Papers updated in last 31 days (Page 2 of 302 results)

Last updated:  2022-11-21
A New Higher Order Differential of RAGHAV
Naoki Shibayama and Yasutaka Igarashi
RAGHAV is a 64-bit block cipher proposed by Bansod in 2021. It supports 80-, and 128-bit secret keys. The designer evaluated its security against typical attack, such as differential cryptanalysis, linear cryptanalysis, and so on. On the other hand, it has not been reported the security of RAGHAV against higher order differential attack, which is one of the algebraic attacks. In this paper, we applied higher order differential cryptanalysis to RAGHAV. As a results, we found a new full-round higher order characteristic of RAGHAV using 1-st order differential. Exploiting this characteristic, we also show that the full-round of RAGHAV is attackable by distinguishing attack with 2 chosen plaintexts.
Last updated:  2022-11-21
flookup: Fractional decomposition-based lookups in quasi-linear time independent of table size
Ariel Gabizon and Dmitry Khovratovich
We present a protocol for checking the values of a committed polynomial $\phi(X)$ over a multiplicative subgroup $H\subset \mathbb{F}$ of size $m$ are contained in a table $T\in \mathbb{F}^N$. After an $O(N \log^2 N)$ preprocessing step, the prover algorithm runs in *quasilinear* time $O(m\log ^2 m)$. We improve upon the recent breakthrough results Caulk[ZBK+22] and Caulk+[PK22], which were the first to achieve the complexity sublinear in the full table size $N$ with prover time being $O(m^2+m\log N)$ and $O(m^2)$, respectively. We pose further improving this complexity to $O(m\log m)$ as the next important milestone for efficient zk-SNARK lookups.
Last updated:  2022-11-21
cuXCMP: CUDA-Accelerated Private Comparison Based on Homomorphic Encryption
Hao Yang, Shiyu Shen, Zhe Liu, and Yunlei Zhao
Private comparison schemes constructed on homomorphic encryption offer the noninteractive, output expressive and parallelizable features, and have advantages in communication bandwidth and performance. In this paper, we propose cuXCMP, which allows negative and float inputs, offers fully output expressive feature, and is more extensible and practical compared to XCMP (AsiaCCS 2018). Meanwhile, we introduce several memory-centric optimizations of the constant term extraction kernel tailored for CUDA-enabled GPUs. Firstly, we fully utilize the shared memory and present compact GPU implementations of NTT and INTT using a single block; Secondly, we fuse multiple kernels into one AKS kernel, which conducts the automorphism and key switching operation, and reduce the grid dimension for better resource usage, data access rate and synchronization. Thirdly, we precisely measure the IO latency and choose an appropriate number of CUDA streams to enable concurrent execution of independent operations, yielding a constant term extraction kernel with perfect latency hide, i.e., CTX. Combining these approaches, we boost the overall execution time to optimum level and the speedup ratio increases with the comparison scales. For one comparison, we speedup the AKS by 23.71×, CTX by 15.58×, and scheme by 1.83× (resp., 18.29×, 11.75×, and 1.42×) compared to C (resp., AVX512) baselines, respectively. For 32 comparisons, our CTX and scheme implementations outperform the C (resp., AVX512) baselines by 112.00× and 1.99× (resp., 81.53× and 1.51×).
Last updated:  2022-11-21
Another Round of Breaking and Making Quantum Money: How to Not Build It from Lattices, and More
Hart Montgomery, Jiahui Liu, and Mark Zhandry
Public verification of quantum money has been one of the central objects in quantum cryptography ever since Wiesner's pioneering idea of using quantum mechanics to construct banknotes against counterfeiting. So far, we do not know any publicly-verifiable quantum money scheme that is provably secure from standard assumptions. In this work, we provide both negative and positive results for publicly verifiable quantum money. **In the first part, we give a general theorem, showing that a certain natural class of quantum money schemes from lattices cannot be secure. We use this theorem to break the recent quantum money scheme of Khesin, Lu, and Shor. **In the second part, we propose a framework for building quantum money and quantum lightning we call invariant money which abstracts some of the ideas of quantum money from knots by Farhi et al.(ITCS'12). In addition to formalizing this framework, we provide concrete hard computational problems loosely inspired by classical knowledge-of-exponent assumptions, whose hardness would imply the security of quantum lightning, a strengthening of quantum money where not even the bank can duplicate banknotes. **We discuss potential instantiations of our framework, including an oracle construction using cryptographic group actions and instantiations from rerandomizable functional encryption, isogenies over elliptic curves, and knots.
Last updated:  2022-11-21
The Performance Analysis of Post-Quantum Cryptography for Vehicular Communications
Abel C. H. Chen
For avoding the attacks from quantum computing (QC), this study applies the post-quantum cryptography (PQC) methods without hidden subgroups to the security of vehicular communications. Due the mainstream technologies of PQC methods (i.e. lattice-based cryptography methods), the standard digital signature methods including Dilithium and Falcon have been discussed and compared. This study uses a queueing model to analyze the performance of these standard digital signature methods for selection decision-making.
Last updated:  2022-11-20
Witness-Succinct Universally-Composable SNARKs
Chaya Ganesh, Yashvanth Kondi, Claudio Orlandi, Mahak Pancholi, Akira Takahashi, and Daniel Tschudi
Zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive ARguments of Knowledge (zkSNARKs) are becoming an increasingly fundamental tool in many real-world applications where the proof compactness is of the utmost importance, including blockchains. A proof of security for SNARKs in the Universal Composability (UC) framework (Canetti, FOCS'01) would rule out devastating malleability attacks. To retain security of SNARKs in the UC model, one must show their simulation-extractability such that the knowledge extractor is both black-box and straight-line, which would imply that proofs generated by honest provers are non-malleable. However, existing simulation-extractability results on SNARKs either lack some of these properties, or alternatively have to sacrifice witness succinctness to prove UC security. In this paper, we provide a compiler lifting any simulation-extractable NIZKAoK into a UC-secure one in the global random oracle model, importantly, while preserving the same level of witness succinctness. Combining this with existing zkSNARKs, we achieve, to the best of our knowledge, the first zkSNARKs simultaneously achieving UC-security and constant sized proofs.
Last updated:  2022-11-20
Updatable Encryption from Group Actions
Antonin Leroux and Maxime Roméas
Updatable Encryption (UE) allows to rotate the encryption key in the outsourced storage setting while minimizing the bandwith used. The server can update ciphertexts to the new key using a token provided by the client. UE schemes should provide strong confidentiality guarantees against an adversary that can corrupt keys and tokens. This paper studies the problem of building UE in the group action framework. We introduce a new notion of Mappable Effective Group Action (MEGA) and show that we can build CCA secure UE from a MEGA by generalizing the SHINE construction of Boyd et al. at Crypto 2020. Unfortunately, we do not know how to instantiate this new construction in the post-quantum setting. Doing so would solve the open problem of building a CCA secure post-quantum UE scheme. Isogeny-based group actions are the most studied post-quantum group actions. Unfortunately, the resulting group actions are not mappable. We show that we can still build UE from isogenies by introducing a new algebraic structure called Effective Triple Orbital Group Action (ETOGA). We prove that UE can be built from an ETOGA and show how to instantiate this abstract structure from isogeny-based group actions. This new construction solves two open problems in ciphertext-independent post-quantum UE. First, this is the first post-quantum UE scheme that supports an unbounded number of updates. Second, our isogeny-based UE scheme is the first post-quantum UE scheme not based on lattices.
Last updated:  2022-11-20
Secure Auctions in the Presence of Rational Adversaries
Chaya Ganesh, Bhavana Kanukurthi, and Girisha Shankar
Sealed bid auctions are used to allocate a resource among a set of interested parties. Traditionally, auctions need the presence of a trusted auctioneer to whom the bidders provide their private bid values. Existence of such a trusted party is not an assumption easily realized in practice. Generic secure computation protocols can be used to remove a trusted party. However, generic techniques result in inefficient protocols, and typically do not provide fairness - that is, a corrupt party can learn the output and abort the protocol thereby preventing other parties from learning the output. At CRYPTO 2009, Miltersen, Nielsen and Triandopoulos [MNT09], introduced the problem of building auctions that are secure against rational bidders. Such parties are modelled as self-interested agents who care more about maximizing their utility than about learning information about bids of other agents. To realize this, they put forth a novel notion of information utility and introduce a game-theoretic framework that helps analyse protocols while taking into account both information utility as well as monetary utility. Unfortunately, their construction makes use a of generic MPC protocol and, consequently, the authors do not analyze the concrete efficiency of their protocol. In this work, we construct the first concretely efficient and provably secure protocol for First Price Auctions in the rational setting. Our protocol guarantees privacy, public verifiability and fairness. Inspired by [MNT09], we put forth a solution concept that we call Privacy Enhanced Computational Weakly Dominant Strategy Equilibrium that captures parties' privacy and monetary concerns in the game theoretic context, and show that our protocol realizes this. We believe this notion to be of independent interest. Our protocol is crafted specifically for the use case of auctions, is simple, using off-the-shelf cryptographic components. Executing our auction protocol on commodity hardware with 30 bidders, with bids of length 10, our protocol runs to completion in 0.429s and has total communication of 82KB.
Last updated:  2022-11-20
Secret Sharing for Generic Access Structures
James Smith
Sharing a secret efficiently amongst a group of participants is not easy since there is always an adversary / eavesdropper trying to retrieve the secret. In secret sharing schemes, every participant is given a unique share. When the desired group of participants come together and provide their shares, the secret is obtained. For other combinations of shares, a garbage value is returned. A threshold secret sharing scheme was proposed by Shamir and Blakeley independently. In this (n,t) threshold secret sharing scheme, the secret can be obtained when at least $t$ out of $n$ participants contribute their shares. This paper proposes a novel algorithm to reveal the secret only to the subsets of participants belonging to the access structure. This scheme implements totally generalized ideal secret sharing. Unlike threshold secret sharing schemes, this scheme reveals the secret only to the authorized sets of participants, not any arbitrary set of users with cardinality more than or equal to $t$. Since any access structure can be realized with this scheme, this scheme can be exploited to implement various access priorities and access control mechanisms. A major advantage of this scheme over the existing ones is that the shares being distributed to the participants is totally independent of the secret being shared. Hence, no restrictions are imposed on the scheme and it finds a wider use in real world applications.
Last updated:  2022-11-20
Efficient Methods for Implementation of Generalized Access Structures
James Smith
The recent advent of cloud computing and IoT has made it imperative to store huge amount of data in the cloud servers. Enormous amount of data is also stored in the servers of big organizations. In organizations, it is not desirable for every member to have equal privileges to access the stored data. Threshold secret sharing schemes are widely used for implementing such access control mechanisms. The access privileges of the members also vary from one data packet to another. While implementing such dynamic access structures using threshold secret sharing schemes, the key management becomes too complex to be implemented in real time. Furthermore, the storage of the users’ access privileges requires exponential space (O($2^n$)) and its implementation requires exponential time. In this paper, the algorithms proposed to tackle the problems of priority based access control and authentication require a space complexity of O($n^2$) and a time complexity of O($n$), where n is the number of users. In the practical scenario, such space can easily be provided on the servers and the algorithms can run smoothly in real time.
Last updated:  2022-11-19
Clarion: Anonymous Communication from Multiparty Shuffling Protocols
Saba Eskandarian and Dan Boneh
This paper studies the role of multiparty shuffling protocols in enabling more efficient metadata-hiding communication. We show that the process of shuffling messages can be expedited by having servers collaboratively shuffle and verify secret-shares of messages instead of using a conventional mixnet approach where servers take turns performing independent verifiable shuffles of user messages. We apply this technique to achieve both practical and asymptotic improvements in anonymous broadcast and messaging systems. We first show how to build a three server anonymous broadcast scheme, secure against one malicious server, that relies only on symmetric cryptography. Next, we adapt our three server broadcast scheme to a $k$-server scheme secure against $k-1$ malicious servers, at the cost of a more expensive per-shuffle preprocessing phase. Finally, we show how our scheme can be used to significantly improve the performance of the MCMix anonymous messaging system. We implement our shuffling protocol in a system called Clarion and find that it outperforms a mixnet made up of a sequence of verifiable (single-server) shuffles by $9.2\times$ for broadcasting small messages and outperforms the MCMix conversation protocol by $11.8\times$.
Last updated:  2022-11-19
Throughput Limitation of the Off-chain Payment Networks
Shayan Hamidi Dehshali, Seyed Mahdi Hosseini, Soheil Zibakhsh Shabgahi, and Behnam Bahrak
Off-chain payment channels were introduced as one of the solutions to the blockchain scalability problem. The channels shape a network, where parties have to lock funds for their creation. A channel is expected to route a limited number of transactions before it becomes unbalanced, when all of the funds are devoted to one of the parties. Since an on-chain transaction is often necessary to establish, rebalance, or close a channel, the off-chain network is bounded to the throughput of the blockchain. In this paper, we propose a mathematical model to formulate limitation on the throughput of an off-chain payment network. As a case study, we show the limitation of the Lightning Network, in comparison with popular banking systems. Our results show that theoretically, the throughput of the Lightning Network can reach the order of 10000 transactions per second, close to the average throughput of centralized banking systems.
Last updated:  2022-11-19
Range Search over Encrypted Multi-Attribute Data
Francesca Falzon, Evangelia Anna Markatou, Zachary Espiritu, and Roberto Tamassia
This work addresses expressive queries over encrypted data by presenting the first systematic study of multi-attribute range search on a symmetrically encrypted database outsourced to an honest-but-curious server. Prior work includes a thorough analysis of single-attribute range search schemes (e.g. Demertzis et al. 2016) and a proposed high-level approach for multi-attribute schemes (De Capitani di Vimercati et al. 2021). We first introduce a flexible framework for building secure range search schemes over multiple attributes (dimensions) by adapting a broad class of geometric search data structures to operate on encrypted data. Our framework encompasses widely used data structures such as multi-dimensional range trees and quadtrees, and has strong security properties that we formally prove. We then develop six concrete highly parallelizable range search schemes within our framework that offer a sliding scale of efficiency and security tradeoffs to suit the needs of the application. We evaluate our schemes with a formal complexity and security analysis, a prototype implementation, and an experimental evaluation on real-world datasets.
Last updated:  2022-11-19
Large-Scale Non-Interactive Threshold Cryptosystems in the YOSO Model
Andreas Erwig, Sebastian Faust, and Siavash Riahi
A $(t,n)$-public key threshold cryptosystem allows distributing the execution of a cryptographic task among a set of $n$ parties by splitting the secret key required for the computation into $n$ shares. A subset of at least $t+1$ honest parties is required to execute the task of the cryptosystem correctly, while security is guaranteed as long as at most $t < \frac{n}{2}$ parties are corrupted. Unfortunately, traditional threshold cryptosystems do not scale well, when executed at large-scale (e.g., in the Internet-environment). In such settings, a possible approach is to select a subset of $n$ players (called a committee) out of the entire universe of $N\gg n$ parties to run the protocol. If done naively, however, this means that the adversary's corruption power does not scale with $N$ as otherwise, the adversary would be able to corrupt the entire committee. A beautiful solution for this problem is given by Benhamouda et al. (TCC 2020) who present a novel form of secret sharing, where the efficiency of the protocol is \emph{independent} of $N$, but the adversarial corruption power \emph{scales} with $N$ (a.k.a. fully mobile adversary). They achieve this through a novel mechanism that guarantees parties in a committee to stay anonymous -- also referred to as the YOSO (You Only Speak Once) model -- until they start to interact within the protocol. In this work, we initiate the study of large-scale threshold cryptography in the YOSO model of communication. We formalize and present novel protocols for distributed key generation, threshold encryption, and signature schemes that guarantee security in large-scale environments. A key challenge in our analysis is that we cannot use the secret sharing protocol of Benhamouda et al. as a black-box to construct our schemes, and instead we require a more generalized version, which may be of independent interest. Finally, we show how our protocols can be concretely instantiated in the YOSO model, and discuss interesting applications of our schemes.
Last updated:  2022-11-19
Classic McEliece Key Generation on RAM constrained devices
Rainer Urian and Raphael Schermann
Classic McEliece is a code based encryption scheme and candidate of the NIST post quantum contest. Implementing Classic McEliece on smart card chips is a challenge, because those chips have only a very limited amount of RAM. Decryption is not an issue because the cryptogram size is short and the decryption algorithm can be implemented using very few RAM. However key generation is a concern, because a large binary matrix must be inverted. In this paper, we show how key generation can be done on smart card chips with very little RAM resources. This is accomplished by modifying the key generation algorithm and splitting it in a security critical part and a non security critical part. The security critical part can be implemented on the smart card controller. The non critical part contains the matrix inversion and will be done on a connected host.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
The inspection model for zero-knowledge proofs and efficient Zerocash with secp256k1 keys
Huachuang Sun, Haifeng Sun, Kevin Singh, Akhil Sai Peddireddy, Harshad Patil, Jianwei Liu, and Weikeng Chen
Proving discrete log equality for groups of the same order is addressed by Chaum and Pedersen's seminal work. However, there has not been a lot of work in proving discrete log equality for groups of different orders. This paper presents an efficient solution, which leverages a technique we call delegated Schnorr. The discovery of this technique is guided by a design methodology that we call the inspection model, and we find it useful for protocol designs. We show two applications of this technique on the Findora blockchain: **Maxwell-Zerocash switching:** There are two privacy-preserving transfer protocols on the Findora blockchain, one follows the Maxwell construction and uses Pedersen commitments over Ristretto, one follows the Zerocash construction and uses Rescue over BLS12-381. We present an efficient protocol to convert assets between these two constructions while preserving the privacy. **Zerocash with secp256k1 keys:** Bitcoin, Ethereum, and many other chains do signatures on secp256k1. There is a strong need for ZK applications to not depend on special curves like Jubjub, but be compatible with secp256k1. Due to FFT unfriendliness of secp256k1, many proof systems (e.g., Groth16, Plonk, FRI) are infeasible. We present a solution using Bulletproofs over curve secq256k1 ("q") and delegated Schnorr which connects Bulletproofs to TurboPlonk over BLS12-381. We conclude the paper with (im)possibility results about Zerocash with only access to a deterministic ECDSA signing oracle, which is the case when working with MetaMask. This result shows the limitations of the techniques in this paper. This paper is under a bug bounty program through a grant from Findora Foundation.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
On Black-Box Constructions of Time and Space Efficient Sublinear Arguments from Symmetric-Key Primitives
Laasya Bangalore, Rishabh Bhadauria, Carmit Hazay, and Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam
Zero-knowledge proofs allow a prover to convince a verifier of a statement without revealing anything besides its validity. A major bottleneck in scaling sub-linear zero-knowledge proofs is the high space requirement of the prover, even for NP relations that can be verified in a small space. In this work, we ask whether there exist complexity-preserving (i.e. overhead w.r.t time and space are minimal) succinct zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge with minimal assumptions while making only black-box access to the underlying primitives. We design the first such zero-knowledge system with sublinear communication complexity (when the underlying $\textsf{NP}$ relation uses non-trivial space) and provide evidence why existing techniques are unlikely to improve the communication complexity in this setting. Namely, for every NP relation that can be verified in time T and space S by a RAM program, we construct a public-coin zero-knowledge argument system that is black-box based on collision-resistant hash-functions (CRH) where the prover runs in time $\widetilde{O}(T)$ and space $\widetilde{O}(S)$, the verifier runs in time $\widetilde{O}(T/S+S)$ and space $\widetilde{O}(1)$ and the communication is $\widetilde{O}(T/S)$, where $\widetilde{O}()$ ignores polynomial factors in $\log T$ and $\kappa$ is the security parameter. As our construction is public-coin, we can apply the Fiat-Shamir heuristic to make it non-interactive with sample communication/computation complexities. Furthermore, we give evidence that reducing the proof length below $\widetilde{O}(T/S)$ will be hard using existing symmetric-key based techniques by arguing the space-complexity of constant-distance error correcting codes.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
Inner Product Functional Commitments with Constant-Size Public Parameters and Openings
Hien Chu, Dario Fiore, Dimitris Kolonelos, and Dominique Schröder
Functional commitments (Libert et al.~[ICALP'16]) allow a party to commit to a vector $\vec v$ of length $n$ and later open the commitment at functions of the committed vector succinctly, namely with communication logarithmic or constant in $n$. Existing constructions of functional commitments rely on trusted setups and have either $O(1)$ openings and $O(n)$ parameters, or they have short parameters generatable using public randomness but have $O(\log n)$-size openings. In this work, we ask whether it is possible to construct functional commitments in which both parameters and openings can be of constant size. Our main result is the construction of FC schemes matching this complexity. Our constructions support the evaluation of inner products over small integers; they are built using groups of unknown order and rely on succinct protocols over these groups that are secure in the generic group and random oracle model.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
Minimizing Setup in Broadcast-Optimal Two Round MPC
Ivan Damgård, Divya Ravi, Luisa Siniscalchi, and Sophia Yakoubov
In this paper we consider two-round secure computation protocols which use different communication channels in different rounds: namely, protocols where broadcast is available in neither round, both rounds, only the first round, or only the second round. The prior works of Cohen, Garay and Zikas (Eurocrypt 2020) and Damgård, Magri, Ravi, Siniscalchi and Yakoubov (Crypto 2021) give tight characterizations of which security guarantees are achievable for various thresholds in each communication structure. In this work, we introduce a new security notion, namely, selective identifiable abort, which guarantees that every honest party either obtains the output, or aborts identifying one corrupt party (where honest parties may potentially identify different corrupted parties). We investigate what broadcast patterns in two-round MPC allow achieving this guarantee across various settings (such as with or without PKI, with or without an honest majority). Further, we determine what is possible in the honest majority setting without a PKI, closing a question left open by Damgård et al. We show that without a PKI, having an honest majority does not make it possible to achieve stronger security guarantees compared to the dishonest majority setting. However, if two-thirds of the parties are guaranteed to be honest, identifiable abort is additionally achievable using broadcast only in the second round. We use fundamentally different techniques from the previous works to avoid relying on private communication in the first round when a PKI is not available, since assuming such private channels without the availability of public encryption keys is unrealistic. We also show that, somewhat surprisingly, the availability of private channels in the first round does not enable stronger security guarantees unless the corruption threshold is one.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
ADMM and Reproducing Sum-Product Decoding Algorithm Applied to QC-MDPC Code-based McEliece Cryptosystems
Kohtaro Watanabe, Motonari Ohtsuka, and Yuta Tsukie
QC-MDPC (quasi cyclic moderate density parity check) code-based McEliece cryptosystems are considered to be one of the candidates for post-quantum cryptography. Decreasing DER (decoding error rate) is one of important factor for their security, since recent attacks to these cryptosystems effectively use DER information. In this paper, we pursue the possibility of optimization-base decoding, concretely we examine ADMM (alternating direction method of multipliers), a recent developing method in optimization theory. Further, RSPA (reproducing sum-product algorithm), which efficiently reuse outputs of SPA (sum-product algorithm) is proposed for the reduction of execution time in decoding. By numerical simulations, we show that the proposing scheme shows considerable decrement in DER compared to the conventional decoding methods such as BF (bit-flipping algorithm) variants or SPA.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
Streamlined NTRU Prime on FPGA
Bo-Yuan Peng, Adrian Marotzke, Ming-Han Tsai, Bo-Yin Yang, and Ho-Lin Chen
We present a novel full hardware implementation of Streamlined NTRU Prime, with two variants: A high-speed, high-area implementation, and a slower, low-area implementation. We introduce several new techniques that improve performance, including a batch inversion for key generation, a high-speed schoolbook polynomial multiplier, an NTT polynomial multiplier combined with a CRT map, a new DSP-free modular reduction method, a high-speed radix sorting module, and new en- and decoders. With the high-speed design, we achieve the to-date fastest speeds for Streamlined NTRU Prime, with speeds of 5007, 10989 and 64026 cycles for encapsulation, decapsulation, and key generation respectively, while running at 285 MHz on a Xilinx Zynq Ultrascale+. The entire design uses 40060 LUT, 26384 flip-flops, 36.5 Bram and 31 DSP.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
A Practical Full Key Recovery Attack on TFHE and FHEW by Inducing Decryption Errors
Bhuvnesh Chaturvedi, Anirban Chakraborty, Ayantika Chatterjee, and Debdeep Mukhopadhyay
Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) promises to secure our data on the untrusted cloud, while allowing arbitrary computations. Present research shows that while there are pos- sibilities of side channel exploitations on the client side targeting the encryption or key-generation processes, the encrypted data on the cloud is secure against practical attacks. The current paper shows that it is possible for adversaries to inject perturbations in the ciphertexts stored in the cloud to result in decryption errors. Most importantly, we highlight that when the client reports of such aberrations to the cloud service provider the complete secret key can be extracted in few attempts. Technically, this implies a break of the IND-CVA (Indistinguishability against Ciphertext Verification Attacks) security of the FHE schemes. The underlying core methodology of the attack is to exploit the dependence of the error in the ciphertexts to the timing of homomorphic computations. These correlations can lead to timing templates which when used in conjunction with the error- induced decryption errors as reported by the client can lead to an accurate estimation of the ciphertext errors. As the security of the underlying Learning with Errors (LWE) collapse with the leakage of the errors, the adversary is capable of ascertaining the secret keys. We demonstrate this attack on two well-known FHE libraries, namely FHEW and TFHE, where we need 7, 23 and 28 queries to the client for each error recovery respectively. We mounted full key recovery attack on TFHE (without and with bootstrapping) and FHEW with key sizes 630 and 500 bits with 1260, 703 and 1003 correct errors and 31948, 21273 and 9073 client queries respectively.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
Forking Sums of Permutations for Optimally Secure and Highly Efficient PRFs
Avijit Dutta, Jian Guo, and Eik List
The desirable encryption scheme possesses high PRF security, high efficiency, and the ability to produce variable-length outputs. Since designing dedicated secure PRFs is difficult, a series of works was devoted to building optimally secure PRFs from the sum of independent permutations (SoP), Encrypted Davies-Meyer (EDM), its Dual (EDMD), and the Summation-Truncation Hybrid (STH) for variable output lengths, which can be easily instantiated from existing permutations. For increased efficiency, reducing the number of operations in established primitives has been gaining traction: Mennink and Neves pruned EDMD to FastPRF, and Andreeva et al. introduced ForkCiphers, which take an n-bit input, process it through a reduced-round permutation, fork it into two states, and feed each of them into another reduced-round permutation to produce a 2n-bit output. The constructions above can be used in secure variable-length modes or generalizations such as MultiForkCiphers. In this paper, we suggest a framework of those constructions in terms of the three desiderata: we span the spectrum of (1) output length vs. PRF security, (2) full vs. round-reduced primitives, and (3) fixed- vs. variable-length outputs. From this point of view, we identify remaining gaps in the spectrum and fill them with the proposal of several highly secure and efficient fixed- and variable-output-length PRFs. We fork SoP and STH to ForkPRF and ForkSTH, extend STH to the variable-output-length construction STHCENC, which bridges the gap between CTR mode and CENC,and propose ForkCENC, ForkSTHCENC, ForkEDMD, as well as ForkEDM-CTR as the variable-output-length and round-reduced versions of CENC, STH, FastPRF, and FastPRF's dual, respectively. Using recent results on Patarin's general Mirror Theory, we have proven that almost all our proposed PRFs are optimally secure under the assumption that the permutations are pairwise independent and random and STH achieves the optimal security depending on the output length. Our constructions can be highly efficient in practice. We propose efficient instantiations from round-reduced AES and back it with the cryptanalysis lessons learned from existing earlier analysis of AES-based primitives.
Last updated:  2022-11-18
Ligero: Lightweight Sublinear Arguments Without a Trusted Setup
Scott Ames, Carmit Hazay, Yuval Ishai, and Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam
We design and implement a simple zero-knowledge argument protocol for $\mathsf{NP}$ whose communication complexity is proportional to the square-root of the verification circuit size. The protocol can be based on any collision-resistant hash function. Alternatively, it can be made non-interactive in the random oracle model, yielding concretely efficient zk-SNARKs that do not require a trusted setup or public-key cryptography. Our protocol is obtained by applying an optimized version of the general transformation of Ishai et al. (STOC 2007) to a variant of the protocol for secure multiparty computation of Damg$\mathring{a}$rd and Ishai (CRYPTO 2006). It can be viewed as a simple zero-knowledge interactive PCP based on ``interleaved'' Reed-Solomon codes. This paper is an extended version of the paper published in CCS 2017 and features a tighter analysis, better implementation along with formal proofs. For large verification circuits, the Ligero prover remains competitive against subsequent works with respect to the prover’s running time, where our efficiency advantages become even bigger in an amortized setting, where several instances need to be proven simultaneously. Our protocol is attractive not only for very large verification circuits but also for moderately large circuits that arise in applications. For instance, for verifying a SHA-256 preimage with $2^{-40}$ soundness error, the communication complexity is roughly 35KB. The communication complexity of our protocol is independent of the circuit structure and depends only on the number of gates. For $2^{-40}$ soundness error, the communication becomes smaller than the circuit size for circuits containing roughly 3 million gates or more. With our refined analysis the Ligero system's proof lengths and prover's running times are better than subsequent post-quantum ZK-SNARKs for small to moderately large circuits.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Homomorphic Encryption on GPU
Ali Şah Özcan, Can Ayduman, Enes Recep Türkoğlu, and Erkay Savaş
Homomorphic encryption (HE) is a cryptosystem that allows secure processing of encrypted data. One of the most popular HE schemes is the Brakerski-Fan-Vercauteren (BFV), which supports somewhat (SWHE) and fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). Since overly involved arithmetic operations of HE schemes are amenable to concurrent computation, GPU devices can be instrumental in facilitating the practical use of HE in real world applications thanks to their superior parallel processing capacity. This paper presents an optimized and highly parallelized GPU library to accelerate the BFV scheme. This library includes state-of-the-art implementations of Number Theoretic Transform (NTT) and inverse NTT that minimize the GPU kernel function calls. It makes an efficient use of the GPU memory hierarchy and computes 128 NTT operations for ring dimension of $2^{14}$ only in $176.1~\mu s$ on RTX~3060Ti GPU. To the best of our knowlede, this is the fastest implementation in the literature. The library also improves the performance of the homomorphic operations of the BFV scheme. Although the library can be independently used, it is also fully integrated with the Microsoft SEAL library, which is a well-known HE library that also implements the BFV scheme. For one ciphertext multiplication, for the ring dimension $2^{14}$ and the modulus bit size of $438$, our GPU implementation offers $\mathbf{63.4}$ times speedup over the SEAL library running on a high-end CPU. The library compares favorably with other state-of-the-art GPU implementations of NTT and the BFV operations. Finally, we implement a privacy-preserving application that classifies encrpyted genome data for tumor types and achieve speedups of $42.98$ and $5.7$ over a CPU implementations using single and 16 threads, respectively. Our results indicate that GPU implementations can facilitate the deployment of homomorphic cryptographic libraries in real world privacy preserving applications.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
A Universally Composable PAKE with Zero Communication Cost (And Why It Shouldn't Be Considered UC-Secure)
Lawrence Roy and Jiayu Xu
A Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE) protocol allows two parties to agree upon a cryptographic key, when the only information shared in advance is a low-entropy password. The standard security notion for PAKE (Canetti et al., Eurocrypt 2005) is in the Universally Composable (UC) framework. We show that unlike most UC security notions, UC PAKE does not imply correctness. While Canetti et al. seems to have implicitly noticed this issue, it has yet to be explicitly identified by the PAKE literature. We present a comprehensive study of correctness in UC PAKE: 1. We show that TrivialPAKE, a no-message protocol that does not satisfy correctness, is a UC PAKE; 2. We propose nine approaches to guaranteeing correctness in the UC security notion of PAKE, and show that seven of them are equivalent, whereas the other two are unachievable; 3. We prove that a direct solution, namely changing the UC PAKE functionality to incorporate correctness, is impossible; 4. Finally, we show how to naturally incorporate correctness by changing the model — we view PAKE as a three-party protocol, with the man-in-the-middle adversary as the third party. In this way, we hope to shed some light on the very nature of UC-security in the man-in-the-middle setting.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
AUC: Accountable Universal Composability
Mike Graf, Ralf Küsters, and Daniel Rausch
Accountability is a well-established and widely used security concept that allows for obtaining undeniable cryptographic proof of misbehavior, thereby incentivizing honest behavior. There already exist several general purpose accountability frameworks for formal game-based security analyses. Unfortunately, such game-based frameworks do not support modular security analyses, which is an important tool to handle the complexity of modern protocols. Universal composability (UC) models provide native support for modular analyses, including re-use and composition of security results. So far, accountability has mainly been modeled and analyzed in UC models for the special case of MPC protocols, with a general purpose accountability framework for UC still missing. That is, a framework that among others supports arbitrary protocols, a wide range of accountability properties, handling and mixing of accountable and non-accountable security properties, and modular analysis of accountable protocols. To close this gap, we propose AUC, the first general purpose accountability framework for UC models, which supports all of the above, based on several new concepts. We exemplify AUC in three case studies not covered by existing works. In particular, AUC unifies existing UC accountability approaches within a single framework.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Sweep-UC: Swapping Coins Privately
Lucjan Hanzlik, Julian Loss, Sri AravindaKrishnan Thyagarajan, and Benedikt Wagner
Fair exchange (also referred to as atomic swap) is a fundamental operation in any cryptocurrency, that allows users to atomically exchange coins. While a large body of work has been devoted to this problem, most solutions lack on-chain privacy. Thus, coins retain a public transaction history which is known to degrade the fungibility of a currency. This has led to a flourishing line of related research on fair exchange with privacy guarantees. Existing protocols either rely on heavy scripting (which also degrades fungibility), do not support atomic swaps across a wide range currencies, or come with incomplete security proofs. To overcome these limitations, we introduce Sweep-UC (Read as Sweep Ur Coins), the first fair exchange protocol that simultaneously is efficient, minimizes scripting, and is compatible with a wide range of currencies (more than the state of the art). We build Sweep-UC from modular subprotocols and give a rigorous security analysis in the UC-framework. Many of our tools and security definitions can be used in standalone fashion and may serve as useful components for future constructions of fair exchange.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Quantum Rebound Attacks on Reduced-Round ARIA-Based Hash Functions
Seungjun Baek and Jongsung Kim
ARIA is a block cipher proposed by Kwon et al. at ICISC 2003, and it is widely used as the national standard block cipher in the Republic of Korea. In this study, we identify some flaws in the quantum rebound attack on 7-round ARIA-DM proposed by Dou et al., and we reveal that the limit of this attack is up to 5-round. Our revised attack applies not only to ARIA-DM but also to ARIA-MMO and ARIA-MP among the PGV models, and it is valid for all key lengths of ARIA. Moreover, we present dedicated quantum rebound attacks on 7-round ARIA-Hirose and ARIA-MJH for the first time. These attacks are only valid for the 256-bit key length of ARIA because they are constructed using the degrees of freedom in the key schedule. All our attacks are faster than the generic quantum attack in the cost metric of time–space tradeoff.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Explicit, Closed-form, General bounds for Cuckoo Hashing with a Stash
Daniel Noble
Show abstract
Cuckoo Hashing is a dictionary data structure in which a data item is stored in a small constant number of possible locations. It has the appealing property that a data structure of size $2m$ can hold up to $n = \frac{1}{d} m$ elements for any constant $d > 1$; i.e. the data structure size is a small constant times larger than the combined size of all inserted data elements. However, the probability that a cuckoo hash table build fails is $\Theta(\frac{1}{m})$. This is too high for many applications, especially cryptographic applications and Oblivious RAM. An alternative proposal introduced by Kirsch et al. is to store elements which cannot be placed in the main table in a ``stash'', reducing the failure probability to $\mathcal{O}(m^{-(s+1)})$ where $s$ is any constant stash size. However, this analysis did not apply to super-constant $s$, and the bounds are asymptotic rather than explicit. Further works improved upon this, but either were not explicit, not closed-form or had limitations on the stash size. In this paper we present the first explicit, closed-form bounds for the failure probability of cuckoo hashing with a stash for general stash sizes.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Slid Pairs of the Fruit-80 Stream Cipher
Pang Kok An, Shekh Faisal Abdul-Latip, and Hazlin Abdul Rani
Fruit is a small-state stream cipher designed for securing communications among resource-constrained devices. The design of Fruit was first known to the public in 2016. It was later improved as Fruit-80 in 2018 and becomes the latest and final version among all versions of the Fruit stream ciphers. In this paper, we analyze the Fruit-80 stream cipher. We found that Fruit-80 generates identical keystreams from certain two distinct pairs of key and IV. Such pair of key and IV pairs is known as a slid pair. Moreover, we discover that when two pairs of key and IV fulfill specific characteristics, they will generate identical keystreams. This shows that slid pairs do not always exist arbitrarily in Fruit-80. We define specific rules which are equivalent to the characteristics. Using the defined rules, we are able to automate the searching process using an MILP solver, which makes searching of the slid pairs trivial.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Survey on Fully Homomorphic Encryption, Theory, and Applications
Chiara Marcolla, Victor Sucasas, Marc Manzano, Riccardo Bassoli, Frank H.P. Fitzek, and Najwa Aaraj
Data privacy concerns are increasing significantly in the context of Internet of Things, cloud services, edge computing, artificial intelligence applications, and other applications enabled by next generation networks. Homomorphic Encryption addresses privacy challenges by enabling multiple operations to be performed on encrypted messages without decryption. This paper comprehensively addresses homomorphic encryption from both theoretical and practical perspectives. The paper delves into the mathematical foundations required to understand fully homomorphic encryption (FHE). It consequently covers design fundamentals and security properties of FHE and describes the main FHE schemes based on various mathematical problems. On a more practical level, the paper presents a view on privacy-preserving Machine Learning using homomorphic encryption, then surveys FHE at length from an engineering angle, covering the potential application of FHE in fog computing, and cloud computing services. It also provides a comprehensive analysis of existing state-of-the-art FHE libraries and tools, implemented in software and hardware, and the performance thereof.
Last updated:  2022-11-17
Revisiting the Concrete Hardness of SelfTargetMSIS in CRYSTALS-Dilithium
Geng Wang, Wenwen Xia, Gongyu Shi, Ming Wan, Yuncong Zhang, and Dawu Gu
In this paper, we reconsider the security for CRYSTALS-Dilithium, a lattice-based post-quantum signature scheme standardized by NIST. In their documentation, the authors proved that the security of the signature scheme can be based on the hardness of the following three assumptions: MLWE, MSIS and SelfTargetMSIS. While the first two are standard lattice assumptions with hardness well studied, the authors claimed that the third assumption SelfTargetMSIS can be estimated by the hardness of MSIS (and further into SIS). However, we point out that this is in fact not the case. We give a new algorithm for solving SelfTargetMSIS, by both experimental results and asymptotic complexities, we prove that under specific parameters, solving SelfTargetMSIS might be faster than MSIS. Although our algorithm does not propose a real threat to parameters used in Dilithium, we successfully show that solving SelfTargetMSIS cannot be turned into solving MSIS or MISIS. Furthermore, we define a new variant of MISIS, called sel-MISIS, and show that solving SelfTargetMSIS can only be turned into solving sel-MISIS. We believe that in order to fully understand the concrete hardness of SelfTargetMSIS and prevent potential attacks to Dilithium, the hardness of this new problem needs to be further studied.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Secret-Shared Joins with Multiplicity from Aggregation Trees
Saikrishna Badrinarayanan, Sourav Das, Gayathri Garimella, Srinivasan Raghuraman, and Peter Rindal
We present novel protocols to compute SQL-like join operations on secret shared database tables with non-unique join keys. Previous approaches to the problem had the restriction that the join keys of both the input tables must be unique or had quadratic overhead. Our work lifts this restriction, allowing one or both of the secret shared input tables to have an unknown and unbounded number of repeating join keys while achieving efficient $O(n\log n)$ asymptotic communication/computation and $O(\log n)$ rounds of interaction, independent of the multiplicity of the keys. We present two join protocols, \ProtoUni and \ProtoDup. The first, \ProtoUni is optimized for the case where one table has a unique primary key while the second, \ProtoDup is for the more general setting where both tables contain duplicate keys. Both protocols require $O(n \log n)$ time and $O(\log n)$ rounds to join two tables of size $n$. Our framework for computing joins requires an efficient sorting protocol and generic secure computation for circuits. We concretely instantiate our protocols in the honest majority three-party setting. Our join protocols are built around an efficient method to compute structured aggregations over a secret shared input vector $\V\in \mathbb{D}^n$. If the parties have another secret-shared vector of control bits $\B \in \{0, 1\}^n$ to partition $\V$ into sub-vectors (that semantically relates to the join operations). A structured aggregation computes a secret shared vector $\V'\in \mathbb{D}^n$ where every sub-vector $(\V_b,...,\V_e)$ (defined by the control bits) is aggregated as $\V_i'=\V_b\op...\op \V_i$ for $i\in \{b,...,e\}$ according to some user-defined operator $\op$. Critically, the $b,e$ indices that partition the vector are secret. It's trivial to compute aggregations by sequentially processing the input vector and control bits. This would require $O(n)$ rounds and would be very slow due to network latency. We introduce Aggregation Trees as a general technique to compute aggregations in $O(\log n)$ rounds. For our purpose of computing joins, we instantiate $\op \in$ \textsf{\{copy previous value, add\}}, but we believe that this technique is quite powerful and can find applications in other useful settings.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Streaming Functional Encryption
Jiaxin Guan, Alexis Korb, and Amit Sahai
We initiate the study of streaming functional encryption (sFE) which is designed for scenarios in which data arrives in a streaming manner and is computed on in an iterative manner as the stream arrives. Unlike in a standard functional encryption (FE) scheme, in an sFE scheme, we (1) do not require the entire data set to be known at encryption time and (2) allow for partial decryption given only a prefix of the input. More specifically, in an sFE scheme, we can sequentially encrypt each data point $x_i$ in a stream of data $x = x_1\ldots x_n$ as it arrives, without needing to wait for all $n$ values. We can then generate function keys for streaming functions which are stateful functions that take as input a message $x_i$ and a state $\mathsf{st}_i$ and output a value $y_i$ and the next state $\mathsf{st}_{i+1}$. For any $k \leq n$, a user with a function key for a streaming function $f$ can learn the first $k$ output values $y_1\ldots y_k$ where $(y_i, \mathsf{st}_{i+1}) = f(x_i, \mathsf{st}_i)$ and $\mathsf{st}_1 = \bot$ given only ciphertexts for the first $k$ elements $x_1\ldots x_k$. In this work, we introduce the notion of sFE and show how to construct it from FE. In particular, we show how to achieve a secure sFE scheme for $\mathsf{P/Poly}$ from a compact, secure FE scheme for $\mathsf{P/Poly}$, where our security notion for sFE is similar to standard FE security except that we require all function queries to be made before the challenge ciphertext query. Furthermore, by combining our result with the FE construction of Jain, Lin, and Sahai (STOC, 2022), we show how to achieve a secure sFE scheme for $\mathsf{P/Poly}$ from the polynomial hardness of well-studied assumptions.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Efficiently Testable Circuits
Mirza Ahad Baig, Suvradip Chakraborty, Stefan Dziembowski, Małgorzata Gałązka, Tomasz Lizurej, and Krzysztof Pietrzak
In this work, we put forward the notion of ``efficiently testable circuits'' and provide circuit compilers that transform any circuit into an efficiently testable one. Informally, a circuit is testable if one can detect tampering with the circuit by evaluating it on a small number of inputs from some test set. Our technical contribution is a compiler that transforms any circuit $C$ into a testable circuit $(\widehat{C}, \widehat{T})$ for which we can detect arbitrary tampering with all wires in $\widehat{C}$. The notion of a testable circuit is weaker or incomparable to existing notions of tamper-resilience, which aim to detect or even correct for errors introduced by tampering during every query, but our new notion is interesting in several settings, and we achieve security against much more general tampering classes -- like tampering with all wires -- with very modest overhead. Concretely, starting from a circuit $C$ of size $n$ and depth $d$, for any $L$ (think of $L$ as a small constant, say $L=4$), we get a testable $(\widehat{C}, \widehat{T})$ where $\widehat{C}$ is of size $\approx 12n$ and depth $d+\log(n)+L\cdot n^{1/L}$. The test set $\widehat{T}$ is of size $4\cdot 2^L$. The number of extra input and output wires (i.e., pins) we need to add for the testing is $3+L$ and $2^L$, respectively.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
An Experimentally Verified Attack on 820-Round Trivium (Full Version)
Cheng Che and Tian Tian
The cube attack is one of the most important cryptanalytic techniques against Trivium. As the method of recovering superpolies becomes more and more effective, another problem of cube attacks, i.e., how to select cubes corresponding to balanced superpolies, is attracting more and more attention. It is well-known that a balanced superpoly could be used in both theoretical and practical analyses. In this paper, we present a novel framework to search for valuable cubes whose superpolies have an independent secret variable each, i.e., a linear variable not appearing in any nonlinear term. To control online complexity, valuable cubes are selected from very few large cubes. New ideas are given on the large cube construction and the subcube sieve. For the verification of this new algorithm, we apply it to Trivium. For 815-round Trivium, using one cube of size 47, we obtain more than 200 balanced superpolies containing 68 different independent secret variables. To make a trade-off between the number of cubes and computation complexity, we choose 35 balanced superpolies and mount a key-recovery attack on 815-round Trivium with a complexity of $2^{47.32}$. For 820-round Trivium, using two cubes of size 52, we obtain more than 100 balanced superpolies, which contain 54 different independent secret variables. With 30 balanced superpolies, we mount a key-recovery attack on 820-round Trivium with a complexity of $2^{53.17}$. Strong experimental evidence shows that the full key-recovery attacks on 815- and 820-round Trivium could be completed within six hours and two weeks on a PC with two RTX3090 GPUs, respectively.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Optimal encodings to elliptic curves of $j$-invariants $0$, $1728$
Dmitrii Koshelev
This article provides new constant-time encodings $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}^* \to E(\mathbb{F}_{\!q})$ to ordinary elliptic $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$-curves $E$ of $j$-invariants $0$, $1728$ having a small prime divisor of the Frobenius trace. Therefore all curves of $j = 1728$ are covered. This circumstance is also true for the Barreto--Naehrig curves BN512, BN638 from the international cryptographic standards ISO/IEC 15946-5, TCG Algorithm Registry, and FIDO ECDAA Algorithm. Many $j = 1728$ curves as well as BN512, BN638 are not appropriate for the most efficient prior encodings. So, in fact, only universal SW (Shallue--van de Woestijne) one was previously applicable to them. However this encoding (in contrast to the new ones) cannot be computed at the cost of one exponentiation in the field $\mathbb{F}_{\!q}$.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Weightwise almost perfectly balanced functions: secondary constructions for all $n$ and better weightwise nonlinearities
Agnese Gini and Pierrick Méaux
The design of FLIP stream cipher presented at Eurocrypt $2016$ motivates the study of Boolean functions with good cryptographic criteria when restricted to subsets of $\mathbb F_2^n$. Since the security of FLIP relies on properties of functions restricted to subsets of constant Hamming weight, called slices, several studies investigate functions with good properties on the slices, i.e. weightwise properties. A major challenge is to build functions balanced on each slice, from which we get the notion of Weightwise Almost Perfectly Balanced (WAPB) functions. Although various constructions of WAPB functions have been exhibited since $2017$, building WAPB functions with high weightwise nonlinearities remains a difficult task. Lower bounds on the weightwise nonlinearities of WAPB functions are known for very few families, and exact values were computed only for functions in at most $16$ variables. In this article, we introduce and study two new secondary constructions of WAPB functions. This new strategy allows us to bound the weightwise nonlinearities from those of the parent functions, enabling us to produce WAPB functions with high weightwise nonlinearities. As a practical application, we build several novel WAPB functions in up to $16$ variables by taking parent functions from two different known families. Moreover, combining these outputs, we also produce the $16$-variable WAPB function with the highest weightwise nonlinearities known so far.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
A Closer Look at a Recent Pipelined True Random Number Generator Design
Markus Dichtl
The paper " An energy and area efficient, all digital entropy source compatible with modern standards based on jitter pipelining", by Peetermans and Verbauwhede, IACR Transactions on Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, Aug. 2022, 88-109, suggests a pipelined TRNG design and a stochastic model for it. The stochastic model is shown to be inadequate and other problems of the TRNG design are identified. Possible fixes for the problems are considered.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
LowMS: a new rank metric code-based KEM without ideal structure
Nicolas Aragon, Victor Dyseryn, Philippe Gaborit, Pierre Loidreau, Julian Renner, and Antonia Wachter-Zeh
We propose and analyze LowMS, a new rank-based key encapsulation mechanism (KEM). The acronym stands for Loidreau with Multiple Syndromes, since our work combines the cryptosystem of Loidreau (presented at PQCrypto 2017) together with the multiple syndrome approach, that allows to reduce parameters by sending several syndromes with the same error support in one ciphertext. Our scheme is designed without using ideal structures. Considering cryptosystems without such an ideal structure, like the FrodoKEM cryptosystem, is important since structure allows to compress objects, but gives reductions to specific problems whose security may potentially be weaker than for unstructured problems. For 128 bits of security, we propose parameters with a public key size of 4,6KB and a ciphertext size of 1,1KB. To the best of our knowledge, our scheme is the smallest among all existing unstructured post-quantum lattice or code-based algorithms, when taking into account the sum of the public key size and the ciphertext size. In that sense, our scheme is for instance about 4 times shorter than FrodoKEM. Our system relies on the hardness of the Rank Support Learning problem, a well-known variant of the Rank Syndrome Decoding problem, and on the problem of indistinguishability of distorted Gabidulin codes, i.e. Gabidulin codes multiplied by an homogeneous matrix of given rank. The latter problem was introduced by Loidreau in his paper.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Efficient Secure Three-Party Sorting with Applications to Data Analysis and Heavy Hitters
Gilad Asharov, Koki Hamada, Dai Ikarashi, Ryo Kikuchi, Ariel Nof, Benny Pinkas, Katsumi Takahashi, and Junichi Tomida
We present a three-party sorting protocol secure against passive and active adversaries in the honest majority setting. The protocol can be easily combined with other secure protocols which work on shared data, and thus enable different data analysis tasks, such as private set intersection of shared data, deduplication, and the identification of heavy hitters. The new protocol computes a stable sort. It is based on radix sort and is asymptotically better than previous secure sorting protocols. It improves on previous radix sort protocols by not having to shuffle the entire length of the items after each comparison step. We implemented our sorting protocol with different optimizations and achieved concretely fast performance. For example, sorting one million items with 32-bit keys and 32-bit values takes less than 2 seconds with semi-honest security and about 3.5 seconds with malicious security. Finding the heavy hitters among hundreds of thousands of 256-bit values takes only a few seconds, compared to close to an hour in previous work.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Compact FE for Unbounded Attribute-Weighted Sums for Logspace from SXDH
Pratish Datta, Tapas Pal, and Katsuyuki Takashima
This paper presents the first functional encryption (FE) scheme for the attribute-weighted sum (AWS) functionality that supports the uniform model of computation. In such an FE scheme, encryption takes as input a pair of attributes (x,z) where the attribute x is public while the attribute z is private. A secret key corresponds to some weight function f, and decryption recovers the weighted sum f(x)z. This is an important functionality with a wide range of potential real life applications, many of which require the attribute lengths to be flexible rather than being fixed at system setup. In the proposed scheme, the public attributes are considered as binary strings while the private attributes are considered as vectors over some finite field, both having arbitrary polynomial lengths that are not fixed at system setup. The weight functions are modeled as Logspace Turing machines. Prior schemes [Abdalla, Gong, and Wee, CRYPTO 2020 and Datta and Pal, ASIACRYPT 2021] could only support non-uniform Logspace. The proposed scheme is built in asymmetric prime-order bilinear groups and is proven adaptively simulation secure under the well-studied symmetric external Diffie-Hellman (SXDH) assumption against an arbitrary polynomial number of secret key queries both before and after the challenge ciphertext. This is the best possible level of security for FE as noted in the literature. As a special case of the proposed FE scheme, we also obtain the first adaptively simulation secure inner-product FE (IPFE) for vectors of arbitrary length that is not fixed at system setup. On the technical side, our contributions lie in extending the techniques of Lin and Luo [EUROCRYPT 2020] devised for payload hiding attribute-based encryption (ABE) for uniform Logspace access policies avoiding the so-called “one-use” restriction in the indistinguishability-based security model as well as the “three-slot reduction” technique for simulation-secure attribute-hiding FE for non-uniform Logspace devised by Datta and Pal [ASIACRYPT 2021] to the context of simulation-secure attribute-hiding FE for uniform Logspace.
Last updated:  2022-11-16
Proofs of discrete logarithm equality across groups
Melissa Chase, Michele Orrù, Trevor Perrin, and Greg Zaverucha
We provide a $\Sigma$-protocol for proving that two values committed in different groups are equal. We study our protocol in Lyubashevsky's framework "Fiat-Shamir with aborts" (Asiacrypt’09) and offer concrete parameters for instantiating it. We explain how to use it to compose SNARKs with $\Sigma$-protocols, create efficient proofs of solvency on cryptocurrencies, and join of attributes across different anonymous credentials.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Near-Optimal Private Information Retrieval with Preprocessing
Arthur Lazzaretti and Charalampos Papamanthou
In Private Information Retrieval (PIR), a client wishes to access an index $i$ from a public $n$-bit database without revealing any information about $i$. Recently, a series of works starting with the seminal paper of Corrigan-Gibbs and Kogan (EUROCRYPT 2020) considered PIR with client preprocessing and no additional server storage. In this setting, we now have protocols that achieve $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ (amortized) server time and $\tilde{O}(1)$ (amortized) bandwidth in the two-server model (Shi et al., CRYPTO 2021) as well as $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ server time and $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ bandwidth in the single-server model (Corrigan-Gibbs et al., EUROCRYPT 2022). Given existing lower bounds, a single-server PIR scheme with $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ (amortized) server time and $\tilde{O}(1)$ (amortized) bandwidth is still feasible, however, to date, no known protocol achieves such complexities. In this paper we fill this gap by constructing the first single-server PIR scheme with $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ (amortized) server time and $\tilde{O}(1)$ (amortized) bandwidth. Our scheme achieves near-optimal (optimal up to polylogarithmic factors) asymptotics in every relevant dimension. Central to our approach is a new cryptographic primitive that we call an adaptable pseudorandom set: With an adaptable pseudorandom set, one can represent a large pseudorandom set with a succinct fixed-size key $k$, and can both add to and remove from the set a constant number of elements, by manipulating the key $k$, while maintaining its concise description as well as its pseudorandomness (under a certain security definition).
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Powers-of-Tau to the People: Decentralizing Setup Ceremonies
Valeria Nikolaenko, Sam Ragsdale, Joseph Bonneau, and Dan Boneh
We introduce the first decentralized trusted setup protocols for constructing a powers-of-tau structured reference string. Facilitated by a blockchain platform, our protocols can run in a permissionless manner, with anybody able to participate in exchange for paying requisite transaction fees. The result is secure as long as any single party participates honestly. We introduce several protocols optimized for different sized powers-of-tau setups and using an on-chain or off-chain data availability model to store the resulting string. We implement our most efficient protocol on top of Ethereum, demonstrating practical concrete performance numbers.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
ISAP+: ISAP with Fast Authentication
Arghya Bhattacharjee, Avik Chakraborti, Nilanjan Datta, Cuauhtemoc Mancillas-López, and Mridul Nandi
This paper analyses the lightweight, sponge-based NAEAD mode $\textsf{ISAP}$, one of the finalists of the NIST Lightweight Cryptography (LWC) standardisation project, that achieves high-throughput with inherent protection against differential power analysis (DPA). We observe that $\textsf{ISAP}$ requires $256$-bit capacity in the authentication module to satisfy the NIST LWC security criteria. In this paper, we study the analysis carefully and observe that this is primarily due to the collision in the associated data part of the hash function which can be used in the forgery of the mode. However, the same is not applicable to the ciphertext part of the hash function because a collision in the ciphertext part does not always lead to a forgery. In this context, we define a new security notion, named $\textsf{2PI+}$ security, which is a strictly stronger notion than the collision security, and show that the security of a class of encrypt-then-hash based MAC type of authenticated encryptions, that includes $\textsf{ISAP}$, reduces to the $\textsf{2PI+}$ security of the underlying hash function used in the authentication module. Next we investigate and observe that a feed-forward variant of the generic sponge hash achieves better $\textsf{2PI+}$ security as compared to the generic sponge hash. We use this fact to present a close variant of $\textsf{ISAP}$, named $\textsf{ISAP+}$, which is structurally similar to $\textsf{ISAP}$, except that it uses the feed-forward variant of the generic sponge hash in the authentication module. This improves the overall security of the mode, and hence we can set the capacity of the ciphertext part to $192$ bits (to achieve a higher throughput) and yet satisfy the NIST LWC security criteria.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Misuse-resistant MGM2 mode
Liliya Akhmetzyanova, Evgeny Alekseev, Alexandra Babueva, Andrey Bozhko, and Stanislav Smyshlyaev
We introduce a modification of the Russian standardized AEAD MGM mode — an MGM2 mode, for which a nonce is not encrypted anymore before using it as an initial counter value. For the new mode we provide security bounds regarding security notions in the nonce-misuse setting (MRAE-integrity and CPA-resilience). The obtained bounds are even better than the bounds obtained for the original MGM mode regarding standard security notions.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Graph-Theoretic Algorithms for the Alternating Trilinear Form Equivalence Problem
Ward Beullens
At Eurocrypt`22 Tang, Duong, Joux, Plantard, Qiao, and Susilo proposed a digital signature algorithm based on the hardness of the isomorphism problem of alternating trilinear forms. They propose three concrete parameters in dimensions $9$, $10$, and $11$ respectively. We give new heuristic algorithms that solve this problem more efficiently. With our new algorithms, the first parameter set can be broken in less than a day on a laptop. For the second parameter set, we show there is a $2^{-17}$ fraction of the public keys that can also be broken in less than a day. We do not break the third parameter set in practice, but we claim it falls short of the target security level of $128$ bits.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Cryptanalysis of a privacy-preserving behavior-oriented authentication scheme
Sigurd Eskeland and Ahmed Fraz Baig
Continuous authentication has been proposed as a complementary security mechanism to password-based authentication for computer devices that are handled directly by humans, such as smart phones. Continuous authentication has some privacy issues as certain user features and actions are revealed to the authentication server, which is not assumed to be trusted. Wei et al. proposed in 2021 a privacy-preserving protocol for behavioral authentication that utilizes homomorphic encryption. The encryption prevents the server from obtaining sampled user features. In this paper, we show that the Wei et al. scheme is insecure regarding both an honest-but-curious server and an active eavesdropper. We present two attacks. The first attack enables the authentication server to obtain the secret user key, plaintext behavior template and plaintext authentication behavior data from encrypted data. The second attack enables an active eavesdropper to restore the plaintext authentication behavior data from the transmitted encrypted data.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Factoring using multiplicative relations modulo n: a subexponential algorithm inspired by the index calculus
Katherine E. Stange
We demonstrate that a modification of the classical index calculus algorithm can be used to factor integers. More generally, we reduce the factoring problem to finding an overdetermined system of multiplicative relations in any factor base modulo $n$, where $n$ is the integer whose factorization is sought. The algorithm has subexponential runtime $\exp(O(\sqrt{\log n \log \log n}))$ (or $\exp(O( (\log n)^{1/3} (\log \log n)^{2/3} ))$ with the addition of a number field sieve), but requires a rational linear algebra phase, which is more intensive than the linear algebra phase of the classical index calculus algorithm. The algorithm is certainly slower than the best known factoring algorithms, but is perhaps somewhat notable for its simplicity and its similarity to the index calculus.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Applications of the indirect sum in the design of several special classes of bent functions outside the completed $\mathcal{MM}$ class
Fengrong Zhang, Enes Pasalic, Amar Bapić, and Baocang Wang
Two main secondary constructions of bent functions are the direct and indirect sum methods. We show that the direct sum, under more relaxed conditions compared to those in \cite{PolujanandPott2020}, can generate bent functions provably outside the completed Maiorana-McFarland class ($\mathcal{MM}^\#$). We also show that the indirect sum method, though imposing certain conditions on the initial bent functions, can be employed in the design of bent functions outside $\mathcal{MM}^\#$. Furthermore, applying this method to suitably chosen bent functions we construct several generic classes of homogenous cubic bent functions (considered as a difficult problem) that might posses additional properties (namely without affine derivatives and/or outside $\mathcal{MM}^\#$). Our results significantly improve upon the best known instances of this type of bent functions given by Polujan and Pott \cite{PolujanandPott2020}, and additionally we solve an open problem in \cite[Open Problem 5.1]{PolujanandPott2020}. More precisely, we show that one class of our homogenous cubic bent functions is non-decomposable (inseparable) so that $h$ under a non-singular transform $B$ cannot be represented as $h(xB)=f(y)\oplus g(z)$. Finally, we provide a generic class of vectorial bent functions strongly outside $\mathcal{MM}^\#$ of relatively large output dimensions, which is generally considered as a difficult task.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Practical Asynchronous Proactive Secret Sharing and Key Refresh
Christoph U. Günther, Sourav Das, and Lefteris Kokoris-Kogias
With the emergence of decentralized systems, spearheaded by blockchains, threshold cryptography has seen unprecedented adoption. Just recently, the trustless distribution of threshold keys over an unreliable network has started to become practical. The next logical step is ensuring the security of these keys against persistent adversaries attacking the system over long periods of time. In this work, we tackle this problem and give two practical constructions for Asynchronous Proactive Secret Sharing. Our first construction uses recent advances in asynchronous protocols and achieves a communication complexity of $O(n^3)$ where $n$ is the total number of nodes in the network. The second protocol builds upon the first and uses sortition to drive down the communication complexity to $O(c n^2)$. Here, $c$ is a tunable parameter that controls the expected size of the sharing committee chosen using the existing random coin. Additionally, we identify security flaws in prior work and ensure that our protocols are secure by giving rigorous proofs. Moreover, we introduce a related notion which we term Asynchronous Refreshable Secret Sharing — a functionality that also re-randomizes the secret itself. Finally, we demonstrate the practicability of our constructions by implementing them in Rust and running large-scale, geo-distributed benchmarks.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Attribute-based Anonymous Credential: Optimization for Single-Use and Multi-Use
Kwan Yin Chan and Tsz Hon Yuen
User attributes can be authenticated by an attribute-based anonymous credential while keeping the anonymity of the user. Most attribute-based anonymous credential schemes are designed specifically for either multi-use or single-use. In this paper, we propose a unified attribute-based anonymous credential system, in which users always obtain the same format of credential from the issuer. The user can choose to use it for an efficient multi-use or single-use show proof. It is a more user-centric approach than the existing schemes. Technically, we propose an interactive approach to the credential issuance protocol using a two-party computation with an additive homomorphic encryption. At the same time, it keeps the security property of impersonation resilience, anonymity, and unlinkability. Apart from the interactive protocol, we further design the show proofs for efficient single-use credentials which maintain the user anonymity.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Linear-map Vector Commitments and their Practical Applications
Matteo Campanelli, Anca Nitulescu, Carla Ràfols, Alexandros Zacharakis, and Arantxa Zapico
Vector commitments (VC) are a cryptographic primitive that allow one to commit to a vector and then “open” some of its positions efficiently. Vector commitments are increasingly recognized as a central tool to scale highly decentralized networks of large size and whose content is dynamic. In this work, we examine the demands on the properties that an ideal vector commitment should satisfy in the light of the emerging plethora of practical applications and propose new constructions that improve the state-of-the-art in several dimensions and offer new tradeoffs. We also propose a unifying framework that captures several constructions and show how to generically achieve some properties from more basic ones. On the practical side, we focus on building efficient schemes that do not require new trusted setup (we can reuse existing ceremonies for pairing-based “powers of tau” run by real-world systems such as ZCash or Filecoin). Our (in-progress) implementation demonstrates that our work over-performs in efficiency prior schemes with same properties.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Solving Small Exponential ECDLP in EC-based Additively Homomorphic Encryption and Applications
Fei Tang, Guowei Ling, Chaochao Cai, Jinyong Shan, Xuanqi Liu, Peng Tang, and Weidong Qiu
Additively Homomorphic Encryption (AHE) has been widely used in various applications, such as federated learning, blockchain, and online auctions. Elliptic Curve (EC) based AHE has the advantages of efficient encryption, homomorphic addition, scalar multiplication algorithms, and short ciphertext length. However, EC-based AHE schemes require solving a small exponential Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP) when running the decryption algorithm, i.e., recovering the plaintext $m\in\{0,1\}^\ell$ from $m \ast G$. Therefore, the decryption of EC-based AHE schemes is inefficient when the plaintext length $\ell > 32$. This leads to people being more inclined to use RSA-based AHE schemes rather than EC-based ones. This paper proposes an efficient algorithm called $\mathsf{FastECDLP}$ for solving the small exponential ECDLP at $128$-bit security level. We perform a series of deep optimizations from two points: computation and memory overhead. These optimizations ensure efficient decryption when the plaintext length $\ell$ is as long as possible in practice. Moreover, we also provide a concrete implementation and apply $\mathsf{FastECDLP}$ to some specific applications. Experimental results show that $\mathsf{FastECDLP}$ is far faster than the previous works. For example, the decryption can be done in $0.35$ ms with a single thread when $\ell = 40$, which is about $30$ times faster than that of Paillier. Furthermore, we experiment with $\ell$ from $32$ to $54$, and the existing works generally only consider $\ell \leq 32$. The decryption only requires $1$ second with $16$ threads when $\ell = 54$. In the practical applications, we can speed up model training of existing vertical federated learning frameworks by $4$ to $14$ times. At the same time, the decryption efficiency is accelerated by about $140$ times in a blockchain financial system (ESORICS 2021) with the same memory overhead.
Last updated:  2022-11-15
Instantiability of Classical Random-Oracle-Model Encryption Transforms
Alice Murphy, Adam O'Neill, and Mohammad Zaheri
Extending work leveraging program obfuscation to instantiate random-oracle-based transforms (e.g., Hohenberger et al., EUROCRYPT 2014, Kalai et al., CRYPTO 2017), we show that, using obfuscation and other assumptions, there exist standard-model hash functions that suffice to instantiate the classical RO-model encryption transforms OAEP (Bellare and Rogaway, EUROCRYPT 1994) and Fujisaki-Okamoto (CRYPTO 1999, J. Cryptology 2013) for specific public-key encryption (PKE) schemes to achieve IND-CCA security. Our result for Fujisaki-Okamoto employs a simple modification to the scheme. Our instantiations do not require much stronger assumptions on the base schemes compared to their corresponding RO-model proofs. For example, to instantiate low-exponent RSA-OAEP, the assumption we need on RSA is sub-exponential partial one-wayness, matching the assumption (partial one-wayness) on RSA needed by Fujisaki et al. (J. Cryptology 2004) in the RO model up to sub-exponentiality. For the part of Fujisaki-Okamoto that upgrades public-key encryption satisfying indistinguishability against plaintext checking attack to IND-CCA, we again do not require much stronger assumptions up to sub-exponentiality. We obtain our hash functions in a unified way, extending a technique of Brzuska and Mittelbach (ASIACRYPT 2014). We incorporate into their technique: (1) extremely lossy functions (ELFs), a notion by Zhandry (CRYPTO 2016), and (2) multi-bit auxiliary-input point function obfuscation (MB-AIPO). While MB-AIPO is impossible in general (Brzuska and Mittelbach, ASIACRYPT 2014), we give plausible constructions for the special cases we need, which may be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
Asynchronous Multi-Party Quantum Computation
Vipul Goyal, Chen-Da Liu-Zhang, Justin Raizes, and João Ribeiro
Multi-party quantum computation (MPQC) allows a set of parties to securely compute a quantum circuit over private quantum data. Current MPQC protocols rely on the fact that the network is synchronous, i.e., messages sent are guaranteed to be delivered within a known fixed delay upper bound, and unfortunately completely break down even when only a single message arrives late. Motivated by real-world networks, the seminal work of Ben-Or, Canetti and Goldreich (STOC'93) initiated the study of multi-party computation for classical circuits over asynchronous networks, where the network delay can be arbitrary. In this work, we begin the study of asynchronous multi-party quantum computation (AMPQC) protocols, where the circuit to compute is quantum. Our results completely characterize the optimal achievable corruption threshold: we present an $n$-party AMPQC protocol secure up to $t<n/4$ corruptions, and an impossibility result when $t\geq n/4$ parties are corrupted. Remarkably, this characterization differs from the analogous classical setting, where the optimal corruption threshold is $t<n/3$.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
FSMx-Ultra: Finite State Machine Extraction from Gate-Level Netlist for Security Assessment
Rasheed Kibria, Farimah Farahmandi, and Mark Tehranipoor
Numerous security vulnerability assessment techniques urge precise and fast finite state machines (FSMs) extraction from the design under evaluation. Sequential logic locking, watermark insertion, fault-injection assessment of a System-ona- Chip (SoC) control flow, information leakage assessment, and reverse engineering at gate-level abstraction, to name a few, require precise FSM extraction from the synthesized netlist of the design. Unfortunately, no reliable solutions are currently available for fast and precise extraction of FSMs from the highly unstructured gate-level netlist for effective security evaluation. The major challenge in developing such a solution is precise recognition of FSM state flip-flops in a netlist having a massive collection of flip-flops. In this paper, we propose FSMx-Ultra, a framework for extracting FSMs from extremely unstructured gate-level netlists. FSMx-Ultra utilizes state-of-the-art graph theory concepts and algorithms to distinguish FSM state registers from other registers and then constructs gate-level state transition graphs (STGs) for each identified FSM state register using automatic test pattern generation (ATPG) techniques. The results of our experiments on 14 open-source benchmark designs illustrate that FSMx-Ultra can recover all FSMs quickly and precisely from synthesized gate-level netlists of diverse complexity and size utilizing various state encoding schemes.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
Truncator: Time-space Tradeoff of Cryptographic Primitives
Foteini Baldimtsi, Konstantinos Chalkias, Panagiotis Chatzigiannis, and Mahimna Kelkar
We're presenting mining-based techniques to reduce the size of various cryptographic outputs without loss of security. Our approach can be generalized for multiple primitives, such as key generation, signing, hashing and encryption schemes, by introducing a brute-forcing step to provers/senders aiming at compressing submitted cryptographic material. As a result, in systems that we can tolerate sender's work to be more demanding and time-consuming, we manage to optimize on verification, payload size and storage cost, especially when: - receivers have limited resources (i.e. mobile, IoT); - storage or data-size is financially expensive (i.e. blockchains, cloud storage and ingress cost); - multiple recipients perform verification/decryption/lookup (i.e. blockchains, TLS certs, IPFS lookups). Interestingly, mining can result in record-size cryptographic outputs, and we show that 5%-12% shorter hash digests and signatures are practically feasible even with commodity hardware. Obviously, the first thing that comes to mind is compressing addresses and transaction signatures in order to pay less gas fees in blockchain applications, but in fact even traditional TLS certificates and public keys, which are computed once and reused in every new connection, can be slightly compressed with this "mining" trick without compromising security. The effects of "compressing once - then reuse'' at mass scale can be economically profitable in the long run for both the Web2 and Web3 ecosystems. Our paradigm relies on a brute-force search operation in order to craft the primitive's output such that it fits into fewer bytes, while the "missing" fixed bytes are implied by the system parameters and omitted from the actual communication. While such compression requires computational effort depending on the level of compression, this cost is only paid at the source (typically in blockchains consisting of a single party) which is rewarded by lowered transaction fees, and the benefits of the compression are enjoyed by the whole ecosystem. As a starting point, we show how our paradigm applies to some basic primitives (commonly used in blockchain applications), and show how security is preserved using a bit security framework. Surprisingly, we also identified cases where wise mining strategies require proportionally less effort than naive brute-forcing, an example is WOTS (and inherently SPHINCS) post-quantum signatures where the target goal is to remove or compress the Winternitz checksum part. Moreover, we evaluate our approach for several primitives based on different levels of compression which concretely demonstrates the benefits (both in terms of financial cost and storage) if adopted by the community. Finally, as this work is inspired by the recent unfortunate buggy "gas golfing'' software in Ethereum, where weakly implemented functions incorrectly generated addresses (hashes) with "prefixed zeroes for gas optimization'', resulting in millions of losses, we expect our Truncator approach to be naturally applied in the blockchain space as a secure solution to more succinct transactions, addresses and states.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
Multi-ciphertext security degradation for lattices
Daniel J. Bernstein
Typical lattice-based cryptosystems are commonly believed to resist multi-target attacks. For example, the New Hope proposal stated that it avoids "all-for-the-price-of-one attacks". An ACM CCS 2021 paper from Duman–Hövelmanns–Kiltz–Lyubashevsky–Seiler stated that "we can show that Adv_PKE^{IND-CPA} ≈ Adv_PKE^{(n,q_C)-IND-CPA} for "lattice-based schemes" such as Kyber, i.e. that one-out-of-many-target IND-CPA is as difficult to break as single-target IND-CPA, assuming "the hardness of MLWE as originally defined for the purpose of worst-case to average-case reductions". Meanwhile NIST expressed concern regarding multi-target attacks against non-lattice cryptosystems. This paper quantifies the asymptotic impact of multiple ciphertexts per public key upon existing heuristic analyses of known lattice attacks. The qualitative conclusions are that typical lattice PKEs asymptotically degrade in heuristic multi-ciphertext IND-CPA security as the number of ciphertexts increases. These PKE attacks also imply multi-ciphertext IND-CCA2 attacks against typical constructions of lattice KEMs. This shows a contradiction between (1) the existing heuristics and (2) the idea that multi-target security matches single-target security. The asymptotic heuristic security degradation is exponential in Θ(n) for decrypting many ciphertexts, cutting a constant fraction out of the total number of bits of security, and exponential in Θ(n/log n) for decrypting one out of many ciphertexts, for conservative cryptosystem parameters. Furthermore, whether or not the existing heuristics are correct, (1) there are flaws in the claim of provable multi-target security based on MLWE, and (2) there is a 2^88-guess attack breaking one out of 2^40 ciphertexts for a FrodoKEM-640 public key.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
New Properties of Double Boomerang Connectivity Table
Qianqian Yang, Ling Song, Siwei Sun, Danping Shi, and Lei Hu
The double boomerang connectivity table (DBCT) is a new table proposed recently to capture the behavior of two consecutive S-boxes in boomerang attacks. In this paper, we observe an interesting property of DBCT of S-box that the ladder switch and the S-box switch happen in most cases for two continuous S-boxes, and for some S-boxes only S-box switch and ladder switch are possible. This property implies an additional criterion for S-boxes to resist the boomerang attacks and provides as well a new evaluation direction for an S-box. Using an extension of the DBCT, we verify that some boomerang distinguishers of TweAES and Deoxys are flawed. On the other hand, inspired by the property, we put forward a formula for estimating boomerang cluster probabilities. Furthermore, we introduce the first model to search for boomerang distinguishers with good cluster probabilities. Applying the model to CRAFT, we obtain 9-round and 10-round boomerang distinguishers with a higher probability than that of previous works.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
Weighted Secret Sharing from Wiretap Channels
Fabrice Benhamouda, Shai Halevi, and Lev Stambler
Secret-sharing allows splitting a piece of secret information among a group of shareholders, so that it takes a large enough subset of them to recover it. In weighted secret-sharing, each shareholder has an integer weight and it takes a subset of large-enough weight to recover the secret. Schemes in the literature for weighted threshold secret sharing either have share sizes that grow linearly with the total weight, or ones that depend on huge public information (essentially a garbled circuit) of size (quasi)polynomial in the number of parties. To do better, we investigate a relaxation, $(\alpha, \beta)$-ramp weighted secret sharing, where subsets of weight $\beta W$ can recover the secret (with $W$ the total weight), but subsets of weight $\alpha W$ or less cannot learn anything about it. We give two distinct types of constructions. The first is based on simple rounding, and has a share size which is linear in the number of parties and in $1/\epsilon$ (where $\epsilon=\beta-\alpha$). The second type of schemes is based on a novel connection between weighted secret sharing and wiretap channels. We observe that for certain additive-noise $(\mathcal{R},\mathcal{A})$ wiretap channels, any semantically secure scheme can be naturally transformed into an $(\alpha,\beta)$-ramp weighted secret-sharing, where $\alpha,\beta$ are essentially the respective capacities of the channels $\mathcal{A},\mathcal{R}$. These constructions eliminate or reduce the dependence on the number of parties, at the price of increased dependence on $1/\epsilon$. We present two instantiations of this type of construction, one using Binary Symmetric wiretap Channels, and the other using additive Gaussian Wiretap Channels.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
DME: a full encryption, signature and KEM multivariate public key cryptosystem
Ignacio Luengo and Martín Avendaño
DME is a multivariate public key cryptosystem based on the composition of linear and exponential maps that allow the polynomials of the public key to be of a very high degree. A previous version of DME was presented to the NIST call (in the KEM category). The new version of DME adds one or two extra rounds of exponentials to the original two rounds. With this setting the composition gives a deterministic trapdoor one way permutation, which can be combined with an OAEP padding scheme for KEM and PSS00 for signature. In this paper we give the SUPERCOP timing of DME-OAEP and DME-PSS00 for three and four exponentials and compare them with NIST finalists. For NIST security level 5 the size of ciphertext and signature is only 64 bytes.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
Compact Authenticated Key Exchange in the Quantum Random Oracle Model
Haiyang Xue, Man Ho Au, Rupeng Yang, Bei Liang, and Haodong Jiang
Several quantum-resistant authenticated key exchange protocols (AKEs) have been proposed from supersingular isogeny and lattice. Most of their security analyses are conducted in the classical random oracle model, leaving their securities in the quantum random oracle model (QROM) as open problems. In this paper, we propose a generic construction of two-message AKE in QROM. It can be regarded as a QROM-secure version of X3LH [Xue et al. ASIACRYPT 2018], a generic AKE based on double-key PKE. We prove that, with some modification, the QROM security of X3LH can be reduced to the one-way security of double-key PKE. Aside from answering open problems on the QROM security of prior AKEs, such as SIAKE [Xu et al. ASIACRYPT 2019] based on supersingular isogeny, 2Kyber-AKE based on Module-LWE, and FSXY, we propose a new construction, CSIAKE, based on commutative supersingular isogeny. Our framework enjoys the following desirable features. First of all, it supports PKEs with non-perfect correctness. Secondly, the basic building block is compact and only requires one-wayness. Finally, the resulting AKE achieves the security in CK+ model as strong as X3LH, and the transformation overhead is low.
Last updated:  2022-11-14
Rescue-Prime Optimized
Tomer Ashur, Al Kindi, Willi Meier, Alan Szepieniec, and Bobbin Threadbare
This note specifies two instances of a hash function obtained from applying the Marvellous design strategy to a specific context. The context in question is native hashing in a STARKVirtual Machine such as Miden.
Last updated:  2022-11-13
Multiplicative Partially Homomorphic CRT Secret Sharing
Shlomi Dolev and Yaniv Kleinman
A new CRT-based positive (non-zero) secret-sharing scheme with perfect information-theoretic (PIT) security and multiplicative homomorphism is presented. The scheme is designed to support the evaluation of multiplications of non-zero secrets of multiplicative groups. Our CRT-based scheme is partially homomorphic, supporting homomorphic multiplications. Nevertheless, our scheme has the potential to be regarded as fully homomorphic for practical scenarios, such as bounded-sized multi-cloud databases.
Last updated:  2022-11-13
Security Analysis of Delay-Based Strong PUFs with Multiple Delay Lines
Anita Aghaie, Amir Moradi, Johannes Tobisch, and Nils Wisiol
Using a novel circuit design, we investigate if the modeling-resistance of delay-based, CMOS-compatible strong PUFs can be increased by the usage of multiple delay lines. Studying a circuit inspired by the Arbiter PUF, but using four instead of merely two delay lines, we obtain evidence showing that the usage of many delay lines does not significantly increase the security of the strong PUF circuit. Based on our findings, we suggest future research directions.
Last updated:  2022-11-13
Collusion Resistant Copy-Protection for Watermarkable Functionalities
Jiahui Liu, Qipeng Liu, Luowen Qian, and Mark Zhandry
Copy-protection is the task of encoding a program into a quantum state to prevent illegal duplications. A line of recent works studied copy-protection schemes under ``1 -> 2 attacks'': the adversary receiving one program copy can not produce two valid copies. However, under most circumstances, vendors need to sell more than one copy of a program and still ensure that no duplicates can be generated. In this work, we initiate the study of collusion resistant copy-protection in the plain model. Our results are twofold: (*) The feasibility of copy-protecting all watermarkable functionalities is an open question raised by Aaronson et al. (CRYPTO' 21). In the literature, watermarking decryption, digital signature schemes and PRFs have been extensively studied. For the first time, we show that digital signature schemes can be copy-protected. Together with the previous work on copy-protection of decryption and PRFs by Coladangelo et al. (CRYPTO' 21), it suggests that many watermarkable functionalities can be copy-protected, partially answering the above open question by Aaronson et al. (*) We make all the above schemes (copy-protection of decryption, digital signatures, and PRFs) k bounded collusion resistant for any polynomial k, giving the first bounded collusion resistant copy-protection for various functionalities in the plain model.
Last updated:  2022-11-13
Improving Differential-Neural Distinguisher Model For DES, Chaskey and PRESENT
Liu Zhang and Zilong Wang
Show abstract
In CRYPTO 2019, Gohr first introduced the deep learning method to cryptanalysis for Speck32/64. A differential-neural distinguisher was obtained using ResNet neural network. Zhang et al. used multiple parallel convolutional layers with different kernel sizes to capture information from multiple dimensions, thus improving the accuracy or obtaining a more round of distinguisher for Speck32/64 and Simon32/64. Inspired by Zhang’s work, we apply the network structure to other ciphers. We not only improve the accuracy of the distinguisher, but also increase the number of rounds of the distinguisher,that is, distinguish more rounds of ciphertext and random number for DES, Chaskey and PRESENT.
Last updated:  2022-11-12
Layered ROLLO-I: Faster rank-metric code-based KEM using ideal LRPC codes
Chanki Kim, Young-Sik Kim, and Jong-Seon No
For the fast cryptographic operation, we newly propose a key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) called layered ROLLO-I by using block-wise interleaved ideal LRPC (BII-LRPC) codes. By multiplying random polynomials by small-sized ideal LRPC codes, faster operation can be obtained with an additional key size. Finally, some parameters of the proposed algorithm are suggested and compared with that of the existing ROLLO-I scheme.
Last updated:  2022-11-11
Token meets Wallet: Formalizing Privacy and Revocation for FIDO2
Lucjan Hanzlik, Julian Loss, and Benedikt Wagner
The FIDO2 standard is a widely-used class of challenge-response type protocols that allows to authenticate to an online service using a hardware token. Barbosa et al. (CRYPTO `21) provided the first formal security model and analysis for the FIDO2 standard. However, their model has two shortcomings: (1) It does not include privacy, one of the key features claimed by FIDO2. (2) It only covers tokens that store {all secret keys locally}. In contrast, due to limited memory, most existing FIDO2 tokens either derive all secret keys from a common seed or store keys on the server (the latter approach is also known as {key wrapping}). In this paper, we revisit the security of the WebAuthn component of FIDO2 as implemented in practice. Our contributions are as follows. (1) We adapt the model of Barbosa et al. so as to capture authentication tokens using key derivation or key wrapping. (2) We provide the {first formal definition of privacy for the WebAuthn component of FIDO2}. We then prove the privacy of this component in common FIDO2 token implementations if the underlying building blocks are chosen appropriately. (3) We address the unsolved problem of {global key revocation} in FIDO2. To this end, we introduce and analyze a simple revocation procedure that builds on the popular BIP32 standard used in cryptocurrency wallets and can efficiently be implemented with existing FIDO2 servers.
Last updated:  2022-11-11
Cryptographic Protection of Random Access Memory: How Inconspicuous can Hardening Against the most Powerful Adversaries be?
Roberto Avanzi, Ionut Mihalcea, David Schall, Andreas Sandberg, and Héctor Montaner
For both cloud and client applications, the protection of the confidentiality and integrity of remotely processed information is an increasingly common feature request. It is also a very challenging goal to achieve with reasonable costs in terms of memory overhead and performance penalty. In turn, this usually leads to security posture compromises in products. In this paper we review the main technologies that have been proposed so far to address this problem, as well as some new techniques and combinations thereof. We systematise the treatment of protecting data in use by starting with models of the adversaries, thus allowing us to define different, yet consistent protection levels. We evaluate the storage and performance impacts and, as far as we are aware for the first time, we consider also the impact on performance when the measured benchmarks are the only running tasks or when they are just one task in an environment with heavy additional random traffic, thus simulating a cloud server under full load. Using advanced techniques to compress counters can make it viable to store them on-chip -- for instance by adding on-chip RAM that can be as small as to 1/256-th of the off-chip RAM. This allows for implementations of memory protection providing full confidentiality, integrity and anti-replay protection with hitherto unattained penalties, especially in combination with the repurposing of ECC bits to store integrity tags. The performance penalty on a memory bus bandwidth saturated server can thus be contained under 1%.
Last updated:  2022-11-11
Practical Settlement Bounds for Longest-Chain Consensus
Peter Gaži, Ling Ren, and Alexander Russell
Nakamoto's longest-chain consensus paradigm now powers the bulk of the world's cryptocurrencies and distributed finance infrastructure. An emblematic property of longest-chain consensus is that it provides probabilistic settlement guarantees that strengthen over time. This makes the exact relationship between settlement error and settlement latency a critical aspect of the protocol that both users and system designers must understand to make informed decisions. A recent line of work has finally provided a satisfactory rigorous accounting of this relationship for proof-of-work longest-chain protocols, but those techniques do not appear to carry over to the proof-of-stake setting. This article develops explicit, rigorous settlement bounds for proof-of-stake longest-chain protocols, placing them on equal footing with their proof-of-work counterparts. Our techniques apply with some adaptations also to the proof-of-work setting where they provide improvements to the state-of-the-art settlement bounds for proof-of-work protocols.
Last updated:  2022-11-11
Set (Non-)Membership NIZKs from Determinantal Accumulators
Helger Lipmaa and Roberto Parisella
We construct the most efficient (in the argument size and the verifier's computation) known falsifiable set (non-)membership NIZK $\Pi^*$, where the membership (resp., non-membership) argument consists of only $9$ (resp., $15$) group elements. It also has a universal CRS. $\Pi^*$ is based on the novel concept of determinantal accumulators. Determinantal primitives have a similar relation to recent pairing-based (non-succinct) NIZKs of Couteau and Hartmann (Crypto 2020) and Couteau et al. (CLPØ, Asiacrypt 2021) that structure-preserving primitives have to the NIZKs of Groth and Sahai. $\Pi^*$ is considerably more efficient than known falsifiable based set (non-)membership NIZKs. We also extend CLPØ by proposing efficient (non-succinct) set non-membership arguments for a large class of languages.
Last updated:  2022-11-11
DAG-$\Sigma$: A DAG-based Sigma Protocol for Relations in CNF
Gongxian Zeng, Junzuo Lai, Zhengan Huang, Yu Wang, and Zhiming Zheng
At CRYPTO 1994, Cramer, Damg{\aa}rd and Schoenmakers proposed a general method to construct proofs of knowledge (PoKs), especially for $k$-out-of-$n$ partial knowledge, of which relations can be expressed in disjunctive normal form (DNF). Since then, proofs of $k$-out-of-$n$ partial knowledge have attracted much attention and some efficient constructions have been proposed. However, many practical scenarios require efficient PoK protocols for partial knowledge in other forms. In this paper, we mainly focus on PoK protocols for $k$-conjunctive normal form ($k$-CNF) relations, which have $n$ statements and can be expressed as follows: (i) $k$ statements constitute a clause via ``OR'' operations, and (ii) the relation consists of multiple clauses via ``AND'' operations. We propose an alternative Sigma protocol (called DAG-$\Sigma$ protocol) for $k$-CNF relations (in the discrete logarithm setting), by converting these relations to directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). Our DAG-$\Sigma$ protocol achieves less communication cost and smaller computational overhead compared with Cramer et al.'s general method.
Last updated:  2022-11-11
Compact, Efficient and UC-Secure Isogeny-Based Oblivious Transfer
Yi-Fu Lai, Steven D. Galbraith, and Cyprien Delpech de Saint Guilhem
Oblivious transfer (OT) is an essential cryptographic tool that can serve as a building block for almost all secure multiparty functionalities. The strongest security notion against malicious adversaries is universal composability (UC-secure). An important goal is to have post-quantum OT protocols. One area of interest for post-quantum cryptography is isogeny-based crypto. Isogeny-based cryptography has some similarities to Diffie-Hellman, but lacks some algebraic properties that are needed for discrete-log-based OT protocols. Hence it is not always possible to directly adapt existing protocols to the isogeny setting. We propose the first practical isogeny-based UC-secure oblivious transfer protocol in the presence of malicious adversaries. Our scheme uses the CSIDH framework and does not have an analogue in the Diffie-Hellman setting. The scheme consists of a constant number of isogeny computations. The underlying computational assumption is a problem that we call the computational reciprocal CSIDH problem, and that we prove polynomial-time equivalent to the computational CSIDH problem.
Last updated:  2022-11-10
Extendable Threshold Ring Signatures with Enhanced Anonymity
Gennaro Avitabile, Vincenzo Botta, and Dario Fiore
Threshold ring signatures are digital signatures that allow $t$ parties to sign a message while hiding their identity in a larger set of $n$ users called ''ring''. Recently, Aranha et al. [PKC 2022] introduced the notion of \emph{extendable} threshold ring signatures (ETRS). ETRS allow one to update, in a non-interactive manner, a threshold ring signature on a certain message so that the updated signature has a greater threshold, and/or an augmented set of potential signers. An application of this primitive is anonymous count me in. A first signer creates a ring signature with a sufficiently large ring announcing a proposition in the signed message. After such cause becomes \emph{public}, other parties can anonymously decide to support that proposal by producing an updated signature. Crucially, such applications rely on partial signatures being posted on a \emph{publicly accessible} bulletin board since users may not know/trust each other. In this paper, we first point out that even if anonymous count me in was suggested as an application of ETRS, the anonymity notion proposed in the previous work is insufficient in many application scenarios. Indeed, the existing notion guarantees anonymity only against adversaries who just see the last signature, and are not allowed to access the ''full evolution" of an ETRS. This is in stark contrast with applications where partial signatures are posted in a public bulletin board. We therefore propose stronger anonymity definitions and construct a new ETRS that satisfies such definitions. Interestingly, while satisfying stronger anonymity properties, our ETRS asymptotically improves on the two ETRS presented in prior work [PKC 2022] in terms of both time complexity and signature size. Our ETRS relies on extendable non-interactive witness-indistinguishable proof of knowledge (ENIWI PoK), a novel technical tool that we formalize and construct, and that may be of independent interest. We build our constructions from pairing groups under the SXDH assumption.
Last updated:  2022-11-10
aPlonK : Aggregated PlonK from Multi-Polynomial Commitment Schemes
Miguel Ambrona, Marc Beunardeau, Anne-Laure Schmitt, and Raphaël R. Toledo
PlonK is a prominent universal and updatable zk-SNARK for general circuit satisfiability. We present aPlonK, a variant of PlonK that reduces the proof size and verification time when multiple statements are proven in a batch. Both the aggregated proof size and the verification complexity of aPlonK are logarithmic in the number of aggregated statements. Our main building block, inspired by the techniques developed in SnarkPack (Gailly, Maller, Nitulescu, FC 2022), is a multi-polynomial commitment scheme, a new primitive that generalizes polynomial commitment schemes. Our techniques also include a mechanism for involving committed data into PlonK statements very efficiently, which can be of independent interest. We also implement an open-source industrial-grade library for zero-knowledge PlonK proofs with support for aPlonK. Our experimental results show that our techniques are suitable for real-world applications (such as blockchain rollups), achieving significant performance improvements in proof size and verification time.
Last updated:  2022-11-10
Full Round Zero-sum Distinguishers on TinyJAMBU-128 and TinyJAMBU-192 Keyed-permutation in the Known-key setting
Orr Dunkelman, Shibam Ghosh, and Eran Lambooij
TinyJAMBU is one of the finalists in the NIST lightweight standardization competition. This paper presents full round practical zero-sum distinguishers on the keyed permutation used in TinyJAMBU. We propose a full round zero-sum distinguisher on the 128- and 192-bit key variants and a reduced round zero-sum distinguisher for the 256-bit key variant in the known-key settings. Our best known-key distinguisher works with $2^{16}$ data/time complexity on the full 128-bit version and with $2^{23}$ data/time complexity on the full 192-bit version. For the 256-bit ver- sion, we can distinguish 1152 rounds (out of 1280 rounds) in the known- key settings. In addition, we present the best zero-sum distinguishers in the secret-key settings: with complexity $2^{23}$ we can distinguish 544 rounds in the forward direction or 576 rounds in the backward direction. For finding the zero-sum distinguisher, we bound the algebraic degree of the TinyJAMBU permutation using the monomial prediction technique proposed by Hu et al. at ASIACRYPT 2020. We model the monomial prediction rule on TinyJAMBU in MILP and find upper bounds on the degree by computing the parity of the number of solutions.
Last updated:  2022-11-10
Characterisation of Bijectivity Preserving Componentwise Modification of S-Boxes
Kaisa Nyberg
Various systematic modifications of vectorial Boolean functions have been used for finding new previously unknown classes of S-boxes with good or even optimal differential uniformity and nonlinearity. Recently, a new method was proposed for modification a component of a bijective vectorial Boolean function by using a linear function. It was shown that the modified function remains bijective under the assumption that the inverse of the function admits a linear structure. A previously known construction of such a modification based on bijective Gold functions in odd dimension is a special case of this type of modification. In this paper, we show that the existence of a linear structure is necessary. Further, we consider replacement of a component of a bijective vectorial Boolean function in the general case. We prove that a permutation on $\mathbb{F}_2^n$ remains bijective if and only if the replacement is done by composing the permutation with an unbalanced Feistel transformation where the round function is any Boolean function on $\mathbb{F}_2^{n-1}$.
Last updated:  2022-11-10
Baloo: Nearly Optimal Lookup Arguments
Arantxa Zapico, Ariel Gabizon, Dmitry Khovratovich, Mary Maller, and Carla Ràfols
We present Baloo, the first protocol for lookup tables where the prover work is linear on the amount of lookups and independent of the size of the table. Baloo is built over the lookup arguments of Caulk and Caulk+, and the framework for linear relations of Rafols and Zapico. Our protocol supports commit-and-prove expansions: the prover selects the subtable containing the elements used in the lookup, that is unknown to the verifier, commits to it and later prove relation with the committed element. This feature makes Baloo especially suitable for prover input-ouput relations on hash functions, and in particular to instantiate the Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM).
Last updated:  2022-11-10
Efficient privacy preserving top-k recommendation using homomorphic sorting
Pranav Verma, Anish Mathuria, and Sourish Dasgupta
The existing works on privacy-preserving recommender systems based on homomorphic encryption do not filter top-k most relevant items on the server side. As a result, sending the encrypted rating vector for all items to the user retrieving the top-k items is necessary. This incurs significant computation and communication costs on the user side. In this work, we employ private sorting at the server to reduce the user-side overheads. In private sorting, the values and corresponding positions of elements must remain private. We use an existing private sorting protocol by Foteini and Olga and tailor it to the privacy-preserving top-k recommendation applications. We enhance it to use secure bit decomposition in the private comparison routine of the protocol. This leads to a notable reduction in cost overheads of users as well as the servers, especially at the keyserver where the computation cost is reduced to half. The dataserver does not have to perform costly encryption and decryption operations. It performs computationally less expensive modular exponentiation operations. Since the private comparison operation contributes significantly to the overall cost overhead, making it efficient enhances the sorting protocol’s performance. Our security analysis concludes that the proposed scheme is as secure as the original protocol.
Last updated:  2022-11-10
Embedded Identity Traceable Identity-Based IPFE from Pairings and Lattices
Subhranil Dutta, Tapas Pal, Amit Kumar Singh, and Sourav Mukhopadhyay
We present the first fully collusion resistant traitor tracing (TT) scheme for identity-based inner product functional encryption (IBIPFE) that directly traces user identities through an efficient tracing procedure. We name such a scheme as embedded identity traceable IBIPFE (EI-TIBIPFE), where secret keys and ciphertexts are computed for vectors u and v respectively. Additionally, each secret key is associated with a user identification information tuple (i , id, gid) that specifies user index i , user identity id and an identity gid of a group to which the user belongs. The ciphertexts are generated under a group identity gid′ so that decryption recovers the inner product between the vectors u and v if the user is a member of the group gid′, i.e., gid = gid′. Suppose some users linked to a particular group team up and create a pirate decoder that is capable of decrypting the content of the group, then the tracing algorithm extracts at least one id from the team given black-box access to the decoder. In prior works, such TT schemes are built for usual public key encryptions. The only existing TIPFE scheme proposed by Do, Phan, and Pointcheval [CT-RSA’20] can trace user indices but not the actual identities. Moreover, their scheme achieves selective security and private traceability, meaning that it is only the trusted authority that is able to trace user indices. In this work, we present the following TT schemes with varying parameters and levels of security: (1) We generically construct EI-TIBIPFE assuming the existence of IBIPFE. The scheme preserves the security level of the underlying IBIPFE. (2) We build an adaptively secure EI-TIPFE scheme from bilinear maps. Note that EI-TIPFE is a particular case of EI-TIBIPFE, which does not consider group identities. (3) Next, we construct a selectively secure EI-TIBIPFE from bilinear maps. As an intermediate step, we design the first IBIPFE scheme based on a target group assumption in the standard model. (4) Finally, we provide a generic construction of selectively secure EI-TIBIPFE from lattices, namely under the standard Learning With Errors assumption. Our pairing-based schemes support public traceability and the ciphertext size grows with $\sqrt{n}$, whereas in the IBIPFE and lattice-based ones, it grows linearly with n. The main technical difficulty is designing such an advanced TT scheme for an IBIPFE that is beyond IPFE and more suitable for real-life applications.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
A Systematization of Voter Registration Security
Jack Cable, Andrés Fábrega, Sunoo Park, and Michael A. Specter
Voter registration is an essential part of almost any election process, and its security is a critical component of election security. Yet, despite notable compromises of voter registration systems, relatively little academic work has been devoted to securing voter registration systems, compared to research on other aspects of election security. In this paper, we present a systematic treatment of voter registration system security. We propose the first rigorous definitional framework for voter registration systems, describing the entities and core functionalities inherent in most voter registration systems, the jurisdictional policies that constrain specific implementations, and key security properties. Our definitions are configurable based on jurisdiction-specific parameters and policies. We provide a template for the structured presentation of detailed jurisdictional policy information, via a series of tables, and illustrate its application with detailed case studies of the voter registration systems of three U.S. states and Panama. Throughout our research, with the aim of realism and practical applicability, we consulted current and former U.S. election officials, civil society, and non-profits in the elections space. We conclude with a list of critical questions regarding voter registration security.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Vogue: Faster Computation of Private Heavy Hitters
Pranav Jangir, Nishat Koti, Varsha Bhat Kukkala, Arpita Patra, Bhavish Raj Gopal, and Somya Sangal
Consider the problem of securely identifying τ -heavy hitters, where given a set of client inputs, the goal is to identify those inputs which are held by at least τ clients in a privacy-preserving manner. Towards this, we design a novel system Vogue, whose key highlight in comparison to prior works, is that it ensures complete privacy and does not leak any information other than the heavy hitters. In doing so, Vogue aims to achieve as efficient a solution as possible. To showcase these efficiency improvements, we benchmark our solution and observe that it requires around 14 minutes to compute the heavy hitters for τ = 900 on 256-bit inputs when considering 400K clients. This is in contrast to the state of the art solution that requires over an hour for the same. In addition to the static input setting described above, Vogue also accounts for streaming inputs and provides a protocol that outperforms the state-of-the-art therein. The efficiency improvements witnessed while computing heavy hitters in both, the static and streaming input settings, are attributed to our new secure stable compaction protocol, whose round complexity is independent of the size of the input array to be compacted
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Verifiable Private Information Retrieval
Shany Ben-David, Yael Tauman Kalai, and Omer Paneth
A computational PIR scheme allows a client to privately query a database hosted on a single server without downloading the entire database. We introduce the notion of verifiable PIR (vPIR) where the server can convince the client that the database satisfies certain properties without additional rounds and while keeping the communication sub-linear. For example, the server can prove that the number of rows in the database that satisfy a predicate $P$ is exactly $n$. We define security by modeling vPIR as an ideal functionality and following the real-ideal paradigm. Starting from a standard PIR scheme, we construct a vPIR scheme for any database property that can be verified by a machine that reads the database once and maintains a bounded size state between rows. We also construct vPIR with public verification based on LWE or on DLIN. The main technical hurdle is to demonstrate a simulator that extracts a long input from an adversary that sends a single short message. Our vPIR constructions are based on the notion of batch argument for NP. As contribution of independent interest, we show that batch arguments are equivalent to quasi-arguments---a relaxation of SNARKs which is known to imply succinct argument for various sub-classes of NP.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Take your MEDS: Digital Signatures from Matrix Code Equivalence
Tung Chou, Ruben Niederhagen, Edoardo Persichetti, Tovohery Hajatiana Randrianarisoa, Krijn Reijnders, Simona Samardjiska, and Monika Trimoska
In this paper, we show how to use the Matrix Code Equivalence (MCE) problem as a new basis to construct signature schemes. This extends previous work on using isomorphism problems for signature schemes, a trend that has recently emerged in post-quantum cryptography. Our new formulation leverages a more general problem and allows for smaller data sizes, achieving competitive performance and great flexibility. Using MCE, we construct a zero-knowledge protocol which we turn into a signature scheme named Matrix Equivalence Digital Signature (MEDS). We provide an initial choice of parameters for MEDS, tailored to NIST's Category 1 security level, yielding public keys as small as 2.7 kB and signatures ranging from 18.8 kB to just around 10 kB, along with a reference implementation in C.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Key lifting : Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption in plain model without noise flooding
Xiaokang Dai, Wenyuan Wu, and Yong Feng
Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption(\MK) based on Learning With Error(\LWE) usually lifts ciphertexts of different users to new ciphertexts under a common public key to enable homomorphic evaluation. The main obstacle of current \MK schemes in applications is huge ciphertext expansion cost especially in data intensive scenario. For example, a boolean circuit with input length $N$, multiplication depth $L$, security parameter $\lambda$ , the number of additional encryptions introduced to achieve ciphertext expansion is $O(N\lambda^6L^4)$. In this paper we present a framework to solve this problem that we call Key-Lifting Multi-key Fully Homomorphic Encryption (\KL). With this key lifting procedure, the number of encryptions for a local user is pulled back to $O(N)$ as single-key fully homomorphic encryption(FHE). In addition, the current MKFHE often needs to introduce noise flooding technology in the encryption or distributed decryption stage to ensure security. This leads to an extremely large $q$. In response to this problem, we propose an optimized security analysis method based on R\'{e}nyi divergence, which removes the noise flooding technology in the encryption phase. On the other hand, in the distributed decryption phase, we prove that as long as encryption scheme is leakage-resilient, the partial decryption does not need to introduce noise flooding technique, the semantic security of fresh ciphertext can also be guaranteed, which greatly reducing the size of modulus $q$(with $\log q = O(L)$) and the computational overhead of the entire scheme. Moreover, we also consider \RLWE for efficiency in practice. Due to the structural properties of polynomial rings, such \LWE-based scheme based on Leftover hash lemma(LHL) cannot be trivially transplanted to \RLWE-based scheme. We give a \RLWE-based \KL under Random Oracle Model(ROM) by introducing a bit commitment protocol. \keywords{Multi-key homomorphic encryption $\cdot$ LWE $\cdot$ RLWE $\cdot$ Leakage resilient cryptography.}
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Lower Bound on SNARGs in the Random Oracle Model
Iftach Haitner, Daniel Nukrai, and Eylon Yogev
Succinct non-interactive arguments (SNARGs) have become a fundamental primitive in the cryptographic community. The focus of this work is constructions of SNARGs in the Random Oracle Model (ROM). Such SNARGs enjoy post-quantum security and can be deployed using lightweight cryptography to heuristically instantiate the random oracle. A ROM-SNARG is \emph{$(t,\varepsilon)$-sound} if no $t$-query malicious prover can convince the verifier to accept a false statement with probability larger than $\varepsilon$. Recently, Chiesa-Yogev (CRYPTO '21) presented a ROM-SNARG of length ${\Theta}(\log (t/\varepsilon) \cdot \log t)$ (ignoring $\log n$ factors, for $n$ being the instance size). This improvement, however, is still far from the (folklore) lower bound of $\Omega(\log (t/\varepsilon))$. Assuming the \textit{randomized exponential-time hypothesis}, we prove a tight lower bound of ${\Omega}(\log (t/\varepsilon) \cdot \log t)$ for the length of {$(t,\varepsilon)$-sound} ROM-SNARGs. Our lower bound holds for constructions with non-adaptive verifiers and strong soundness notion called \textit{salted soundness}, restrictions that hold for \emph{all} known constructions (ignoring contrived counterexamples). We prove our lower bound by transforming any short ROM-SNARG (of the considered family) into a same length ROM-SNARG in which the verifier asks only a \emph{few} oracles queries, and then apply the recent lower bound of Chiesa-Yogev (TCC '20) for such SNARGs.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Your Reputation's Safe with Me: Framing-Free Distributed Zero-Knowledge Proofs
Carmit Hazay, Muthuramakrishnan Venkitasubramaniam, and Mor Weiss
Distributed Zero-Knowledge (dZK) proofs, recently introduced by Boneh et al. (CYPTO`19), allow a prover $P$ to prove NP statements on an input $x$ which is distributed between $k$ verifiers $V_1,\ldots,V_k$, where each $V_i$ holds only a piece of $x$. As in standard ZK proofs, dZK proofs guarantee Completeness when all parties are honest; Soundness against a malicious prover colluding with $t$ verifiers; and Zero Knowledge against a subset of $t$ malicious verifiers, in the sense that they learn nothing about the NP witness and the input pieces of the honest verifiers. Unfortunately, dZK proofs provide no correctness guarantee for an honest prover against a subset of maliciously corrupted verifiers. In particular, such verifiers might be able to ``frame'' the prover, causing honest verifiers to reject a true claim. This is a significant limitation, since such scenarios arise naturally in dZK applications, e.g., for proving honest behavior, and such attacks are indeed possible in existing dZKs. We put forth and study the notion of strong completeness for dZKs, guaranteeing that true claims are accepted even when $t$ verifiers are maliciously corrupted. We then design strongly-complete dZK proofs using the ``MPC-in-the-head'' paradigm of Ishai et al. (STOC`07), providing a novel analysis that exploits the unique properties of the distributed setting. To demonstrate the usefulness of strong completeness, we present several applications in which it is instrumental in obtaining security. First, we construct a certifiable version of Verifiable Secret Sharing (VSS), which is a VSS in which the dealer additionally proves that the shared secret satisfies a given NP relation. Our construction withstands a constant fraction of corruptions, whereas a previous construction of Ishat et al. (TCC`14) could only handle $k^{\varepsilon}$ corruptions for a small $\varepsilon<1$. We also design a reusable version of certifiable VSS that we introduce, in which the dealer can prove an unlimited number of predicates on the same shared secret. Finally, we extend a compiler of Boneh et al. (CRYPTO`19), who used dZKs to transform a class of ``natural'' semi-honest protocols in the honest-majority setting into maliciously secure ones with abort. Our compiler uses strongly-complete dZKs to obtain identifiable abort.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
TMVP-based Multiplication for Polynomial Quotient Rings and Application to Saber on ARM Cortex-M4
İrem Keskinkurt Paksoy and Murat Cenk
Lattice-based NIST PQC finalists need efficient multiplication in $\mathbb{Z}_q[x]/(f(x))$. Multiplication in this ring can be performed very efficiently via number theoretic transform (NTT) as done in CRYSTALS-Kyber if the parameters of the scheme allow it. If NTT is not supported, other multiplication algorithms must be employed. For example, if the modulus $q$ of the scheme is a power of two, as in Saber and NTRU, then NTT can not be used directly. In this case, Karatsuba and Toom-Cook methods together with modular reduction, are commonly used for multiplication in this ring. In this paper, we show that the Toeplitz matrix-vector product (TMVP) representation of modular polynomial multiplication yields better results than Karatsuba and Toom-Cook methods. We present three- and four-way TMVP formulas derived from three- and four-way Toom-Cook algorithms, respectively. We use the four-way TMVP formula to develop an algorithm for multiplication in the ring $\mathbb{Z}_{2^m}[x]/(x^{256}+1)$. We implement the proposed algorithm on the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller and apply it to Saber, one of the lattice-based finalists of the NIST PQC competition. We compare the results to previous implementations. The TMVP-based multiplication algorithm we propose is $20.83\%$ faster than the previous algorithm that uses a combination of Toom-Cook, Karatsuba, and schoolbook methods. Our algorithm also speeds up key generation, encapsulation, and decapsulation algorithms of all variants of Saber. The speedups vary between $4.3-39.8\%$. Moreover, our algorithm requires less memory than the others, except for the memory-optimized implementation of Saber.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Compact and Efficient KEMs over NTRU Lattices
Zhichuang Liang, Boyue Fang, Jieyu Zheng, and Yunlei Zhao
The NTRU lattice is a promising candidate to construct practical cryptosystems, in particular key encapsulation mechanism (KEM), resistant to quantum computing attacks. Nevertheless, there are still some inherent obstacles to NTRU-based KEM schemes in having integrated performance, taking security, bandwidth, error probability, and computational efficiency {as a whole}, that is as good as and even better than their \{R,M\}LWE-based counterparts. In this work, we solve this problem by presenting a new family of NTRU-based KEM schemes, referred to as CTRU and CNTR. By bridging low-dimensional lattice codes and high-dimensional NTRU-lattice-based cryptography with careful design and analysis, to the best of our knowledge CTRU and CNTR are the first NTRU-based KEM schemes with scalable ciphertext compression via only one {single} ciphertext polynomial, and are the first that could outperform \{R,M\}LWE-based KEM schemes in integrated performance. For instance, compared to Kyber that is currently the only standardized KEM by NIST, on the recommended parameter set CNTR-768 has about $12\%$ smaller ciphertext size while encapsulating 384-bit keys compared to the fixed 256-bit key size of Kyber, security strengthened by $(8,7)$ bits for classical and quantum security respectively, and significantly lower error probability ($2^{-230}$ of CNTR-768 vs. $2^{-164}$ of Kyber-768). In particular, CTRU and CNTR admit more flexible key sizes to be encapsulated, specifically $\frac{n}{2}$ where $n\in \{512,768,1024\}$ is the underlying polynomial dimension. In comparison with the state-of-the-art AVX2 implementation of Kyber-768, CNTR-768 is faster by 1.9X in KeyGen, 2.6X in Encaps, and 1.2X in Decaps, respectively. When compared to the NIST Round 3 finalist NTRU-HRSS, our CNTR-768 has about $15\%$ smaller ciphertext size, and the security is strengthened by $(55,49)$ bits for classical and quantum security respectively. As for the AVX2 implementation, CNTR-768 is faster than NTRU-HRSS by 19X in KeyGen, 2.3X in Encaps, and 1.6X in Decaps, respectively. Along the way, we develop new techniques for more accurate error probability analysis, as well as unified implementations with respect to multiple dimensions with unified NTT methods, for NTRU-based KEM schemes over the polynomial ring $\mathbb{Z}_q[x]/(x^n-x^{n/2}+1)$, which might be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Quantum Speed-Up for Multidimensional (Zero Correlation) Linear and Integral Distinguishers
Akinori Hosoyamada
This paper shows how to achieve quantum speed-up for multidimensional (zero correlation) linear and integral distinguishers. To understand post-quantum security of symmetric-key cryptosystems, it is important to study how much quantum speed-up we can obtain for classical cryptanalytic techniques such as differential, linear, and integral cryptanalysis. A previous work by Kaplan et al. already showed a quantum quadratic speed-up for one-dimensional linear distinguishers, but it is unclear how to extend their technique to multidimensional linear distinguishers. To remedy this, we investigate how to speed-up multidimensional linear distinguishers in the quantum setting. Firstly, we observe that there is a close relationship between the subroutine of Simon's algorithm and linear correlations via Fourier transform, and a slightly modified version of Simon's subroutine can be used to speed-up multidimensional linear distinguishers. The modified Simon's subroutine also leads to speed-ups for multidimensional zero correlation and some integral distinguishers. Surprisingly, our technique achieves more-than-quadratic speed-ups for some special types of integral distinguishers. This is because the modified Simon's subroutine can exploit the existence of multiple multidimensional zero correlation linear approximations. Our attacks are the first examples achieving such speed-up on classical cryptanalytic techniques without relying on any algebraic structures such as hidden periods or shifts. The speed-ups for multidimensional (zero correlation) linear distinguishers are at-most-quadratic, and all of our attacks require quantum superposition queries.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Less is more: refinement proofs for probabilistic proofs
Kunming Jiang, Devora Chait-Roth, Zachary DeStefano, Michael Walfish, and Thomas Wies
There has been intense interest over the last decade in implementations of _probabilistic proofs_ (IPs, SNARKs, PCPs, and so on): protocols in which an untrusted party proves to a verifier that a given computation was executed properly, possibly in zero knowledge. Nevertheless, implementations still do not scale beyond small computations. A central source of overhead is the _front-end_: translating from the abstract computation to a set of equivalent arithmetic constraints. This paper introduces a general-purpose framework, called Distiller, in which a user translates to constraints not the original computation but an abstracted _specification_ of it. Distiller is the first in this area to perform such transformations in a way that is provably safe. Furthermore, by taking the idea of "encode a check in the constraints" to its literal logical extreme, Distiller exposes many new opportunities for constraint reduction, resulting in cost reductions for benchmark computations of 1.3–50$\times$, and in some cases, better asymptotics.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Intermediate Certificate Suppression in Post-Quantum TLS: An Approximate Membership Querying Approach
Dimitrios Sikeridis, Sean Huntley, David Ott, and Michael Devetsikiotis
Quantum computing advances threaten the security of today's public key infrastructure, and have led to the pending standardization of alternative, quantum-resistant key encapsulation and digital signature cryptography schemes. Unfortunately, authentication algorithms based on the new post-quantum (PQ) cryptography create significant performance bottlenecks for TLS due to larger certificate chains which introduce additional packets and round-trips. The TLS handshake slowdown will be unacceptable to many applications, and detrimental to the broader adoption of quantum safe cryptography standards. In this paper, we propose a novel framework for Intermediate Certificate Authority (ICA) certificate suppression in TLS that reduces the authentication message size and prevents excessive round-trip delays. Our approach utilizes an approximate membership query (AMQ) data structure (probabilistic filter) to advertise known ICA certs to remote TLS endpoints so that unnecessary ICA certificates are omitted from the TLS handshake exchange. We showcase the extend of the PQ authentication overhead challenge in TLS, and evaluate the feasibility of AMQ filters for ICA suppression in terms of space and computational overhead. Finally, we experimentally evaluate the potential gains form our approach and showcase a $70\%$ reduction in exchanged ICA cert data that translates to 15-50 MB of savings in PQ TLS and for certain Web-based application scenarios.
Last updated:  2022-11-09
Tighter Proofs for the SIGMA and TLS 1.3 Key Exchange Protocols
Hannah Davis and Felix Günther
We give new, fully-quantitative and concrete bounds that justify the SIGMA and TLS 1.3 key exchange protocols not just in principle, but in practice. By this we mean that, for standardized elliptic curve group sizes, the overall protocol actually achieves the intended security level. Prior work gave reductions of both protocols' security to the underlying building blocks that were loose (in the number of users and/or sessions), so loose that they gave no guarantees for practical parameters. Adapting techniques by Cohn-Gordon et al. (Crypto 2019), we give reductions for SIGMA and TLS 1.3 to the strong Diffie-Hellman problem which are tight. Leveraging our tighter bounds, we meet the protocols' targeted security levels when instantiated with standardized curves and improve over prior bounds by up to over 90 bits of security across a range of real-world parameters.
Last updated:  2022-11-08
New Dolev-Reischuk Lower Bounds Meet Blockchain Eclipse Attacks
Ittai Abraham and Gilad Stern
In 1985, Dolev and Reischuk proved a fundamental communication lower bounds on protocols achieving fault tolerant synchronous broadcast and consensus: any deterministic protocol solving those tasks (even against omission faults) requires at least a quadratic number of messages to be sent by nonfaulty parties. In contrast, many blockchain systems achieve consensus with seemingly linear communication per instance against Byzantine faults. We explore this dissonance in three main ways. First, we extend the Dolev-Reischuk family of lower bounds and prove a new lower bound for Crusader Broadcast protocols. Our lower bound for crusader broadcast requires non-trivial extensions and a much stronger Byzantine adversary with the ability to simulate honest parties. Secondly, we extend our lower bounds to all-but-$m$ Crusader Broadcast, in which up to $m$ parties are allowed to output a different value. Finally, we discuss the ways in which these lower bounds relate to the security of blockchain systems. We show how Eclipse-style attacks in such systems can be viewed as specific instances of the attacks used in our lower bound for Crusader Broadcast. This connection suggests a more systematic way of analyzing and reasoning about Eclipse-style attacks through the lens of the Dolev-Reischuk family of attacks.
Last updated:  2022-11-08
Fast and Private Computation of Cardinality of Set Intersection and Union
Emiliano De Cristofaro, Paolo Gasti, and Gene Tsudik
Show abstract
In many everyday scenarios, sensitive information must be shared between parties without complete mutual trust. Private set operations are particularly useful to enable sharing information with privacy, as they allow two or more parties to jointly compute operations on their sets (e.g., intersection, union, etc.), such that only the minimum required amount of information is disclosed. In the last few years, the research community has proposed a number of secure and efficient techniques for Private Set Intersection (PSI), however, somewhat less explored is the problem of computing the magnitude, rather than the contents, of the intersection - we denote this problem as Private Set Intersection Cardinality (PSI-CA). This paper explores a few PSI-CA variations and constructs several protocols that are more efficient than the state-of-the-art.
Last updated:  2022-11-08
Avoiding Lock Outs: Proactive FIDO Account Recovery using Managerless Group Signatures
Sunpreet S. Arora, Saikrishna Badrinarayanan, Srinivasan Raghuraman, Maliheh Shirvanian, Kim Wagner, and Gaven Watson
Passwords are difficult to remember, easy to guess and prone to hacking. While there have been several attempts to solve the aforementioned problems commonly associated with passwords, one of the most successful ones to date has been by the Fast Identity Online (FIDO) alliance. FIDO introduced a series of protocols that combine local authentication on a user device with remote validation on relying party servers using public-key cryptography. One of the fundamental problems of FIDO protocols is complete reliance on a single user device for authentication. More specifically, the private key used for signing relying party challenges can only be stored on a single device. Each FIDO authenticator key is linked uniquely to an account with a relying party service. As a result a lost or stolen user device necessitates creation of new user account, using a new device, with each (previously enrolled) relying party service. To overcome this limitation, we introduce a dynamic managerless group signature scheme that organizes authenticators into groups. Each authenticator in a group has a unique private key that links it to an account with a relying party, which can sign relying party challenges. The relying party server has a group verification key that can validate challenges signed using the private key of any authenticator in a group. Our approach provides additional redundancy and usability to the FIDO protocol whilst still achieving the security properties expected in the FIDO setting such as unforgeability and unlinkability.
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