility to prove that some input values are in the accumulator. For this purpose, so-called asymmetric accumulators require the creation of an additional cryptographic object, called a witness. Through the years, several instantiations of accumulators were proposed either based on number theoretic assumptions, hash functions, bilinear pairings or more recently lattices. In this work, we present the first instantiation of an asymmetric cryptographic accumulator that allows private computation of the accumulator but public witness creation. This is obtained thanks to our unique combination of the pairing based accumulator of Nguyen with dual pairing vector spaces. We moreover introduce the new concept of dually computable cryptographic accumulators, in which we offer two ways to compute the representation of a set: either privately (using a dedicated secret key) or publicly (using only the scheme's public key), while there is a unique witness creation for both cases. All our constructions of accumulators have constant size accumulated value and witness, and satisfy the accumulator security property of collision resistance, meaning that it is not possible to forge a witness for an element that is not in the accumulated set. As a second contribution, we show how our new concept of dually computable cryptographic accumulator can be used to build a Ciphertext Policy Attribute Based Encryption (CP-ABE). Our resulting scheme permits policies expressed as disjunctions of conjunctions (without ``NO'' gates), and is adaptively secure in the standard model. This is the first CP-ABE scheme having both constant-size user secret keys and ciphertexts (i.e. independent of the number of attributes in the scheme, or the policy size). For the first time, we provide a way to use cryptographic accumulators for both key management and encryption process.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
NEV: Faster and Smaller NTRU Encryption using Vector Decoding
Jiang Zhang, Dengguo Feng, and Di Yan
In this paper, we present NEV -- a faster and smaller NTRU Encryption using Vector decoding, which is provably IND-CPA secure in the standard model under the decisional NTRU and RLWE assumptions over the cyclotomic ring $R_q = \mathbb{Z}_q[X]/(X^n+1)$. Our main technique is a novel and non-trivial way to integrate a previously known plaintext encoding and decoding mechanism into the provably IND-CPA secure NTRU variant by Stehl\'e and Steinfeld (Eurocrypt 2011). Unlike the original NTRU encryption and its variants which encode the plaintext into the least significant bits of the coefficients of a message polynomial, we encode each plaintext bit into the most significant bits of multiple coefficients of the message polynomial, so that we can use a vector of noised coefficients to decode each plaintext bit in decryption, and significantly reduce the size of $q$ with a reasonably negligible decryption failure. Concretely, we can use $q = 769$ to obtain public keys and ciphertexts of 615 bytes with decryption failure $\leq 2^{-138}$ at NIST level 1 security, and 1229 bytes with decryption failure $\leq 2^{-152}$ at NIST level 5 security. By applying the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation in a standard way, we obtain an IND-CCA secure KEM from our basic PKE scheme. Compared to NTRU and Kyber in the NIST Round 3 finalists at the same security levels, our KEM is 33-48% more compact and 5.03-29.94X faster than NTRU in the round-trip time of ephemeral key exchange, and is 21% more compact and 1.42-1.74X faster than Kyber. We also give an optimized encryption scheme NEV' with better noise tolerance (and slightly better efficiency) based on a variant of the RLWE problem, called Subset-Sum Parity RLWE problem, which we show is polynomially equivalent to the standard decisional RLWE problem (with different parameters), and maybe of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
Entropic Quasigroup Based Secret Agreement Using Large Order Automorphisms
Daniel Nager
In this paper a method to build Secret Agreement algorithms is pre- sented, which only requires an abelian group and at least one automor- phism of the operator of this group. An example of such an algorithm is also presented. Knowledge of entropic quasigroups and Bruck-Murdoch- Toyoda theorem on how to build a quasigroup with these two elements is assumed.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
A note on ``blockchain-assisted authentication and key agreement scheme for fog-based smart grid''
Zhengjun Cao and Lihua Liu
We show that the scheme [Clust. Comput. 25(1): 451-468, 2022] fails to keep anonymity, not as claimed. The scheme simply acknowledges that user anonymity is equivalent to protecting the target user's identity against exposure, while its long-term pseudo-identity can be exposed. We want to clarify that the true anonymity means that an adversary cannot attribute different sessions to different target users, even though the adversary cannot recover the true identifier from the long-term pseudo-identifier. We also clarify some misunderstandings in the scheme.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
A Cipher-Agnostic Neural Training Pipeline with Automated Finding of Good Input Differences
Emanuele Bellini, David Gerault, Anna Hambitzer, and Matteo Rossi
Neural cryptanalysis is the study of cryptographic primitives throughmachine learning techniques. Following Gohr’s seminal paper at CRYPTO 2019, afocus has been placed on improving the accuracy of such distinguishers against specific primitives, using dedicated training schemes, in order to obtain better key recovery attacks based on machine learning. These distinguishers are highly specialized and not trivially applicable to other primitives. In this paper, we focus on the opposite problem: building a generic pipeline for neural cryptanalysis. Our tool is composed of two parts. The first part is an evolutionary algorithm for the search of good input differences for neural distinguishers. The second part is DBitNet, a neuraldistinguisher architecture agnostic to the structure of the cipher. We show thatthis fully automated pipeline is competitive with a highly specialized approach, inparticular for SPECK32, and SIMON32. We provide new neural distinguishers forseveral primitives (XTEA, LEA, HIGHT, SIMON128, SPECK128) and improve overthe state-of-the-art for PRESENT, KATAN, TEA and GIMLI.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
Towards Minimizing Non-linearity in Type-II Generalized Feistel Networks
Yuqing Zhao, Chun Guo, and Weijia Wang
Recent works have revisited blockcipher structures to achieve MPC- and ZKP-friendly designs. In particular, Albrecht et al. (EUROCRYPT 2015) first pioneered using a novel structure SP networks with partial non-linear layers (P-SPNs) and then (ESORICS 2019) repopularized using multi-line generalized Feistel networks (GFNs). In this paper, we persist in exploring symmetric cryptographic constructions that are conducive to the applications such as MPC. In order to study the minimization of non-linearity in Type-II Generalized Feistel Networks, we generalize the (extended) GFN by replacing the bit-wise shuffle in a GFN with the stronger linear layer in P-SPN and introducing the key in each round. We call this scheme Generalized Extended Generalized Feistel Network (GEGFN). When the block-functions (or S-boxes) are public random permutations or (domain-preserving) functions, we prove CCA security for the 5-round GEGFN. Our results also hold when the block-functions are over the prime fields F_p, yielding blockcipher constructions over (F_p)^*.
Last updated:  2023-08-31
EvalRound Algorithm in CKKS Bootstrapping
Seonghak Kim, Minji Park, Jaehyung Kim, Taekyung Kim, and Chohong Min
Homomorphic encryption (HE) has opened an entirely new world up in the privacy-preserving use of sensitive data by conducting computations on encrypted data. Amongst many HE schemes targeting computation in various contexts, Cheon--Kim--Kim--Song (CKKS) scheme is distinguished since it allows computations for encrypted real number data, which have greater impact in real-world applications. CKKS scheme is a levelled homomorphic encryption scheme, consuming one level for each homomorphic multiplication. When the level runs out, a special computational circuit called bootstrapping is required in order to conduct further multiplications. The algorithm proposed by Cheon et al. has been regarded as a standard way to do bootstrapping in the CKKS scheme, and it consists of the following four steps: ModRaise, CoeffToSlot, EvalMod and SlotToCoeff. However, the steps consume a number of levels themselves, and thus optimizing this extra consumption has been a major focus of the series of recent research. Among the total levels consumed in the bootstrapping steps, about a half of them is spent in CoeffToSlot and SlotToCoeff steps to scale up the real number components of DFT matrices and round them to the nearest integers. Each scale-up factor is very large so that it takes up one level to rescale it down. Scale-up factors can be taken smaller to save levels, but the error of rounding would be transmitted to EvalMod and eventually corrupt the accuracy of bootstrapping. EvalMod aims to get rid of the superfluous $qI$ term from a plaintext $pt + qI$ resulting from ModRaise, where $q$ is the bottom modulus and $I$ is a polynomial with small integer coefficients. EvalRound is referred to as its opposite, obtaining $qI$. We introduce a novel bootstrapping algorithm consisting of ModRaise, CoeffToSlot, EvalRound and SlotToCoeff, which yields taking smaller scale-up factors without the damage of rounding errors.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
Certifying Zero-Knowledge Circuits with Refinement Types
Junrui Liu, Ian Kretz, Hanzhi Liu, Bryan Tan, Jonathan Wang, Yi Sun, Luke Pearson, Anders Miltner, Işıl Dillig, and Yu Feng
Zero-knowledge (ZK) proof systems have emerged as a promising solution for building security-sensitive applications. However, bugs in ZK applications are extremely difficult to detect and can allow a malicious party to silently exploit the system without leaving any observable trace. This paper presents Coda, a novel statically-typed language for building zero-knowledge applications. Critically, Coda makes it possible to formally specify and statically check properties of a ZK application through a rich refinement type system. One of the key challenges in formally verifying ZK applications is that they require reasoning about polynomial equations over large prime fields that go beyond the capabilities of automated theorem provers. Coda mitigates this challenge by generating a set of Coq lemmas that can be proven in an interactive manner with the help of a tactic library. We have used Coda to re-implement 79 arithmetic circuits from widely-used Circom libraries and applications. Our evaluation shows that Coda makes it possible to specify important and formally verify correctness properties of these circuits. Our evaluation also revealed 6 previously-unknown vulnerabilities in the original Circom projects.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
Non-Malleable Vector Commitments via Local Equivocability
Lior Rotem and Gil Segev
Show abstract
Vector commitments (VCs), enabling to commit to a vector and locally reveal any of its entries, play a key role in a variety of both classic and recently-evolving applications. However, security notions for VCs have so far focused on passive attacks, and non-malleability notions considering active attacks have not been explored. Moreover, existing frameworks that may enable to capture the non-malleability of VCs seem either too weak (non-malleable non-interactive commitments that do not account for the security implications of local openings) or too strong (non-malleable zero-knowledge sets that support both membership and non-membership proofs). We put forward a rigorous framework capturing the non-malleability of VCs, striking a careful balance between the existing weaker and stronger frameworks: We strengthen the framework of non-malleable non-interactive commitments by considering attackers that may be exposed to local openings, and we relax the framework of non-malleable zero-knowledge sets by focusing on membership proofs. In addition, we strengthen both frameworks by supporting (inherently-private) updates to entries of committed vectors, and discuss the benefits of non-malleable VCs in the context of both UTXO-based and account-based stateless blockchains, and in the context of simultaneous multi-round auctions (that have been adopted by the US Federal Communications Commission as the standard auction format for selling spectrum ranges). Within our framework we present a direct approach for constructing non-malleable VCs whose efficiency essentially matches that of the existing standard VCs. Specifically, we show that any VC can be transformed into a non-malleable one, relying on a new primitive that we put forth. Our new primitive, locally-equivocable commitments with all-but-one binding, is evidently both conceptually and technically simpler compared to multi-trapdoor mercurial trapdoor commitments (the main building block underlying existing non-malleable zero-knowledge sets), and admits more efficient instantiations based on the same number-theoretic assumptions.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
Demystifying Just-in-Time (JIT) Liquidity Attacks on Uniswap V3
Xihan Xiong, Zhipeng Wang, William Knottenbelt, and Michael Huth
Uniswap is currently the most liquid Decentralized Exchange (DEX) on Ethereum. In May 2021, it upgraded to the third protocol version named Uniswap V3. The key feature update is “concentrated liquidity”, which supports liquidity provision within custom price ranges. However, this design introduces a new type of Miner Extractable Value (MEV) source called Just-in-Time (JIT) liquidity attack, where the adversary mints and burns a liquidity position right before and after a sizable swap. We begin by formally defining the JIT liquidity attack and subsequently conduct empirical measurements on Ethereum. Over a span of 20 months, we identify 36,671 such attacks, which have collectively generated profits of 7,498 ETH. Our analysis suggests that the JIT liquidity attack essentially represents a whales’ game, predominantly controlled by a select few bots. The most active bot, identified as 0xa57...6CF, has managed to amass 92% of the total profit. Furthermore, we find that this attack strategy poses significant entry barriers, as it necessitates adversaries to provide liquidity that is, on average, 269 times greater than the swap volume. In addition, our findings reveal that the JIT liquidity attack exhibits relatively poor profitability, with an average Return On Investment (ROI) of merely 0.007%. We also find this type of attack to be detrimental to existing Liquidity Providers (LPs) within the pool, as their shares of liquidity undergo an average dilution of 85%. On the contrary, this attack proves advantageous for liquidity takers, who secure execution prices that are, on average, 0.139% better than before. We further dissect the behaviors of the top MEV bots and evaluate their strategies through local simulation. Our observations reveal that the most active bot, 0xa57...6CF, conducted 27% of non-optimal attacks, thereby failing to capture at least 7,766 ETH (equivalent to 16.1M USD) of the potential attack profit.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Subverted RSA Groups
Dimitris Kolonelos, Mary Maller, and Mikhail Volkhov
This work investigates zero-knowledge protocols in subverted RSA groups where the prover can choose the modulus and where the verifier does not know the group order. We introduce a novel technique for extracting the witness from a general homomorphism over a group of unknown order that does not require parallel repetitions. We present a NIZK range proof for general homomorphisms such as Paillier encryptions in the designated verifier model that works under a subverted setup. The key ingredient of our proof is a constant sized NIZK proof of knowledge for a plaintext. Security is proven in the ROM assuming an IND-CPA additively homomorphic encryption scheme. The verifier's public key is reusable, can be maliciously generated and is linear in the number of proofs to be verified.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
DY Fuzzing: Formal Dolev-Yao Models Meet Protocol Fuzz Testing
Max Ammann, Lucca Hirschi, and Steve Kremer
Critical and widely used cryptographic protocols have repeatedly been found to contain flaws in their design and their implementation. A prominent class of such vulnerabilities is logical attacks, e.g. attacks that exploit flawed protocol logic. Automated formal verification methods, based on the Dolev-Yao (DY) attacker, formally define and excel at finding such flaws, but operate only on abstract specification models. Fully automated verification of existing protocol implementations is today still out of reach. This leaves open whether such implementations are secure. Unfortunately, this blind spot hides numerous attacks, such as recent logical attacks on widely used TLS implementations introduced by implementation bugs. We answer by proposing a novel and effective technique that we call DY model-guided fuzzing, which precludes logical attacks against protocol implementations. The main idea is to consider as possible test cases the set of abstract DY executions of the DY attacker, and use a novel mutation-based fuzzer to explore this set. The DY fuzzer concretizes each abstract execution to test it on the program under test. This approach enables reasoning at a more structural and security-related level of messages represented as formal terms (e.g. decrypt a message and re-encrypt it with a different key) as opposed to random bit-level modifications that are much less likely to produce relevant logical adversarial behaviors. We implement a full-fledged and modular DY protocol fuzzer. We demonstrate its effectiveness by fuzzing three popular TLS implementations, resulting in the discovery of four novel vulnerabilities.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
Quantum security analysis of Wave
Johanna Loyer
Show abstract
Wave is a code-based digital signature scheme. Its hardness relies on the unforgeability of signature and the indistinguishability of its public key, a parity check matrix of a ternary $(U, U+V)$-code. The best known attacks involve solving the Decoding Problem using the Information Set Decoding algorithm (ISD) to defeat these two problems. Our main contribution is the description of a quantum smoothed Wagner's algorithm within the ISD, which improves the forgery attack on Wave in the quantum model. We also recap the best known key and forgery attacks against Wave in the classical and quantum models. For each one, we explicitly express their time complexity in the function of Wave parameters and deduce the claimed security of Wave.
Last updated:  2023-08-30
Lin2-Xor Lemma and Log-size Linkable Threshold Ring Signature
Anton A. Sokolov
In this paper we introduce a novel method of constructing a linkable threshold ring signature without a trusted setup in a group where the decisional Diffie-Hellman problem is hard and no bilinear pairings exist. Our ring signature is logarithmic in anonymity set size and linear in signer threshold, its verification complexity is quasilinear. A range of the recently proposed setup-free logarithmic size signatures is based on the commitment-to-zero proving system by Groth and Kohlweiss or on the Bulletproofs inner-product compression method by Bünz et al. In contrast, we construct our signature from scratch using the Lin2-Xor and lemma-Lin2-Selector lemmas that we formulate and prove herein. The Lin2-Xor lemma itself provides a novel 2-round public coin OR-proof protocol, whereas the Lin2-Selector lemma generalizes it to an n-round public coin proof of membership. Consequently, we construct an n-round special honest verifier zero knowledge proof of membership and instantiate it in the form of a general-purpose setup-free linkable threshold ring signature in the random oracle model. Also, we show the signature is anonymous, has witness-extended emulation, is unforgeable and non-frameable.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
PrivMail: A Privacy-Preserving Framework for Secure Emails
Gowri R Chandran, Raine Nieminen, Thomas Schneider, and Ajith Suresh
Emails have improved our workplace efficiency and communication. However, they are often processed unencrypted by mail servers, leaving them open to data breaches on a single service provider. Public-key based solutions for end-to-end secured email, such as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) and Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME), are available but are not widely adopted due to usability obstacles and also hinder processing of encrypted emails. We propose PrivMail, a novel approach to secure emails using secret sharing methods. Our framework utilizes Secure Multi-Party Computation techniques to relay emails through multiple service providers, thereby preventing any of them from accessing the content in plaintext. Additionally, PrivMail supports private server-side email processing similar to IMAP SEARCH, and eliminates the need for cryptographic certificates, resulting in better usability than public-key based solutions. An important aspect of our framework is its capability to enable third-party searches on user emails while maintaining the privacy of both the email and the query used to conduct the search. We integrate PrivMail into the current email infrastructure and provide a Thunderbird plugin to enhance user-friendliness. To evaluate our solution, we benchmarked transfer and search operations using the Enron Email Dataset and demonstrate that PrivMail is an effective solution for enhancing email security.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
Applications of Finite non-Abelian Simple Groups to Cryptography in the Quantum Era
María Isabel González Vasco, Delaram Kahrobaei, and Eilidh McKemmie
The theory of finite simple groups is a (rather unexplored) area likely to provide interesting computational problems and modelling tools useful in a cryptographic context. In this note, we review some applications of finite non-abelian simple groups to cryptography and discuss different scenarios in which this theory is clearly central, providing the relevant definitions to make the material accessible to both cryptographers and group theorists, in the hope of stimulating further interaction between these two (non-disjoint) communities. In particular, we look at constructions based on various group-theoretic factorization problems, review group theoretical hash functions, and discuss fully homomorphic encryption using simple groups. The Hidden Subgroup Problem is also briefly discussed in this context.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
Enhancing Data Security: A Study of Grain Cipher Encryption using Deep Learning Techniques
Payal, Pooja, and Girish Mishra
Data security has become a paramount concern in the age of data driven applications, necessitating the deployment of robust encryption techniques. This paper presents an in-depth investigation into the strength and randomness of the keystream generated by the Grain cipher, a widely employed stream cipher in secure communication systems. To achieve this objective, we propose the construction of sophisticated deep learning models for keystream prediction and evaluation. The implications of this research extend to the augmentation of our comprehension of the encryption robustness offered by the Grain cipher, accomplished by harnessing the power of deep learning models for cryptanalysis. The insights garnered from this study hold significant promise for guiding the development of more resilient encryption algorithms, thereby reinforcing the security of data transmission across diverse applications.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
Post-Quantum Asynchronous Remote Key Generation for FIDO2 Account Recovery
Jacqueline Brendel, Sebastian Clermont, and Marc Fischlin
The Fast IDentity Online (FIDO) Alliance develops open standards to replace password-based authentication methods by token-based solutions. The latest protocol suite FIDO2 provides such a promising alternative which many key players have already adopted or are willing to. The central authentication mechanism WebAuthn uses cryptographic keys stored on the device to authenticate clients to a relying party via a challenge-response protocol. Yet, this approach leaves several open issues about post-quantum secure instantiations and methods for recovery of credentials. Recently Frymann et al. (CCS 2020, ACNS 2023, EuroS&P 2023) made significant progress to advance the security of FIDO2 sys- tems. Following a suggestion by device manufacturer Yubico, they considered a WebAuthn-compliant mechanism to store recovery information at the relying party. If required, the client can recover essential data with the help of a backup authenticator device. They analyzed the Diffie-Hellman based scheme, showing that it provides basic authentication and privacy features. One of their solutions also provides a post-quantum secure variant, but only for a weaker version of authentication security. Our starting point is to note that the security definitions of Fry- mann et al., especially the privacy notion, do not seem to capture real threats appropriately. We thus strengthen the notions. De- spite this strengthening, we show a generic construction based on (anonymous) KEMs and signature schemes. It follows that, us- ing post-quantum secure instances, like Kyber and Dilitihium, one immediately obtains a post-quantum and strongly secure solution.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
Neural Network Quantisation for Faster Homomorphic Encryption
Wouter Legiest, Furkan Turan, Michiel Van Beirendonck, Jan-Pieter D'Anvers, and Ingrid Verbauwhede
Homomorphic encryption (HE) enables calculating on encrypted data, which makes it possible to perform privacy- preserving neural network inference. One disadvantage of this technique is that it is several orders of magnitudes slower than calculation on unencrypted data. Neural networks are commonly trained using floating-point, while most homomorphic encryption libraries calculate on integers, thus requiring a quantisation of the neural network. A straightforward approach would be to quantise to large integer sizes (e.g., 32 bit) to avoid large quantisation errors. In this work, we reduce the integer sizes of the networks, using quantisation-aware training, to allow more efficient computations. For the targeted MNIST architecture proposed by Badawi et al., we reduce the integer sizes by 33% without significant loss of accuracy, while for the CIFAR architecture, we can reduce the integer sizes by 43%. Implementing the resulting networks under the BFV homomorphic encryption scheme using SEAL, we could reduce the execution time of an MNIST neural network by 80% and by 40% for a CIFAR neural network.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
On the Invalidity of LV16/Lin17 Obfuscation Schemes Revisited
Yupu Hu, Siyue Dong, Baocang Wang, and Xingting Dong
LV16/Lin17 IO schemes are famous progresses towards simplifying obfuscation mechanism. In fact, these two schemes only constructed two compact functional encryption (CFE) algorithms, while other things were taken to the AJ15 IO frame or BV15 IO frame. CFE algorithms are inserted into the AJ15 IO frame or BV15 IO frame to form a complete IO scheme. We stated the invalidity of LV16/Lin17 IO schemes. More detailedly, under reasonable assumption “real white box (RWB)” LV16/Lin17 CFE algorithms being inserted into AJ15 IO frame are insecure. In this paper, we continue to state the invalidity of LV16/Lin17 IO schemes. The conclusion of this paper is that LV16/Lin17 CFE algorithms being inserted into BV15 IO frame are insecure. The reasoning of this paper is composed of the following three steps. First, when LV16/Lin17 CFE algorithms are inserted into secret constants. Second, when all secret random numbers are changed into the BV15 IO frame, all secret random numbers must be changed into secret constants, component functions in LV16/Lin17 CFE algorithms are cryptologic weak functions, and shapes of these component functions can be easily obtained by chosen values of independent variables. Finally, the shapes of these component functions include parameters of original function, therefore the IO scheme is insecure.
Last updated:  2023-08-29
General Non-interactive Quantum Commitments Are Compatible with Quantum Rewinding
Jun Yan
In this work, we show that general non-interactive quantum commitments (allowing quantum computation and communication) to classical messages are compatible with current-known quantum-rewinding techniques. Specifically, we first propose a definition of collapse-binding of quantum commitments which generalizes from its post-quantum counterpart and is shown to work well with quantum rewinding. Then we show that thus defined collapse-binding is equivalent to the conceivably minimal unique-message-binding. This in particular implies that canonical quantum bit commitments are collapse-binding and can be used to instantiate many cryptographic applications. Additionally, we rephrase the flavor conversion of canonical quantum bit commitments as a hardness conversion, which then can be used to establish a stronger quantum indistinguishability that works well with quantum rewinding just like in the post-quantum setting. Such indistinguishability allows us to establish the security of the Goldreich-Kahan construction of constant-round zero-knowledge proofs for NP instantiated with canonical quantum bit commitments. We thus for the first time construct a constant-round (actually, four-round) quantum computational zero-knowledge proof for NP based on the minimum complexity assumption that is needed for the complexity-based quantum cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
Hidden Stream Ciphers and TMTO Attacks on TLS 1.3, DTLS 1.3, QUIC, and Signal
John Preuß Mattsson
Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.3 and the Signal protocol are very important and widely used security protocols. We show that the key update function in TLS 1.3 and the symmetric key ratchet in Signal can be modeled as non-additive synchronous stream ciphers. This means that the efficient Time Memory Tradeoff Attacks for stream ciphers can be applied. The implication is that TLS 1.3, QUIC, DTLS 1.3, and Signal offer a lower security level against TMTO attacks than expected from the key sizes. We provide detailed analyses of the key update mechanisms in TLS 1.3 and Signal, illustrate the importance of ephemeral key exchange, and show that the process that DTLS 1.3 and QUIC use to calculate AEAD limits is flawed. We provide many concrete recommendations for the analyzed protocols.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
Practical Security Analysis of Zero-Knowledge Proof Circuits
Hongbo Wen, Jon Stephens, Yanju Chen, Kostas Ferles, Shankara Pailoor, Kyle Charbonnet, Isil Dillig, and Yu Feng
As privacy-sensitive applications based on zero-knowledge proofs (ZKPs) gain increasing traction, there is a pressing need to detect vulnerabilities in ZKP circuits. This paper studies common vulnerabilities in Circom (the most popular domain-specific language for ZKP circuits) and describes a static analysis framework for detecting these vulnerabilities. Our technique operates over an abstraction called the circuit dependence graph (CDG) that captures key properties of the circuit and allows expressing semantic vulnerability patterns as queries over the CDG abstraction. We have implemented 9 different detectors using this framework and perform an experimental evaluation on over 258 circuits from popular Circom projects on Github. According to our evaluation, these detectors can identify vulnerabilities, including previously unknown ones, with high precision and recall.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
Comparative Analysis of ResNet and DenseNet for Differential Cryptanalysis of SPECK 32/64 Lightweight Block Cipher
Ayan Sajwan and Girish Mishra
This research paper explores the vulnerabilities of the lightweight block cipher SPECK 32/64 through the application of differential analysis and deep learning techniques. The primary objectives of the study are to investigate the cipher’s weaknesses and to compare the effectiveness of ResNet as used by Aron Gohr at Crypto2019 and DenseNet . The methodology involves conducting an analysis of differential characteristics to identify potential weaknesses in the cipher’s structure. Experimental results and analysis demonstrate the efficacy of both approaches in compromising the security of SPECK 32/64.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
Fully Tally-Hiding Verifiable E-Voting for Real-World Elections with Seat-Allocations
Carmen Wabartha, Julian Liedtke, Nicolas Huber, Daniel Rausch, and Ralf Kuesters
Modern e-voting systems provide what is called verifiability, i.e., voters are able to check that their votes have actually been counted despite potentially malicious servers and voting authorities. Some of these systems, called tally-hiding systems, provide increased privacy by revealing only the actual election result, e.g., the winner of the election, but no further information that is supposed to be kept secret. However, due to these very strong privacy guarantees, supporting complex voting methods at a real-world scale has proven to be very challenging for tally-hiding systems. A widespread class of elections, and at the same time, one of the most involved ones is parliamentary election with party-based seat-allocation. These elections are performed for millions of voters, dozens of parties, and hundreds of individual candidates competing for seats; they also use very sophisticated multi-step algorithms to compute the final assignment of seats to candidates based on, e.g., party lists, hundreds of electoral constituencies, possibly additional votes for individual candidates, overhang seats, and special exceptions for minorities. So far, it has not been investigated whether and in how far such elections can be performed in a verifiable tally-hiding manner. In this work, we design and implement the first verifiable (fully) tally-hiding e-voting system for an election from this class, namely, for the German parliament (Bundestag). As part of this effort, we propose several new tally-hiding building blocks that are of independent interest. We perform benchmarks based on actual election data, which show, perhaps surprisingly, that our proposed system is practical even at a real-world scale. Our work thus serves as a foundational feasibility study for this class of elections.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
Non-Interactive Threshold BBS+ From Pseudorandom Correlations
Sebastian Faust, Carmit Hazay, David Kretzler, and Benjamin Schlosser
The BBS+ signature scheme is one of the most prominent solutions for realizing anonymous credentials. Its prominence is due to properties like selective disclosure and efficient protocols for creating and showing possession of credentials. Traditionally, a single credential issuer produces BBS+ signatures, which poses significant risks due to a single point of failure. In this work, we address this threat via a novel $t$-out-of-$n$ threshold BBS+ protocol. Our protocol supports an arbitrary security threshold $t \leq n$ and works in the so-called preprocessing setting. In this setting, we achieve non-interactive signing in the online phase and sublinear communication complexity in the offline phase, which, as we show in this work, are important features from a practical point of view. As it stands today, none of the widely studied signature schemes, such as threshold ECDSA and threshold Schnorr, achieve both properties simultaneously. To this end, we design specifically tailored presignatures that can be directly computed from pseudorandom correlations and allow servers to create signature shares without additional cross-server communication. Both our offline and online protocols are actively secure in the Universal Composability model. Finally, we evaluate the concrete efficiency of our protocol, including an implementation of the online phase. The online protocol without network latency takes less than $15 ms$ for $t \leq 30$ and credentials sizes up to $10$. Further, our results indicate that the influence of $t$ on the online signing is insignificant, $< 6 \%$ for $t \leq 30$, and the overhead of the thresholdization occurs almost exclusively in the offline phase.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
The Random Fault Model
Siemen Dhooghe and Svetla Nikova
In this work, we introduce the random fault model - a more advanced fault model inspired by the random probing model, where the adversary can fault all values in the algorithm but the probability for each fault to occur is limited. The new adversary model is used to evaluate the security of side-channel and fault countermeasures such as Boolean masking, error detection techniques, error correction techniques, multiplicative tags, and shuffling methods. The results of the security analysis reveal new insights both in the novel random fault model as well as in the established random probing model including: shuffling masked implementations does not significantly improve the random probing security over regular masking; error correction providing little security when faults target more bits (versus the significant improvement when using error detection); and the order in which masking and duplication are applied providing a trade-off between random probing and fault security. Moreover, the results also explain the experimental results from CHES 2022 and find weaknesses in the shuffling method from SAMOS 2021.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
An erf Analog for Discrete Gaussian Sampling
Nicolas Gama, Anand Kumar Narayanan, Ryder LiuLin, and Dongze Yue
Most of the current lattice-based cryptosystems rely on finding Gaussian Samples from a lattice that are close to a given target. To that end, two popular distributions have been historically defined and studied: the Rounded Gaussian distribution and the Discrete Gaussian distribution. The first one is nearly trivial to sample: simply round the coordinates of continuous Gaussian samples to their nearest integer. Unfortunately, the security of resulting cryptosystems are not as well understood. In the opposite, the second distribution is only implicitly defined by a restriction of the support of the continuous Gaussian distribution to the discrete lattice points. Thus, algorithms to achieve such distribution are more involved, even in dimension one. The justification for exerting this computational effort is that the resulting lattice-based cryptographic schemes are validated by rigorous security proofs, often by leveraging the fact that the distribution is radial and discrete Gaussians behave well under convolutions, enabling arithmetic between samples, as well as decomposition across dimensions. In this work, we unify both worlds. We construct out of infinite series, the cumulative density function of a new continuous distribution that acts as surrogate for the cumulative distribution of the discrete Gaussian. If $\mu$ is a center and $x$ a sample of this distribution, then rounding $\mu+x$ yields a faithful Discrete Gaussian sample. This new sampling algorithm naturally splits into a pre-processing/offline phase and a very efficient online phase. The online phase is simple and has a trivial constant time implementation. Modulo the offline phase, our algorithm offers both the efficiency of rounding and the security guarantees associated with discrete Gaussian sampling.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
LOL: A Highly Flexible Framework for Designing Stream Ciphers
Dengguo Feng, Lin Jiao, Yonglin Hao, Qunxiong Zheng, Wenling Wu, Wenfeng Qi, Lei Zhang, Liting Zhang, Siwei Sun, and Tian Tian
In this paper, we propose LOL, a general framework for designing blockwise stream ciphers, to achieve ultrafast software implementations for the ubiquitous virtual networks in 5G/6G environments and high-security level for post-quantum cryptography. The LOL framework is structurally strong, and all its components as well as the LOL framework itself enjoy high flexibility with various extensions. Following the LOL framework, we propose new stream cipher designs named LOL-MINI and LOL-DOUBLE with the support of the AES-NI and SIMD instructions: the former applies the basic LOL single mode while the latter uses the extended parallel-dual mode. Both LOL-MINI and LOL-DOUBLE support 256-bit key length and, according to our thorough evaluations, have 256-bit security margins against all existing cryptanalysis methods including differential, linear, integral, etc. The software performances of LOL-MINI and LOL-DOUBLE can reach 89 Gbps and 135 Gbps. In addition to pure encryptions, the LOL-MINI and LOL-DOUBLE stream ciphers can also be applied in a stream-cipher-then-MAC strategy to make an AEAD scheme.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
Generic Accelerators for Costly-to-Mask PQC Components
Markus Krausz, Georg Land, Florian Stolz, Dennis Naujoks, Jan Richter-Brockmann, Tim Güneysu, and Lucie Kogelheide
In this work, we examine widespread components of various Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC) schemes that exhibit disproportionately high overhead when implemented in software in a side-channel secure manner: fixed-weight polynomial sampling, Cumulative Distribution Table (CDT) sampling, and rotation of polynomials by a secret offset. These components are deployed in a range of lattice-based and code-based Key Encapsulation Mechanisms (KEMs) and signature schemes from NIST’s fourth round of PQC standardization and the signature on-ramp. Masking – to defend against power Side-Channel Analysis (SCA) – on top of required constant-time methods, leads in some of these cases to impractical runtimes. To solve this issue, we start by identifying a small set of core operations, which are crucial for the performance of all three components. We accelerate these operations with an Instruction Set Extension (ISE) featuring masked instructions, which are generic and low-level and can be used in a wide range of cryptographic applications and thereby tackle performance, microarchitectural power leakage, and cryptographic agility, simultaneously. We implement dedicated masked instructions for our core operations as an add-on to the RISC-V core by Gao et al. which features masked instructions for Boolean and arithmetic operations and evaluate several algorithmic approaches in standard and bitsliced implementations on different ISE constellations. Our instructions allow some masked components to run more than one order of magnitude faster and are first-order power side-channel secure, which our practical evaluation confirms.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
On the Concrete Security of TLS 1.3 PSK Mode
Hannah Davis, Denis Diemert, Felix Günther, and Tibor Jager
The pre-shared key (PSK) handshake modes of TLS 1.3 allow for the performant, low-latency resumption of previous connections and are widely used on the Web and by resource-constrained devices, e.g., in the Internet of Things. Taking advantage of these performance benefits with optimal and theoretically-sound parameters requires tight security proofs. We give the first tight security proofs for the TLS 1.3 PSK handshake modes. Our main technical contribution is to address a gap in prior tight security proofs of TLS 1.3 which modeled either the entire key schedule or components thereof as independent random oracles to enable tight proof techniques. These approaches ignore existing interdependencies in TLS 1.3's key schedule, arising from the fact that the same cryptographic hash function is used in several components of the key schedule and the handshake more generally. We overcome this gap by proposing a new abstraction for the key schedule and carefully arguing its soundness via the indifferentiability framework. Interestingly, we observe that for one specific configuration, PSK-only mode with hash function SHA-384, it seems difficult to argue indifferentiability due to a lack of domain separation between the various hash function usages. We view this as an interesting insight for the design of protocols, such as future TLS versions. For all other configurations however, our proofs significantly tighten the security of the TLS 1.3 PSK modes, confirming standardized parameters (for which prior bounds provided subpar or even void guarantees) and enabling a theoretically-sound deployment.
Last updated:  2023-08-28
SwiftRange: A Short and Efficient Zero-Knowledge Range Argument For Confidential Transactions and More
Nan Wang, Sid Chi-Kin Chau, and Dongxi Liu
Zero-knowledge range proofs play a critical role in confidential transactions (CT) on blockchain systems. They are used to prove the non-negativity of committed transaction payments without disclosing the exact values. Logarithmic-sized range proofs with transparent setups, e.g., Bulletproofs, which aim to prove a committed value lies in the range $[0, 2^N-1]$ where $N$ is the bit length of the range, have gained growing popularity for communication-critical blockchain systems as they increase scalability by allowing a block to accommodate more transactions. In this paper, we propose SwiftRange, a new type of logarithmic-sized zero-knowledge range argument with a transparent setup in the discrete logarithm setting. Our argument can be a drop-in replacement for range proofs in blockchain-based confidential transactions. Compared with Bulletproofs, our argument has higher computational efficiency and lower round complexity while incurring comparable communication overheads for CT-friendly ranges, where $N \in \{32,64\}$. Specifically, a SwiftRange achieves 1.61$\times$ and 1.32$\times$ proving efficiency with no more than 1.1$\times$ communication costs for both ranges, respectively. More importantly, our argument offers a $2.3\times$ increase in verification efficiency. Furthermore, our argument has a smaller size when $N \leq 16$, making it competitive for many other communication-critical applications. Our argument supports the aggregation of multiple single arguments for greater efficiency in communication and verification. Finally, we benchmarked our argument against the state-of-the-art range proofs to demonstrate its practicality.
Last updated:  2023-08-27
Watermarking PRFs against Quantum Adversaries
Fuyuki Kitagawa and Ryo Nishimaki
We initiate the study of software watermarking against quantum adversaries. A quantum adversary generates a quantum state as a pirate software that potentially removes an embedded message from a classical marked software. Extracting an embedded message from quantum pirate software is difficult since measurement could irreversibly alter the quantum state. In software watermarking against classical adversaries, a message extraction algorithm crucially uses the (input-output) behavior of a classical pirate software to extract an embedded message. Even if we instantiate existing watermarking PRFs with quantum-safe building blocks, it is not clear whether they are secure against quantum adversaries due to the quantum-specific property above. Thus, we need entirely new techniques to achieve software watermarking against quantum adversaries. In this work, we define secure watermarking PRFs and PKE for quantum adversaries (unremovability against quantum adversaries). We also present two watermarking PRFs and one watermarking PKE as follows. - We construct a privately extractable watermarking PRF against quantum adversaries from the quantum hardness of the learning with errors (LWE) problem. The marking and extraction algorithms use a public parameter and a private extraction key, respectively. The watermarking PRF is unremovable even if adversaries have (the public parameter and) access to the extraction oracle, which returns a result of extraction for a queried quantum circuit. - We construct a publicly extractable watermarking PRF against quantum adversaries from indistinguishability obfuscation (IO) and the quantum hardness of the LWE problem. The marking and extraction algorithms use a public parameter and a public extraction key, respectively. The watermarking PRF is unremovable even if adversaries have the extraction key (and the public parameter). - We construct a publicly extractable watermarking PKE against quantum adversaries from standard PKE. The marking algorithm can directly generate a marked decryption from a decryption key, and the extraction algorithm uses a public key of the PKE scheme for extraction. We develop a quantum extraction technique to extract information (a classical string) from a quantum state without destroying the state too much. We also introduce the notions of extraction-less watermarking PRFs and PKE as crucial building blocks to achieve the results above by combining the tool with our quantum extraction technique.
Last updated:  2023-08-27
Waffle: An Online Oblivious Datastore for Protecting Data Access Patterns
Sujaya Maiyya, Sharath Vemula, Divyakant Agrawal, Amr El Abbadi, and Florian Kerschbaum
We present Waffle, a datastore that protects an application’s data access patterns from a passive persistent adversary. Waffle achieves this without prior knowledge of the input data access distribution, making it the first of its kind to adaptively handle input sequences under a passive persistent adversary. Waffle maintains a constant bandwidth and client-side storage overhead, which can be adjusted to suit the application owner’s preferences. This flexibility allows the owner to fine-tune system parameters and strike a balance between security and performance. Our evaluation, utilizing the Yahoo! Cloud Serving Benchmark (YCSB) benchmark and Redis as the backend storage, demonstrates promising results. The insecure baseline outperforms Waffle by a mere 5-6x, whereas Waffle outperforms Pancake—a state-of-the-art oblivious datastore under passive persistent adversaries—by 45-57%, and a concurrent ORAM system, TaoStore, by 102x.
Last updated:  2023-08-26
DuckyZip: Provably Honest Global Linking Service
Nadim Kobeissi
DuckyZip is a provably honest global linking service which links short memorable identifiers to arbitrarily large payloads (URLs, text, documents, archives, etc.) without being able to undetectably provide different payloads for the same short identifier to different parties. DuckyZip uses a combination of Verifiable Random Function (VRF)-based zero knowledge proofs and a smart contract in order to provide strong security guarantees: despite the transparency of the smart contract log, observers cannot feasibly create a mapping of all short identifiers to payloads that is faster than $\mathcal{O}(n)$ classical enumeration.
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