Papers updated in last 183 days (Page 2 of 1578 results)

Last updated:  2023-11-17
Computational FHE Circuit Privacy for Free
Anamaria Costache, Lea Nürnberger, and Tjerand Silde
Circuit privacy is an important notion in Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), well-illustrated by the Machine Learning-as-a-Service scenario. A scheme is circuit private (first defined in Gentry’s PhD Thesis) if an adversary cannot learn the circuit evaluated on a ciphertext from the computation result. In this work, we first show that the BGV FHE scheme by Brakerski, Gentry and Vaikuntanathan (ITCS’12) is computationally circuit private in a semi-honest context, and then present an extended construction to make it computationally circuit private against a malicious adversary. We achieve this without resorting to expensive mechanisms such as noise flooding. Instead, we argue carefully about the ciphertext and noise distributions that are encountered in BGV. In more detail, we consider the notion of circuit privacy along four dimensions: whether the adversary is internal or external (i.e. does the adversary hold the secret key or not), and in a semi-honest and malicious setting. Our starting point is Gentry’s definition, which we change from statistical to computational indistinguishability. Doing so allows us to prove that the BGV scheme is computationally circuit-private in a semi-honest setting to an external adversary out of the box. We then propose a new definition by extending Gentry’s definition to an internal adversary. This is appropriate since the scenario that the client is the adversary (and therefore has access to the decryption key) is a realistic one. Further, we remark that our definition is strictly stronger than Gentry’s – our definition requires that a scheme be circuit private according to Gentry’s definition and additionally, the distribution of the ciphertext noise in all ciphertexts to be computationally indistinguishable. Given this new definition, and using previous results of Costache, Nürnberger and Player (CT-RSA’23), we show that slight modifications to the BGV scheme will make it fulfill this new definition. Finally, we show how to extend these results to a malicious setting if we require that the client attaches proofs of well-formedness of keys and ciphertexts.
Last updated:  2023-11-17
$k$-SUM in the Sparse Regime
Shweta Agrawal, Sagnik Saha, Nikolaj Ignatieff Schwartzbach, Akhil Vanukuri, and Prashant Nalini Vasudevan
In the average-case $k$-SUM problem, given $r$ integers chosen uniformly at random from $\{0,\ldots,M-1\}$, the objective is to find a "solution" set of $k$ numbers that sum to $0$ modulo $M$. In the dense regime of $M \leq r^k$, where solutions exist with high probability, the complexity of these problems is well understood. Much less is known in the sparse regime of $M\gg r^k$, where solutions are unlikely to exist. In this work, we initiate the study of the sparse regime for $k$-SUM and its variant $k$-XOR, especially their planted versions, where a random solution is planted in a randomly generated instance and has to be recovered. We provide evidence for the hardness of these problems and suggest new applications to cryptography. Our contributions are summarized below. Complexity. First we study the complexity of these problems in the sparse regime and show: - Conditional Lower Bounds. Assuming established conjectures about the hardness of average-case (non-planted) $k$-SUM/$k$-XOR when $M = r^k$, we provide non-trivial lower bounds on the running time of algorithms for planted $k$-SUM when $r^k\leq M\leq r^{2k}$. - Hardness Amplification. We show that for any $M \geq r^k$, if an algorithm running in time $T$ solves planted $k$-SUM/$k$-XOR with success probability $\Omega(1/\text{polylog}(r))$, then there is an algorithm running in time $\tilde{O}(T)$ that solves it with probability $(1-o(1))$. This in particular implies hardness amplification for 3-SUM over the integers, which was not previously known. Technically, our approach departs significantly from existing approaches to hardness amplification, and relies on the locality of the solution together with the group structure inherent in the problem. Additionally, it enables us to assume only mild hardness of these problems for use in applications. - New Reductions and Algorithms. We provide reductions for $k$-SUM/$k$-XOR from search to decision, as well as worst-case and average-case reductions to the Subset Sum problem from $k$-SUM. Additionally, we present a new algorithm for average-case $k$-XOR that is faster than known worst-case algorithms at low densities. Cryptography. We show that by additionally assuming mild hardness of $k$-XOR, we can construct Public Key Encryption (PKE) from a weaker variant of the Learning Parity with Noise (LPN) problem than was known before. In particular, such LPN hardness does not appear to imply PKE on its own -- this suggests that $k$-XOR/$k$-SUM can be used to bridge "minicrypt" and "cryptomania" in some cases, and may be applicable in other settings in cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-11-17
A Solution to a Conjecture on the Maps $\chi_n^{(k)}$
Kamil Otal
The Boolean map $\chi_n^{(k)}:\mathbb{F}_{2^k}^n\rightarrow \mathbb{F}_{2^k}^n$, $x\mapsto u$ given by $u_i=x_i+(x_{(i+1)\ \mathrm{mod}\ n}+1)x_{(i+2)\ \mathrm{mod}\ n}$ appears in various permutations as a part of cryptographic schemes such as KECCAK-f, ASCON, Xoodoo, Rasta, and Subterranean (2.0). Schoone and Daemen investigated some important algebraic properties of $\chi_n^{(k)}$ in [IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive 2023/1708]. In particular, they showed that $\chi_n^{(k)}$ is not bijective when $n$ is even, when $n$ is odd and $k$ is even, and when $n$ is odd and $k$ is a multiple of $3$. They left the remaining cases as a conjecture. In this paper, we examine this conjecture by taking some smaller sub-cases into account by reinterpreting the problem via the Gröbner basis approach. As a result, we prove that $\chi_n^{(k)}$ is not bijective when $n$ is a multiple of 3 or 5, and $k$ is a multiple of 5 or 7. We then present an algorithmic method that solves the problem for any given arbitrary $n$ and $k$ by generalizing our approach. We also discuss the systematization of our proof and computational boundaries.
Last updated:  2023-11-17
Pairing-Free Blind Signatures from CDH Assumptions
Rutchathon Chairattana-Apirom, Stefano Tessaro, and Chenzhi Zhu
This paper presents new blind signatures for which concurrent security, in the random oracle model, can be proved from variants of the computational Diffie-Hellman (CDH) assumption in pairing-free groups without relying on the algebraic group model (AGM). With the exception of careful instantiations of generic non-black box techniques following Fischlin's paradigm (CRYPTO '06), prior works without the AGM in the pairing-free regime have only managed to prove security for a-priori bounded concurrency. Our most efficient constructions rely on the chosen-target CDH assumption, which has been used to prove security of Blind BLS by Boldyreva (PKC '03), and can be seen as blind versions of signatures by Goh and Jarecki (EUROCRYPT '03) and Chevallier-Mames (CRYPTO'05). We also give a less efficient scheme with security based on (plain) CDH which builds on top of a natural pairing-free variant of Rai-Choo (Hanzlik, Loss, and Wagner, EUROCRYPT '23). Our schemes have signing protocols that consist of four (in order to achieve regular unforgeability) or five moves (for strong unforgeability). The blindness of our schemes is either computational (assuming the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem), or statistical in the random oracle model.
Last updated:  2023-11-17
Privacy-Preserving Cross-Facility Early Warning for Unknown Epidemics
Shiyu Li, Yuan Zhang, Yaqing Song, Fan Wu, Feng Lyu, Kan Yang, and Qiang Tang
Syndrome-based early epidemic warning plays a vital role in preventing and controlling unknown epidemic outbreaks. It monitors the frequency of each syndrome, issues a warning if some frequency is aberrant, identifies potential epidemic outbreaks, and alerts governments as early as possible. Existing systems adopt a cloud-assisted paradigm to achieve cross-facility statistics on the syndrome frequencies. However, in these systems, all symptom data would be directly leaked to the cloud, which causes critical security and privacy issues. In this paper, we first analyze syndrome-based early epidemic warning systems and formalize two security notions, i.e., symptom confidentiality and frequency confidentiality, according to the inherent security requirements. We propose EpiOracle, a cross-facility early warning scheme for unknown epidemics. EpiOracle ensures that the contents and frequencies of syndromes will not be leaked to any unrelated parties; moreover, our construction uses only a symmetric-key encryption algorithm and cryptographic hash functions (e.g., [CBC]AES and SHA-3), making it highly efficient. We formally prove the security of EpiOracle in the random oracle model. We also implement an EpiOracle prototype and evaluate its performance using a set of real-world symptom lists. The evaluation results demonstrate its practical efficiency.
Last updated:  2023-11-17
Non-interactive VSS using Class Groups and Application to DKG
Aniket Kate, Easwar Vivek Mangipudi, Pratyay Mukherjee, Hamza Saleem, and Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan
We put forward the first non-interactive verifiable secret sharing scheme (NI-VSS) using classgroups – we call it cgVSS. Our construction follows the standard framework of encrypting the shares to a set of recipients and generating a non-interactive proof of correct sharing. However, as opposed to prior works, such as Groth’s [Eprint 2021], or Gentry et al.’s [Eurocrypt 2022], we do not require any range proof - this is possible due to the unique structure of class groups, that enables efficient encryption/decryption of large field elements in the exponent of an ElGamal-style encryption scheme. Importantly, this is possible without destroying the additive homomorphic structure, which is required to make the proof-of-correctness highly efficient. This approach not only simplifies the scheme substantially, but also outperforms the state-of-art schemes significantly. Our implementation shows that cgVSS outperforms (a simplified implementation of) Groth’s protocol in overall communication complexity by 5.6x and about 2.4 − 2.7x in computation time per node (for a 150-node system). Additionally, we formalize the notion of public verifiability, which enables anyone, possibly outside the participants, to verify the correctness of the dealing. In fact, we re-interpret the notion of public verifiability and extend it to the setting when all recipients may be corrupt and yet can not defy public verifiability – to distinguish with state-of-art we call this strong public verifiability. Our formalization uses the universal composability framework. Finally, through a generic transformation, similar to Groth’s [Eprint 2021], we obtain a NI-DKG scheme for threshold systems, where the secret key is the discrete log of the public key. Our security analysis in the VSS-hybrid model uses a formalization that also considers a (strong) public verifiability notion for DKG, even when more than threshold parties are corrupt. Instantiating with cgVSS we obtain the first NI-DKG scheme from class groups – we call it cgDKG.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Immunizing Backdoored PRGs
Marshall Ball, Yevgeniy Dodis, and Eli Goldin
A backdoored Pseudorandom Generator (PRG) is a PRG which looks pseudorandom to the outside world, but a saboteur can break PRG security by planting a backdoor into a seemingly honest choice of public parameters, $pk$, for the system. Backdoored PRGs became increasingly important due to revelations about NIST’s backdoored Dual EC PRG, and later results about its practical exploitability. Motivated by this, at Eurocrypt'15 Dodis et al. [21] initiated the question of immunizing backdoored PRGs. A $k$-immunization scheme repeatedly applies a post-processing function to the output of $k$ backdoored PRGs, to render any (unknown) backdoors provably useless. For $k=1$, [21] showed that no deterministic immunization is possible, but then constructed "seeded" $1$-immunizer either in the random oracle model, or under strong non-falsifiable assumptions. As our first result, we show that no seeded $1$-immunization scheme can be black-box reduced to any efficiently falsifiable assumption. This motivates studying $k$-immunizers for $k\ge 2$, which have an additional advantage of being deterministic (i.e., "seedless"). Indeed, prior work at CCS'17 [37] and CRYPTO'18 [7] gave supporting evidence that simple $k$-immunizers might exist, albeit in slightly different settings. Unfortunately, we show that simple standard model proposals of [37, 7] (including the XOR function [7]) provably do not work in our setting. On a positive, we confirm the intuition of [37] that a (seedless) random oracle is a provably secure $2$-immunizer. On a negative, no (seedless) $2$-immunization scheme can be black-box reduced to any efficiently falsifiable assumption, at least for a large class of natural $2$-immunizers which includes all "cryptographic hash functions." In summary, our results show that $k$-immunizers occupy a peculiar place in the cryptographic world. While they likely exist, and can be made practical and efficient, it is unlikely one can reduce their security to a "clean" standard-model assumption.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Verifying Classic McEliece: examining the role of formal methods in post-quantum cryptography standardisation
Martin Brain, Carlos Cid, Rachel Player, and Wrenna Robson
Developers of computer-aided cryptographic tools are optimistic that formal methods will become a vital part of developing new cryptographic systems. We study the use of such tools to specify and verify the implementation of Classic McEliece, one of the code-based cryptography candidates in the fourth round of the NIST Post-Quantum standardisation Process. From our case study we draw conclusions about the practical applicability of these methods to the development of novel cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
SoK: Collusion-resistant Multi-party Private Set Intersections in the Semi-honest Model
Jelle Vos, Mauro Conti, and Zekeriya Erkin
Private set intersection protocols allow two parties with private sets of data to compute the intersection between them without leaking other information about their sets. These protocols have been studied for almost 20 years, and have been significantly improved over time, reducing both their computation and communication costs. However, when more than two parties want to compute a private set intersection, these protocols are no longer applicable. While extensions exist to the multi-party case, these protocols are significantly less efficient than the two-party case. It remains an open question to design collusion-resistant multi-party private set intersection (MPSI) protocols that come close to the efficiency of two-party protocols. This work is made more difficult by the immense variety in the proposed schemes and the lack of systematization. Moreover, each new work only considers a small subset of previously proposed protocols, leaving out important developments from older works. Finally, MPSI protocols rely on many possible constructions and building blocks that have not been summarized. This work aims to point protocol designers to gaps in research and promising directions, pointing out common security flaws and sketching a frame of reference. To this end, we focus on the semi-honest model. We conclude that current MPSI protocols are not a one-size-fits-all solution, and instead there exist many protocols that each prevail in their own application setting.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Watermarks in the Sand: Impossibility of Strong Watermarking for Generative Models
Hanlin Zhang, Benjamin L. Edelman, Danilo Francati, Daniele Venturi, Giuseppe Ateniese, and Boaz Barak
Watermarking generative models consists of planting a statistical signal (watermark) in a model’s output so that it can be later verified that the output was generated by the given model. A strong watermarking scheme satisfies the property that a computationally bounded attacker cannot erase the watermark without causing significant quality degradation. In this paper, we study the (im)possibility of strong watermarking schemes. We prove that, under well-specified and natural assumptions, strong watermarking is impossible to achieve. This holds even in the private detection algorithm setting, where the watermark insertion and detection algorithms share a secret key, unknown to the attacker. To prove this result, we introduce a generic efficient watermark attack; the attacker is not required to know the private key of the scheme or even which scheme is used. Our attack is based on two assumptions: (1) The attacker has access to a “quality oracle” that can evaluate whether a candidate output is a high-quality response to a prompt, and (2) The attacker has access to a “perturbation oracle” which can modify an output with a nontrivial probability of maintaining quality, and which induces an efficiently mixing random walk on high-quality outputs. We argue that both assumptions can be satisfied in practice by an attacker with weaker computational capabilities than the watermarked model itself, to which the attacker has only black-box access. Furthermore, our assumptions will likely only be easier to satisfy over time as models grow in capabilities and modalities. We demonstrate the feasibility of our attack by instantiating it to attack three existing watermarking schemes for large language models: Kirchenbauer et al. (2023), Kuditipudi et al. (2023), and Zhao et al. (2023). The same attack successfully removes the watermarks planted by all three schemes, with only minor quality degradation.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Beyond Security: Achieving Fairness in Mailmen-Assisted Timed Data Delivery
Shiyu Li, Yuan Zhang, Yaqing Song, Hongbo Liu, Nan Cheng, Hongwei Li, Dahai Tao, and Kan Yang
Timed data delivery is a critical service for time-sensitive applications that allows a sender to deliver data to a recipient, but only be accessible at a specific future time. This service is typically accomplished by employing a set of mailmen to complete the delivery mission. While this approach is commonly used, it is vulnerable to attacks from realistic adversaries, such as a greedy sender (who accesses the delivery service without paying the service charge) and malicious mailmen (who release the data prematurely without being detected). Although some research works have been done to address these adversaries, most of them fail to achieve fairness. In this paper, we formally define the fairness requirement for mailmen-assisted timed data delivery and propose a practical scheme, dubbed DataUber, to achieve fairness. DataUber ensures that honest mailmen receive the service charge, lazy mailmen do not receive the service charge, and malicious mailmen are punished. Specifically, DataUber consists of two key techniques: 1) a new cryptographic primitive, i.e., Oblivious and Verifiable Threshold Secret Sharing (OVTSS), enabling a dealer to distribute a secret among multiple participants in a threshold and verifiable way without knowing any one of the shares, and 2) a smart-contract-based complaint mechanism, allowing anyone to become a reporter to complain about a mailman's misbehavior to a smart contract and receive a reward. Furthermore, we formally prove the security of DataUber and demonstrate its practicality through a prototype implementation.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Decentralized Private Steam Aggregation from Lattices
Uddipana Dowerah and Aikaterini Mitrokotsa
As various industries and government agencies increasingly seek to build quantum computers, the development of post-quantum constructions for different primitives becomes crucial. Lattice-based cryptography is one of the top candidates for constructing quantum-resistant primitives. In this paper, we propose a decentralized Private Stream Aggregation (PSA) protocol based on the Learning with Errors (LWE) problem. PSA allows secure aggregation of time-series data over multiple users without compromising the privacy of the individual data. In almost all previous constructions, a trusted entity is used for the generation of keys. We consider a scenario where the users do not want to rely on a trusted authority. We, therefore, propose a decentralized PSA (DPSA) scheme where each user generates their own keys without the need for a trusted setup. We give a concrete construction based on the hardness of the LWE problem both in the random oracle model and in the standard model.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Improved Distributed RSA Key Generation Using the Miller-Rabin Test
Jakob Burkhardt, Ivan Damgård, Tore Frederiksen, Satrajit Ghosh, and Claudio Orlandi
Secure distributed generation of RSA moduli (e.g., generating $N=pq$ where none of the parties learns anything about $p$ or $q$) is an important cryptographic task, that is needed both in threshold implementations of RSA-based cryptosystems and in other, advanced cryptographic protocols that assume that all the parties have access to a trusted RSA modulo. In this paper, we provide a novel protocol for secure distributed RSA key generation based on the Miller-Rabin test. Compared with the more commonly used Boneh-Franklin test (which requires many iterations), the Miller-Rabin test has the advantage of providing negligible error after even a single iteration of the test for large enough moduli (e.g., $4096$ bits). From a technical point of view, our main contribution is a novel divisibility test which allows to perform the primality test in an efficient way, while keeping $p$ and $q$ secret. Our semi-honest RSA generation protocol uses any underlying secure multiplication protocol in a black-box way, and our protocol can therefore be instantiated in both the honest or dishonest majority setting based on the chosen multiplication protocol. Our semi-honest protocol can be upgraded to protect against active adversaries at low cost using existing compilers. Finally, we provide an experimental evaluation showing that for the honest majority case, our protocol is much faster than Boneh-Franklin.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Auditable Attribute-Based Credentials Scheme and Its Applications in Contact Tracing
Pengfei Wang, Xiangyu Su, Mario Larangeira, and Keisuke Tanaka
Show abstract
During the pandemic, the limited functionality of existing privacy-preserving contact tracing systems highlights the need for new designs. Wang et al. proposed an environmental-adaptive framework (CSS '21) but failed to formalize the security. The similarity between their framework and attribute-based credentials (ABC) inspires us to reconsider contact tracing from the perspective of ABC schemes. In such schemes, users can obtain credentials on attributes from issuers and prove the credentials anonymously (i.e., hiding sensitive information of both user and issuer). This work first extends ABC schemes with auditability, which enables designated auditing authorities to revoke the anonymity of particular issuers. We show a concrete construction by adding a DDH-based ``auditable public key'' mechanism to the Connolly et al.'s ABC scheme (PKC '22). In this work we present three contributions regarding the auditable ABC: (1) we refine the environmental-adaptive contact tracing framework, (2) present a formal treatment which includes game-based security definition and a detailed protocol construction. Finally, (3) we implement our construction to showcase the practicality of our protocol.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
Robust Combiners and Universal Constructions for Quantum Cryptography
Taiga Hiroka, Fuyuki Kitagawa, Ryo Nishimaki, and Takashi Yamakawa
A robust combiner combines many candidates for a cryptographic primitive and generates a new candidate for the same primitive. Its correctness and security hold as long as one of the original candidates satisfies correctness and security. A universal construction is a closely related notion to a robust combiner. A universal construction for a primitive is an explicit construction of the primitive that is correct and secure as long as the primitive exists. It is known that a universal construction for a primitive can be constructed from a robust combiner for the primitive in many cases. Although robust combiners and universal constructions for classical cryptography are widely studied, robust combiners and universal constructions for quantum cryptography have not been explored so far. In this work, we define robust combiners and universal constructions for several quantum cryptographic primitives including one-way state generators, public-key quantum money, quantum bit commitments, and unclonable encryption, and provide constructions of them. On a different note, it was an open problem how to expand the plaintext length of unclonable encryption. In one of our universal constructions for unclonable encryption, we can expand the plaintext length, which resolves the open problem.
Last updated:  2023-11-16
A note on ``HAKECC: highly efficient authentication and key agreement scheme based on ECDH for RFID in IOT environment''
Zhengjun Cao
We show that the Nikooghadam-Shahriari-Saeidi authentication and key agreement scheme [J. Inf. Secur. Appl., 76, 103523 (2023)] cannot resist impersonation attack, not as claimed. An adversary can impersonate the RFID reader to cheat the RFID tag. The drawback results from its simple secret key invoking mechanism. We also find it seems difficult to revise the scheme due to the inherent flaw.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
On the Feasibility of E2E Verifiable Online Voting – A Case Study From Durga Puja Trial
Horia Druliac, Matthew Bardsley, Chris Riches, Christian Dunn, Luke Harrison, Bimal Roy, and Feng Hao
India is the largest democracy by population and has one of the largest deployments of e-voting in the world for national elections. However, the e-voting machines used in India are not end-to-end (E2E) verifiable. The inability to verify the tallying integrity of an election by the public leaves the outcome open to disputes. E2E verifiable e-voting systems are commonly regarded as the most promising solution to address this problem, but they had not been implemented or trialed in India. It was unclear whether such systems would be usable and practical to the Indian people. Previous works such as Helios require a set of tallying authorities (TAs) to perform the decryption and tallying operations, but finding and managing TAs can prove difficult. This paper presents a TA-free E2E verifiable online voting system based on the DRE-ip protocol. In collaboration with the local authority of New Town, Kolkata, India, we conducted an online voting trial as part of the 2022 Durga Puja festival celebration, during which residents of New Town were invited to use mobile phones to vote for their favourite pujas (festival decorations) in an E2E verifiable manner. 543 participants attended the Durga Puja trial and 95 of them provided feedback by filling in an anonymous survey after voting. Based on the voter feedback, participants generally found the system easy to use. This was the first time that an E2E online voting system had been built and tested in India, suggesting its feasibility for non-statutory voting scenarios.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
A Comprehensive Survey on Non-Invasive Fault Injection Attacks
Amit Mazumder Shuvo, Tao Zhang, Farimah Farahmandi, and Mark Tehranipoor
Non-invasive fault injection attacks have emerged as significant threats to a spectrum of microelectronic systems ranging from commodity devices to high-end customized processors. Unlike their invasive counterparts, these attacks are more affordable and can exploit system vulnerabilities without altering the hardware physically. Furthermore, certain non-invasive fault injection strategies allow for remote vulnerability exploitation without the requirement of physical proximity. However, existing studies lack extensive investigation into these attacks across diverse target platforms, threat models, emerging attack strategies, assessment frameworks, and mitigation approaches. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of contemporary research on non-invasive fault injection attacks. Our objective is to consolidate and scrutinize the various techniques, methodologies, target systems susceptible to the attacks, and existing mitigation mechanisms advanced by the research community. Besides, we categorize attack strategies based on several aspects, present a detailed comparison among the categories, and highlight research challenges with future direction. By underlining and discussing the landscape of cutting-edge, non-invasive fault injection, we hope more researchers, designers, and security professionals examine the attacks further and take such threats into consideration while developing effective countermeasures.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
The Impact of Hash Primitives and Communication Overhead for Hardware-Accelerated SPHINCS+
Patrick Karl, Jonas Schupp, and Georg Sigl
SPHINCS+ is a signature scheme included in the first NIST post-quantum standard, that bases its security on the underlying hash primitive. As most of the runtime of SPHINCS+ is caused by the evaluation of several hash- and pseudo-random functions, instantiated via the hash primitive, offloading this computation to dedicated hardware accelerators is a natural step. In this work, we evaluate different architectures for hardware acceleration of such a hash primitive with respect to its use-case and evaluate them in the context of SPHINCS+. We attach hardware accelerators for different hash primitives (SHAKE256 and Asconxof for both full and round-reduced versions) to CPU interfaces having different transfer speeds. We show, that for most use-cases, data transfer determines the overall performance if accelerators are equipped with FIFOs.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
$\mathsf{Skye}$: An Expanding PRF based Fast KDF and its Applications
Amit Singh Bhati, Antonin Dufka, Elena Andreeva, Arnab Roy, and Bart Preneel
A Key Derivation Function (KDF) generates a uniform and highly random key-stream from weakly random key material. KDFs are broadly used in various security protocols such as digital signatures and key exchange protocols. HKDF, the most deployed KDF in practice, is based on the extract-then-expand paradigm. It is presently used, among others, in the Signal Protocol for end-to-end encrypted messaging. HKDF is a generic KDF for general input sources and thus is not optimized for source-specific use cases such as key derivation from Diffie-Hellman (DH) sources (i.e. DH shared secrets as key material). Furthermore, the sequential HKDF design is unnecessarily slow on some general-purpose platforms that can benefit from parallelization. In this work, we propose a novel, efficient and secure KDF called $\mathsf{Skye}$. $\mathsf{Skye}$ follows the extract-then-expand paradigm and consists of two algorithms: efficient deterministic randomness extractor and expansion functions. Instantiating our extractor for dedicated source-specific (e.g. DH sources) inputs leads to a significant efficiency gain over HKDF while maintaining the security level. We provide concrete security analysis of $\mathsf{Skye}$ and both its algorithms in the standard model. We provide a software performance comparison of $\mathsf{Skye}$ with the AES-based expanding PRF $\mathsf{ButterKnife}$ and HKDF with SHA-256 (as used in practice). Our results show that in isolation $\mathsf{Skye}$ performs from $4\text{x}$ to $47\text{x}$ faster than HKDF, depending on the availability of AES or SHA instruction support. We further demonstrate that with such a performance gain, when $\mathsf{Skye}$ is integrated within the current Signal implementation, we can achieve significant overall improvements ranging from $38\%$ to $64\%$ relative speedup in unidirectional messaging. Even in bidirectional messaging, that includes DH computation with dominating computational cost, $\mathsf{Skye}$ still contributes to $12$-$36\%$ relative speedup when just $10$ messages are sent and received at once.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
On Time-Space Lower Bounds for Finding Short Collisions in Sponge Hash Functions
Akshima, Xiaoqi Duan, Siyao Guo, and Qipeng Liu
Sponge paradigm, used in the design of SHA-3, is an alternative hashing technique to the popular Merkle-Damgård paradigm. We revisit the problem of finding $B$-block-long collisions in sponge hash functions in the auxiliary-input random permutation model, in which an attacker gets a piece of $S$-bit advice about the random permutation and makes $T$ (forward or inverse) oracle queries to the random permutation. Recently, significant progress has been made in the Merkle-Damgård setting and optimal bounds are known for a large range of parameters, including all constant values of $B$. However, the sponge setting is widely open: there exist significant gaps between known attacks and security bounds even for $B=1$. Freitag, Ghoshal and Komargodski (CRYPTO 2022) showed a novel attack for $B=1$ that takes advantage of the inverse queries and achieves advantage $\tilde{\Omega}(\min(S^2T^2/2^{2c}$, $ (S^2T/2^{2c})^{2/3})+T^2/2^r)$, where $r$ is bit-rate and $c$ is the capacity of the random permutation. However, they only showed an $\tilde{O}(ST/2^c+T^2/2^r)$ security bound, leaving open an intriguing quadratic gap. For $B=2$, they beat the general security bound by Coretti, Dodis, Guo (CRYPTO 2018) for arbitrary values of $B$. However, their highly non-trivial argument is quite laborious, and no better (than the general) bounds are known for $B\geq 3$. In this work, we study the possibility of proving better security bounds in the sponge setting. To this end, - For $B=1$, we prove an improved $\tilde{O}(S^2T^2/2^{2c}+S/2^c+T/2^c+T^2/2^r)$ bound. Our bound strictly improves the bound by Freitag et al., and is optimal for $ST^2\leq 2^c$. - For $B=2$, we give a considerably simpler and more modular proof, recovering the bound obtained by Freitag et al. - We obtain our bounds by adapting the recent multi-instance technique of Akshima, Guo and Liu (CRYPTO 2022) which bypasses the limitations of prior techniques in the Merkle-Damgård setting. To complement our results, we provably show that the recent multi-instance technique cannot further improve our bounds for $B=1,2$, and the general bound by Correti et al., for $B\geq 3$. Overall, our results yield state-of-the-art security bounds for finding short collisions and fully characterize the power of the multi-instance technique in the sponge setting.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
On the security of REDOG
Tanja Lange, Alex Pellegrini, and Alberto Ravagnani
We analyze REDOG, a public-key encryption system submitted to the Korean competition on post-quantum cryptography. REDOG is based on rank-metric codes. We prove its incorrectness and attack its implementation, providing an efficient message recovery attack. Furthermore, we show that the security of REDOG is much lower than claimed. We then proceed to mitigate these issues and provide two approaches to fix the decryption issue, one of which also leads to better security.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Non-Interactive Threshold BBS+ From Pseudorandom Correlations
Sebastian Faust, Carmit Hazay, David Kretzler, and Benjamin Schlosser
The BBS+ signature scheme is one of the most prominent solutions for realizing anonymous credentials. Its prominence is due to properties like selective disclosure and efficient protocols for creating and showing possession of credentials. Traditionally, a single credential issuer produces BBS+ signatures, which poses significant risks due to a single point of failure. In this work, we address this threat via a novel $t$-out-of-$n$ threshold BBS+ protocol. Our protocol supports an arbitrary security threshold $t \leq n$ and works in the so-called preprocessing setting. In this setting, we achieve non-interactive signing in the online phase and sublinear communication complexity in the number of signatures in the offline phase, which, as we show in this work, are important features from a practical point of view. As it stands today, none of the widely studied signature schemes, such as threshold ECDSA and threshold Schnorr, achieve both properties simultaneously. To this end, we design specifically tailored presignatures that can be directly computed from pseudorandom correlations and allow servers to create signature shares without additional cross-server communication. Both our offline and online protocols are actively secure in the Universal Composability model. Finally, we evaluate the concrete efficiency of our protocol, including an implementation of the online phase. The online protocol without network latency takes less than $15 ms$ for $t \leq 30$ and credentials sizes up to $10$. Further, our results indicate that the influence of $t$ on the online signing is insignificant, $< 6 \%$ for $t \leq 30$, and the overhead of the thresholdization occurs almost exclusively in the offline phase.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Introducing Clapoti(s): Evaluating the isogeny class group action in polynomial time
Aurel Page and Damien Robert
In this short note, we present a simplified (but slower) version Clapoti of Clapotis, whose full description will appear later. Let 𝐸/𝔽_𝑞 be an elliptic curve with an effective primitive orientation by a quadratic imaginary order 𝑅 ⊂ End(𝐸). Let 𝔞 be an invertible ideal in 𝑅. Clapoti is a randomized polynomial time algorithm in 𝑂 ((log Δ_𝑅 + log 𝑞)^𝑂(1) ) operations to compute the class group action 𝐸 ↦ 𝐸_𝔞 ≃ 𝐸/𝐸[𝔞].
Last updated:  2023-11-15
LowMS: a new rank metric code-based KEM without ideal structure
Nicolas Aragon, Victor Dyseryn, Philippe Gaborit, Pierre Loidreau, Julian Renner, and Antonia Wachter-Zeh
We propose and analyze LowMS, a new rank-based key encapsulation mechanism (KEM). The acronym stands for Loidreau with Multiple Syndromes, since our work combines the cryptosystem of Loidreau (presented at PQCrypto 2017) together with the multiple syndrome approach, that allows to reduce parameters by sending several syndromes with the same error support in one ciphertext. Our scheme is designed without using ideal structures. Considering cryptosystems without such an ideal structure, like the FrodoKEM cryptosystem, is important since structure allows to compress objects, but gives reductions to specific problems whose security may potentially be weaker than for unstructured problems. For 128 bits of security, we propose parameters with a public key size of 4,6KB and a ciphertext size of 1,1KB. To the best of our knowledge, our scheme is the smallest among all existing unstructured post-quantum lattice or code-based algorithms, when taking into account the sum of the public key size and the ciphertext size. In that sense, our scheme is for instance about 4 times shorter than FrodoKEM. Our system relies on the hardness of the Rank Support Learning problem, a well-known variant of the Rank Syndrome Decoding problem, and on the problem of indistinguishability of distorted Gabidulin codes, i.e. Gabidulin codes multiplied by an homogeneous matrix of given rank. The latter problem was introduced by Loidreau in his paper.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Generalized Fuzzy Password-Authenticated Key Exchange from Error Correcting Codes
Jonathan Bootle, Sebastian Faller, Julia Hesse, Kristina Hostáková, and Johannes Ottenhues
Fuzzy Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (fuzzy PAKE) allows cryptographic keys to be generated from authentication data that is both fuzzy and of low entropy. The strong protection against offline attacks offered by fuzzy PAKE opens an interesting avenue towards secure biometric authentication, typo-tolerant password authentication, and automated IoT device pairing. Previous constructions of fuzzy PAKE are either based on Error Correcting Codes (ECC) or generic multi-party computation techniques such as Garbled Circuits. While ECC-based constructions are significantly more efficient, they rely on multiple special properties of error correcting codes such as maximum distance separability and smoothness. We contribute to the line of research on fuzzy PAKE in two ways. First, we identify a subtle but devastating gap in the security analysis of the currently most efficient fuzzy PAKE construction (Dupont et al., Eurocrypt 2018), allowing a man-in-the-middle attacker to test individual password characters. Second, we provide a new fuzzy PAKE scheme based on ECC and PAKE that provides a built-in protection against individual password character guesses and requires fewer, more standard properties of the underlying ECC. Additionally, our construction offers better error correction capabilities than previous ECC-based fuzzy PAKEs.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Faster constant-time evaluation of the Kronecker symbol with application to elliptic curve hashing
Diego F. Aranha, Benjamin Salling Hvass, Bas Spitters, and Mehdi Tibouchi
We generalize the Bernstein-Yang (BY) algorithm for constant-time modular inversion to compute the Kronecker symbol, of which the Jacobi and Legendre symbols are special cases. We start by developing a basic and easy-to-implement divstep version of the algorithm defined in terms of full-precision division steps. We then describe an optimized version due to Hamburg over word-sized inputs, similar to the jumpdivstep version of the BY algorithm, and formally verify its correctness. Along the way, we introduce a number of optimizations for implementing both versions in constant time and at high-speed. The resulting algorithms are particularly suitable for the special case of computing the Legendre symbol with dense prime $p$, where no efficient addition chain is known for the conventional approach by exponentiation to $\frac{p-1}{2}$. This is often the case for the base field of popular pairing-friendly elliptic curves. Our high-speed implementation for a range of parameters shows that the new algorithm is up to 40 times faster than the conventional exponentiation approach, and up to 25.7\% faster than the previous state of the art. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm with an application for hashing to elliptic curves, where the observed savings amount to 14.7\% -- 48.1\% when used for testing quadratic residuosity within the SwiftEC hashing algorithm. We also apply our techniques to the CTIDH isogeny-based key exchange, with savings of 3.5--13.5\%.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
The Non-Uniform Perebor Conjecture for Time-Bounded Kolmogorov Complexity is False
Noam Mazor and Rafael Pass
The Perebor (Russian for “brute-force search”) conjectures, which date back to the 1950s and 1960s are some of the oldest conjectures in complexity theory. The conjectures are a stronger form of the NP ̸ = P conjecture (which they predate) and state that for “meta-complexity” problems, such as the Time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity Problem, and the Minimum Circuit Size Problem, there are no better algorithms than brute force search. In this paper, we disprove the non-uniform version of the Perebor conjecture for the Time-Bounded Kolmogorov complexity problem. We demonstrate that for every polynomial t(·), there exists of a circuit of size $2^{4n/5+o(n)}$ that solves the t(·)-bounded Kolmogorov complexity problem on every instance. Our algorithm is black-box in the description of the Universal Turing Machine employed in the definition of Kolmogorov Complexity, and leverages the characterization of one-way functions through the hardness of the time-bounded Kolmogorov complexity problem of Liu and Pass (FOCS’20), and the time-space trade-off for one-way functions of Fiat and Naor (STOC’91). We additionally demonstrate that no such black-box algorithm can have sub-exponential circuit size. Along the way (and of independent interest), we extend the result of Fiat and Naor and demonstrate that any efficiently computable function can be inverted (with probability 1) by a circuit of size 2^{4n/5+o(n)}; as far as we know, this yields the first formal proof that a non-trivial circuit can invert any efficient function.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Improving and Automating BFV Parameters Selection: An Average-Case Approach
Beatrice Biasioli, Chiara Marcolla, Marco Calderini, and Johannes Mono
The Brakerski/Fan-Vercauteren (BFV) scheme is a state-of-the-art scheme in Fully Homomorphic Encryption based on the Ring Learning with Errors (RLWE) problem. Thus, ciphertexts contain an error that increases with each homomorphic operation and has to stay below a certain threshold for correctness. This can be achieved by setting the ciphertext modulus big enough. On the other hand, a larger ciphertext modulus decreases the level of security and computational efficiency, making parameters selection challenging. Our work aims at improving the bound on the ciphertext modulus, minimizing it. Our main contributions are the following. Primarily, we perform the first average-case analysis of the error growth for the BFV scheme, significantly improving its estimation. For a circuit with multiplicative depth of only 3, our bounds are up to 18.6 bits tighter than previous analyses and within 1.1 bits of the experimentally observed values. Secondly, we give a general way to bound the ciphertext modulus for correct decryption that allows closed formulas. Finally, we use our theoretical advances and propose the first parameter generation tool for the BFV scheme. Here we add support for arbitrary but use-case-specific circuits, as well as the ability to generate easy-to-use code snippets, making our theoretical work accessible to both researchers and practitioners.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Quantum Public-Key Encryption with Tamper-Resilient Public Keys from One-Way Functions
Fuyuki Kitagawa, Tomoyuki Morimae, Ryo Nishimaki, and Takashi Yamakawa
We construct quantum public-key encryption from one-way functions. In our construction, public keys are quantum, but ciphertexts are classical. Quantum public-key encryption from one-way functions (or weaker primitives such as pseudorandom function-like states) are also proposed in some recent works [Morimae-Yamakawa, eprint:2022/1336; Coladangelo, eprint:2023/282; Barooti-Grilo-Malavolta-Sattath-Vu-Walter, eprint:2023/877]. However, they have a huge drawback: they are secure only when quantum public keys can be transmitted to the sender (who runs the encryption algorithm) without being tampered with by the adversary, which seems to require unsatisfactory physical setup assumptions such as secure quantum channels. Our construction is free from such a drawback: it guarantees the secrecy of the encrypted messages even if we assume only unauthenticated quantum channels. Thus, the encryption is done with adversarially tampered quantum public keys. Our construction is the first quantum public-key encryption that achieves the goal of classical public-key encryption, namely, to establish secure communication over insecure channels, based only on one-way functions. Moreover, we show a generic compiler to upgrade security against chosen plaintext attacks (CPA security) into security against chosen ciphertext attacks (CCA security) only using one-way functions. As a result, we obtain CCA secure quantum public-key encryption based only on one-way functions.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Distributed Differential Privacy via Shuffling vs Aggregation: a Curious Study
Yu Wei, Jingyu Jia, Yuduo Wu, Changhui Hu, Changyu Dong, Zheli Liu, Xiaofeng Chen, Yun Peng, and Shaowei Wang
How to achieve distributed differential privacy (DP) without a trusted central party is of great interest in both theory and practice. Recently, the shuffle model has attracted much attention. Unlike the local DP model in which the users send randomized data directly to the data collector/analyzer, in the shuffle model an intermediate untrusted shuffler is introduced to randomly permute the data, which have already been randomized by the users, before they reach the analyzer. The most appealing aspect is that while shuffling does not explicitly add more noise to the data, it can make privacy better. The privacy amplification effect in consequence means the users need to add less noise to the data than in the local DP model, but can achieve the same level of differential privacy. Thus, protocols in the shuffle model can provide better accuracy than those in the local DP model. What looks interesting to us is that the architecture of the shuffle model is similar to private aggregation, which has been studied for more than a decade. In private aggregation, locally randomized user data are aggregated by an intermediate untrusted aggregator. Thus, our question is whether aggregation also exhibits some sort of privacy amplification effect? And if so, how good is this ``aggregation model'' in comparison with the shuffle model. We conducted the first comparative study between the two, covering privacy amplification, functionalities, protocol accuracy, and practicality. The results as yet suggest that the new shuffle model does not have obvious advantages over the old aggregation model. On the contrary, protocols in the aggregation model outperform those in the shuffle model, sometimes significantly, in many aspects.
Last updated:  2023-11-15
Secure Transformer Inference
Mu Yuan, Lan Zhang, and Xiang-Yang Li
We present a three-party protocol that can protect both Transformer parameters and user data during the inference phase. For each feedforward inference process, our protocol only introduces permutation computation of input and output data on the user side. Our protocol, Secure Transformer Inference Protocol (STIP), can be applied to real-world services like ChatGPT.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
An Algorithmic Approach to $(2,2)$-isogenies in the Theta Model and Applications to Isogeny-based Cryptography
Pierrick Dartois, Luciano Maino, Giacomo Pope, and Damien Robert
In this paper, we describe an algorithm to compute chains of $(2,2)$-isogenies between products of elliptic curves in the theta model. The description of the algorithm is split into various subroutines to allow for a precise field operation counting. We present a constant time implementation of our algorithm in Rust and an alternative implementation in SageMath. Our work in SageMath runs ten times faster than a comparable implementation of an isogeny chain using the Richelot correspondence. The Rust implementation runs up to forty times faster than the equivalent isogeny in SageMath and has been designed to be portable for future research in higher-dimensional isogeny-based cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
Biscuit: New MPCitH Signature Scheme from Structured Multivariate Polynomials
Luk Bettale, Delaram Kahrobaei, Ludovic Perret, and Javier Verbel
This paper describes Biscuit, a new multivariate-based signature scheme derived using the MPCitH approach. The security of Biscuit is related to the problem of solving a set of quadratic structured systems of algebraic equations. These equations are highly compact and can be evaluated using very few multiplications. The core of Biscuit is a rather simple MPC protocol which consists of the parallel execution of a few secure multiplications using standard optimized multiplicative triples. This paper also includes several improvements with respect to Biscuit submission to the last NIST PQC standardization process for additional signature schemes. Notably, we introduce a new hypercube variant of Biscuit, refine the security analysis with recent third-party attacks, and present a new avx2 implementation of Biscuit.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
Oblivious Homomorphic Encryption
Osman Biçer and Christian Tschudin
In this paper, we introduce Oblivious Homomorphic Encryption (OHE) which provably separates the computation spaces of multiple clients of a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) service while keeping the evaluator blind about whom a result belongs. We justify the importance of this strict isolation property of OHE by showing an attack on a recently proposed key-private cryptocurrency scheme. Our two OHE constructions are based on a puncturing function where the evaluator can effectively mask ciphertexts from rogue and potentially colluding clients. In the first construction OHE1, we show that this can be im- plemented via an FHE scheme (with key privacy and weak wrong-key decryption properties) plus an anonymous commitment scheme. The second construction OHE2, for flexibility of primitive choice, achieves this via a combination of a standard FHE scheme, an encryption scheme with key privacy and weak wrong-key decryption, and an anonymous commitment scheme. OHE can be used to provide provable anonymity to cloud applications, single server implementations of anonymous messaging as well as account-based cryptocurrencies.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
Linked Fault Analysis
Ali Asghar Beigizad, Hadi Soleimany, Sara Zarei, and Hamed Ramzanipour
Numerous fault models have been developed, each with distinct characteristics and effects. These models should be evaluated in light of their costs, repeatability, and practicability. Moreover, there must be effective ways to use the injected fault to retrieve the secret key, especially if there are some countermeasures in the implementation. In this paper, we introduce a new fault analysis technique called ``linked fault analysis'' (LFA), which can be viewed as a more powerful version of well-known fault attacks against implementations of symmetric primitives in various circumstances, especially software implementations. For known fault analyses, the bias over the faulty value or the relationship between the correct value and the faulty one, both produced by the fault injection serve as the foundations for the fault model. In the LFA, however, a single fault involves two intermediate values. The faulty target variable, $u'$, is linked to a second variable, $v$, such that a particular relation holds: $u'=l(v)$. We show that LFA lets the attacker perform fault attacks without the input control, with much fewer data than previously introduced fault attacks in the same class. Also, we show two approaches, called LDFA and LIFA, that show how LFA can be utilized in the presence or absence of typical redundant-based countermeasures. Finally, we demonstrate that LFA is still effective, but under specific circumstances, even when masking protections are in place. We performed our attacks against the public implementation of AES in ATMEGA328p to show how LFA works in the real world. The practical results and simulations validate our theoretical models as well.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
Non-Interactive Zero-Knowledge Functional Proofs
Gongxian Zeng, Junzuo Lai, Zhengan Huang, Linru Zhang, Xiangning Wang, Kwok-Yan Lam, Huaxiong Wang, and Jian Weng
In this paper, we consider to generalize NIZK by empowering a prover to share a witness in a fine-grained manner with verifiers. Roughly, the prover is able to authorize a verifier to obtain extra information of witness, i.e., besides verifying the truth of the statement, the verifier can additionally obtain certain function of the witness from the accepting proof using a secret functional key provided by the prover. To fulfill these requirements, we introduce a new primitive called \emph{non-interactive zero-knowledge functional proofs (fNIZKs)}, and formalize its security notions. We provide a generic construction of fNIZK for any $\textsf{NP}$ relation $\mathcal{R}$, which enables the prover to share any function of the witness with a verifier. For a widely-used relation about set membership proof (implying range proof), we construct a concrete and efficient fNIZK, through new building blocks (set membership encryption and dual inner-product encryption), which might be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
Delegated Private Matching for Compute
Dimitris Mouris, Daniel Masny, Ni Trieu, Shubho Sengupta, Prasad Buddhavarapu, and Benjamin Case
Private matching for compute (PMC) establishes a match between two datasets owned by mutually distrusted parties ($C$ and $P$) and allows the parties to input more data for the matched records for arbitrary downstream secure computation without rerunning the private matching component. The state-of-the-art PMC protocols only support two parties and assume that both parties can participate in computationally intensive secure computation. We observe that such operational overhead limits the adoption of these protocols to solely powerful entities as small data owners or devices with minimal computing power will not be able to participate. We introduce two protocols to delegate PMC from party $P$ to untrusted cloud servers, called delegates, allowing multiple smaller $P$ parties to provide inputs containing identifiers and associated values. Our Delegated Private Matching for Compute protocols, called DPMC and D$_s$PMC, establish a join between the datasets of party $C$ and multiple delegators $P$ based on multiple identifiers and compute secret shares of associated values for the identifiers that the parties have in common. We introduce a rerandomizable encrypted oblivious pseudorandom function (OPRF) primitive, called EO, which allows two parties to encrypt, mask, and shuffle their data. Note that EO may be of independent interest. Our D$_s$PMC protocol limits the leakages of DPMC by combining our EO scheme and secure three-party shuffling. Finally, our implementation demonstrates the efficiency of our constructions by outperforming related works by approximately $10\times$ for the total protocol execution and by at least $20\times$ for the computation on the delegators.
Last updated:  2023-11-14
Pulsar: Secure Steganography through Diffusion Models
Tushar M. Jois, Gabrielle Beck, and Gabriel Kaptchuk
Widespread efforts to subvert acccess to strong cryptography has renewed interest in steganography, the practice of embedding sensitive messages in mundane cover messages. Recent efforts at provably secure steganography have only focused on text-based generative models and cannot support other types of models, such as diffusion models, which are used for high-quality image synthesis. In this work, we initiate the study of securely embedding steganographic messages into the output of image diffusion models. We identify that the use of variance noise during image generation provides a suitable steganographic channel. We develop our construction, Pulsar, by building optimizations to make this channel practical for communication. Our implementation of Pulsar is capable of embedding $\approx 275$-$542$ bytes (on average) into a single image without altering the distribution of the generated image, all in the span of $\approx 3$ seconds of online time on a laptop. In addition, we discuss how the results of Pulsar can inform future research into diffusion models. Pulsar shows that diffusion models are a promising medium for steganography and censorship resistance.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
How to Use Quantum Indistinguishability Obfuscation
Andrea Coladangelo and Sam Gunn
Quantum copy protection, introduced by Aaronson, enables giving out a quantum program-description that cannot be meaningfully duplicated. Despite over a decade of study, copy protection is only known to be possible for a very limited class of programs. As our first contribution, we show how to achieve "best-possible" copy protection for all programs. We do this by introducing quantum state indistinguishability obfuscation (qsiO), a notion of obfuscation for quantum descriptions of classical programs. We show that applying qsiO to a program immediately achieves best-possible copy protection. Our second contribution is to show that, assuming injective one-way functions exist, qsiO is concrete copy protection for a large family of puncturable programs --- significantly expanding the class of copy-protectable programs. A key tool in our proof is a new variant of unclonable encryption (UE) that we call coupled unclonable encryption (cUE). While constructing UE in the standard model remains an important open problem, we are able to build cUE from one-way functions. If we additionally assume the existence of UE, then we can further expand the class of puncturable programs for which qsiO is copy protection. Finally, we construct qsiO relative to an efficient quantum oracle.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
Zombie: Middleboxes that Don’t Snoop
Collin Zhang, Zachary DeStefano, Arasu Arun, Joseph Bonneau, Paul Grubbs, and Michael Walfish
Zero-knowledge middleboxes (ZKMBs) are a recent paradigm in which clients get privacy while middleboxes enforce policy: clients prove in zero knowledge that the plaintext underlying their encrypted traffic complies with network policies, such as DNS filtering. However, prior work had impractically poor performance and was limited in functionality. This work presents Zombie, the first system built using the ZKMB paradigm. Zombie introduces techniques that push ZKMBs to the verge of practicality: preprocessing (to move the bulk of proof generation to idle times between requests), asynchrony (to remove proving and verifying costs from the critical path), and batching (to amortize some of the verification work). Zombie’s choices, together with these techniques, reduce client and middlebox overhead by $\approx$ 3.5$\times$ lowering the critical path overhead for a DNS filtering application on commodity hardware to less than 300ms or, in the asynchronous configuration, to 0. As an additional contribution that is likely of independent interest, Zombie introduces a portfolio of techniques to efficiently encode regular expressions in probabilistic (and zero knowledge) proofs; these techniques offer significant asymptotic and constant factor improvements in performance over a standard baseline. Zombie builds on this portfolio to support policies based on regular expressions, such as data loss prevention.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
Arke: Scalable and Byzantine Fault Tolerant Privacy-Preserving Contact Discovery
Nicolas Mohnblatt, Alberto Sonnino, Kobi Gurkan, and Philipp Jovanovic
Contact discovery is a crucial component of social applications, facilitating interactions between registered contacts. This work introduces Arke, a novel approach to contact discovery that addresses the limitations of existing solutions in terms of privacy, scalability, and reliance on trusted third parties. Arke ensures the unlinkability of user interactions, mitigates enumeration attacks, and operates without single points of failure or trust. Notably, Arke is the first contact discovery system whose performance is independent of the total number of users and the first that can operate in a Byzantine setting. It achieves its privacy goals through an unlinkable handshake mechanism built on top of an identity-based non-interactive key exchange. By leveraging a custom distributed architecture, Arke forgoes the expense of consensus to achieve scalability while maintaining consistency in a Byzantine fault tolerant environment. Performance evaluations demonstrate that Arke can support enough throughput to operate at a planetary scale while maintaining sub-second latencies in a large geo-distributed setting.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
Deterministic Byzantine Agreement with Adaptive $O(n\cdot f)$ Communication
Fatima Elsheimy, Giorgos Tsimos, and Charalampos Papamanthou
We present a deterministic synchronous protocol for binary Byzantine Agreement against a corrupt minority with adaptive $O(n\cdot f)$ communication complexity, where $f$ is the exact number of corruptions. Our protocol improves the previous best-known deterministic Byzantine Agreement protocol developed by Momose and Ren (DISC 2021), whose communication complexity is quadratic, independent of the exact number of corruptions. Our approach combines two distinct primitives that we introduce and implement with $O(n\cdot f)$ communication, Reliable Voting, and Weak Byzantine Agreement. In Reliable Voting, all honest parties agree on the same value only if all honest parties start with that value, but there is no agreement guarantee in the general case. In Weak Byzantine Agreement, we achieve agreement, but validity requires that the inputs to the protocol satisfy certain properties. Our Weak Byzantine Agreement protocol is an adaptation of the recent Cohen et al. protocol (OPODIS 2022), in which we identify and address various issues.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
HashRand: Efficient Asynchronous Random Beacon without Threshold Cryptographic Setup
Akhil Bandarupalli, Adithya Bhat, Saurabh Bagchi, Aniket Kate, and Michael Reiter
Regular access to unpredictable and bias-resistant randomness is important for applications such as blockchains, voting, and secure distributed computing. Distributed random beacon protocols address this need by distributing trust across multiple nodes, with the majority of them assumed to be honest. These protocols have found applications in blockchain technology, leading to the proposal of several distributed random beacon protocols, with some already implemented. However, many current random beacon systems rely on threshold cryptographic setups or exhibit high computational costs, while others assume partial or bounded synchronous networks. To overcome these limitations, we propose HashRand, a computation and communication-efficient asynchronous random beacon protocol that uses a secure Hash function to generate beacons and pairwise secure channels. HashRand has a per-node communication complexity of $\mathcal{O}(\lambda n \log(n))$ bits per beacon. The computational efficiency of HashRand is attributed to the two orders of magnitude lower time of a one-way Hash computation compared to discrete log exponentiation. Interestingly, besides reduced overhead, HashRand achieves Post-Quantum security by leveraging the secure Hash function against quantum adversaries, setting it apart from other random beacon protocols that use discrete log cryptography. In a geo-distributed testbed of $n=160$ nodes, HashRand produces 1 beacon every second, which is at least 4x higher than Spurt. We also demonstrate the practical utility of HashRand by implementing a Post-Quantum secure Asynchronous SMR protocol, which has a response rate of over 122k txns per second over a WAN at $n=40$ nodes.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
That’s not my signature! Fail-stop signatures for a post-quantum world
Cecilia Boschini, Hila Dahari, Moni Naor, and Eyal Ronen
The Snowden's revelations kick-started a community-wide effort to develop cryptographic tools against mass surveillance. In this work, we propose to add another primitive to that toolbox: Fail-Stop Signatures (FSS) [EC'89]. FSS are digital signatures enhanced with a forgery-detection mechanism that can protect a PPT signer from more powerful attackers. Despite the fascinating concept, research in this area stalled after the '90s. However, the ongoing transition to post-quantum cryptography, with its hiccups due to the novelty of underlying assumptions, has become the perfect use case for FSS. This paper aims to reboot research on FSS with practical use in mind: Our framework for FSS includes ``fine-grained'' security definitions (that assume a powerful, but bounded adversary e.g: can break $128$-bit of security, but not $256$-bit). As an application, we show new FSS constructions for the post-quantum setting. We show that FSS are equivalent to standard, provably secure digital signatures that do not require rewinding or programming random oracles, and that this implies lattice-based FSS. Our main construction is an FSS version of SPHINCS, which required building FSS versions of all its building blocks: WOTS, XMSS, and FORS. In the process, we identify and provide generic solutions for two fundamental issues arising when deriving a large number of private keys from a single seed, and when building FSS for Hash-and-Sign-based signatures.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
Zero-Value Filtering for Accelerating Non-Profiled Side-Channel Attack on Incomplete NTT based Implementations of Lattice-based Cryptography
Tolun Tosun and Erkay Savas
Lattice-based cryptographic schemes such as Crystals-Kyber and Dilithium are post-quantum algorithms selected to be standardized by NIST as they are considered to be secure against quantum computing attacks. The multiplication in polynomial rings is the most time-consuming operation in many lattice-based cryptographic schemes, which is also subject to side-channel attacks. While NTT-based polynomial multiplication is almost a norm in a wide range of implementations, a relatively new method, incomplete NTT is preferred to accelerate lattice-based cryptography, especially on some computing platforms that feature special instructions. In this paper, we present a novel, efficient and non-profiled power/EM side-channel attack targeting polynomial multiplication based on the incomplete NTT algorithm. We apply the attack on the Crystals-Dilithium signature algorithm and Crystals-Kyber KEM. We demonstrate that the method accelerates attack run-time when compared to the existing approaches. While a conventional non-profiled side-channel attack tests a much larger hypothesis set because it needs to predict two coefficients of secret polynomials together, we propose a much faster zero-value filtering attack (ZV-FA), which reduces the size of the hypothesis set by targeting the coefficients individually. We also propose an effective and efficient validation and correction technique employing the inverse NTT to estimate and modify the mispredicted coefficients. Our experimental results show that we can achieve a speed-up of 1915x over brute-force.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
PIRANA: Faster Multi-query PIR via Constant-weight Codes
Jian Liu, Jingyu Li, Di Wu, and Kui Ren
Private information retrieval (PIR) is a cryptographic protocol that enables a wide range of privacy-preserving applications. Despite being extensively studied for decades, it is still not efficient enough to be used in practice. In this paper, we propose a novel PIR protocol named PIRANA, based on the recent advances in constant-weight codes. It is up to 188.6× faster than the original constant-weight PIR (presented in Usenix SEC '22). Most importantly, PIRANA naturally supports multi-query. It allows a client to retrieve a batch of elements from the server with a very small extra-cost compared to retrieving a single element, which results in up to an 14.4× speedup over the state-of-the-art multi-query PIR (presented in Oakland '23). We also discuss a way to extend PIRANA to labeled private set intersection (LPSI). Compared with existing LPSI protocols, PIRANA is more friendly to the scenarios where the database updates frequently.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
Formal verification of the post-quantum security properties of IKEv2 PPK (RFC 8784) using the Tamarin Prover
Sophie Stevens
The Internet Key Exchange version 2 (IKEv2) (RFC 7296) is a component of IPsec used to authenticate two parties (the initiator and responder) to each other and to establish a set of security parameters for the communications. The security parameters include secret keys to encrypt and authenticate data as well as the negotiation of a set of cryptographic algorithms. The core documentation uses exclusively Diffie-Hellman exchanges to agree the security information. However, this is not a quantum-secure option due to the ability of Shor's algorithm to break the security assumption underlying the Diffie-Hellman. A post-quantum solution is to include a preshared key in the exchange, as proposed by the extension RFC 8784; assuming that this preshared key has sufficient entropy, the keys created in the IKEv2 exchange will be resistant to a quantum computer. In this paper, we investigate the security claims of RFC 8784 using formal verification methods. We find that keys created using the preshared key are secret from an adversary. However, certain authentication properties of the protocol that are weakened under the assumption that Diffie-Hellman is insecure are not recovered using the preshared key.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
Secure Encryption and Key Exchange using Arbiter PUF
Raja Adhithan Radhakrishnan
Show abstract
This paper introduces a novel approach to enhancing cryp- tographic security. It proposes the use of one-time message sharing com- bined with Physically Unclonable Functions (PUF) to securely exchange keys and generate an S-subbyte-box for encryption. This innovative tech- nique aims to elevate the security standards of cryptographic applica- tions.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
G+G: A Fiat-Shamir Lattice Signature Based on Convolved Gaussians
Julien Devevey, Alain Passelègue, and Damien Stehlé
We describe an adaptation of Schnorr's signature to the lattice setting, which relies on Gaussian convolution rather than flooding or rejection sampling as previous approaches. It does not involve any abort, can be proved secure in the ROM and QROM using existing analyses of the Fiat-Shamir transform, and enjoys smaller signature sizes (both asymptotically and for concrete security levels).
Last updated:  2023-11-13
A Statistical Verification Method of Random Permutations for Hiding Countermeasure Against Side-Channel Attacks
Jong-Yeon Park, Jang-Won Ju, Wonil Lee, Bo-Gyeong Kang, Yasuyuki Kachi, and Kouichi Sakurai
As NIST is putting the final touches on the standardization of PQC (Post Quantum Cryptography) public key algorithms, it is a racing certainty that peskier cryptographic attacks undeterred by those new PQC algorithms will surface. Such a trend in turn will prompt more follow-up studies of attacks and countermeasures. As things stand, from the attackers’ perspective, one viable form of attack that can be implemented thereupon is the so-called “side-channel attack”. Two best-known countermeasures heralded to be durable against side-channel attacks are: “masking” and “hiding”. In that dichotomous picture, of particular note are successful single-trace attacks on some of the NIST’s PQC then-candidates, which worked to the detriment of the former: “masking”. In this paper, we cast an eye over the latter: “hiding”. Hiding proves to be durable against both side-channel attacks and another equally robust type of attacks called “fault injection attacks”, and hence is deemed an auspicious countermeasure to be implemented. Mathematically, the hiding method is fundamentally based on random permutations. There has been a cornucopia of studies on generating random permutations. However, those are not tied to implementation of the hiding method. In this paper, we propose a reliable and efficient verification of permutation implementation, through employing Fisher–Yates’ shuffling method. We introduce the concept of an 𝑛-th order permutation and explain how it can be used to verify that our implementation is more efficient than its previous-gen counterparts for hiding countermeasures.
Last updated:  2023-11-13
SwiftRange: A Short and Efficient Zero-Knowledge Range Argument For Confidential Transactions and More
Nan Wang, Sid Chi-Kin Chau, and Dongxi Liu
Zero-knowledge range proofs play a critical role in confidential transactions (CT) on blockchain systems. They are used to prove the non-negativity of committed transaction payments without disclosing the exact values. Logarithmic-sized range proofs with transparent setups, e.g., Bulletproofs, which aim to prove a committed value lies in the range $[0, 2^N-1]$ where $N$ is the bit length of the range, have gained growing popularity for communication-critical blockchain systems as they increase scalability by allowing a block to accommodate more transactions. In this paper, we propose SwiftRange, a new type of logarithmic-sized zero-knowledge range argument with a transparent setup in the discrete logarithm setting. Our argument can be a drop-in replacement for range proofs in blockchain-based confidential transactions. Compared with Bulletproofs, our argument has higher computational efficiency and lower round complexity while incurring comparable communication overheads for CT-friendly ranges, where $N \in \{32,64\}$. Specifically, a single SwiftRange achieves 1.73$\times$ and 1.37$\times$ proving efficiency with no more than 1.1$\times$ communication costs for both ranges, respectively. More importantly, our argument is doubly efficient in verification efficiency. Furthermore, our argument has a smaller size when $N \leq 16$, making it competitive for many other communication-critical applications. Our argument supports the aggregation of multiple single arguments for greater efficiency in communication and verification. Finally, we benchmarked our argument against the state-of-the-art range proofs to demonstrate its practicality.
Last updated:  2023-11-12
Dora: Processor Expressiveness is (Nearly) Free in Zero-Knowledge for RAM Programs
Aarushi Goel, Mathias Hall-Andersen, and Gabriel Kaptchuk
Existing protocols for proving the correct execution of a RAM program in zero-knowledge are plagued by a processor expressiveness trade-off : supporting fewer instructions results in smaller processor circuits (which improves performance), but may result in more program execution steps because non-supported instruction must be emulated over multiple processor steps (which diminishes performance). We present Dora, a concretely efficient zero-knowledge protocol for RAM programs that sidesteps this tension by making it (nearly) free to add additional instructions to the processor. The computational and communication complexity of proving each step of a computation in Dora, is constant in the number of supported instructions. Dora is also highly generic and only assumes the existence of linearly homomorphic commitments. We implement Dora and demonstrate that on commodity hardware it can prove the correct execution of a processor with thousands of instruction, each of which has thousands of gates, in just a few milliseconds per step.
Last updated:  2023-11-12
Public-Coin Zero-Knowledge Arguments with (almost) Minimal Time and Space Overheads
Alexander R. Block, Justin Holmgren, Alon Rosen, Ron D. Rothblum, and Pratik Soni
Zero-knowledge protocols enable the truth of a mathematical statement to be certified by a verifier without revealing any other information. Such protocols are a cornerstone of modern cryptography and recently are becoming more and more practical. However, a major bottleneck in deployment is the efficiency of the prover and, in particular, the space-efficiency of the protocol. For every $\mathsf{NP}$ relation that can be verified in time $T$ and space $S$, we construct a public-coin zero-knowledge argument in which the prover runs in time $T \cdot \mathrm{polylog}(T)$ and space $S \cdot \mathrm{polylog}(T)$. Our proofs have length $\mathrm{polylog}(T)$ and the verifier runs in time $T \cdot \mathrm{polylog}(T)$ (and space $\mathrm{polylog}(T)$). Our scheme is in the random oracle model and relies on the hardness of discrete log in prime-order groups. Our main technical contribution is a new space efficient polynomial commitment scheme for multi-linear polynomials. Recall that in such a scheme, a sender commits to a given multi-linear polynomial $P \colon \mathbb{F}^n \rightarrow \mathbb{F}$ so that later on it can prove to a receiver statements of the form "$P(x) = y$". In our scheme, which builds on the commitment schemes of Bootle et al. (Eurocrypt 2016) and Bünz et al. (S&P 2018), we assume that the sender is given multi-pass streaming access to the evaluations of $P$ on the Boolean hypercube and w show how to implement both the sender and receiver in roughly time $2^n$ and space $n$ and with communication complexity roughly $n$.
Last updated:  2023-11-12
Quantum Key Leasing for PKE and FHE with a Classical Lessor
Orestis Chardouvelis, Vipul Goyal, Aayush Jain, and Jiahui Liu
In this work, we consider the problem of secure key leasing, also known as revocable cryptography (Agarwal et. al. Eurocrypt' 23, Ananth et. al. TCC' 23), as a strengthened security notion of its predecessor put forward in Ananth et. al. Eurocrypt' 21. This problem aims to leverage unclonable nature of quantum information to allow a lessor to lease a quantum key with reusability for evaluating a classical functionality. Later, the lessor can request the lessee to provably delete the key and then the lessee will be completely deprived of the capability to evaluate the function. In this work, we construct a secure key leasing scheme to lease a decryption key of a (classical) public-key, homomorphic encryption scheme from standard lattice assumptions. Our encryption scheme is exactly identical to the (primal) version of Gentry-Sahai-Waters homomorphic encryption scheme with a carefully chosen public key matrix. We achieve strong form of security where: * The entire protocol (including key generation and verification of deletion) uses merely classical communication between a classical lessor (client) and a quantum lessee (server). * Assuming standard assumptions, our security definition ensures that every computationally bounded quantum adversary could only simultaneously provide a valid classical deletion certificate and yet distinguish ciphertexts with at most negligible probability. Our security relies on the hardness of learning with errors assumption. Our scheme is the first scheme to be based on a standard assumption and satisfying the two properties mentioned above. The main technical novelty in our work is the design of an FHE scheme that enables us to apply elegant analyses done in the context of classically verifiable proofs of quantumness from LWE (Brakerski et. al.(FOCS'18, JACM'21) and its parallel amplified version in Radian et. al.(AFT'21)) to the setting of secure leasing. This connection leads to a modular construction and arguably simpler proofs than previously known. An important technical component we prove along the way is an amplified quantum search-to-decision reduction: we design an extractor that uses a quantum distinguisher (who has an internal quantum state) for decisional LWE, to extract secrets with success probability amplified to almost one. This technique might be of independent interest.
Last updated:  2023-11-12
Piano: Extremely Simple, Single-Server PIR with Sublinear Server Computation
Mingxun Zhou, Andrew Park, Elaine Shi, and Wenting Zheng
We construct a sublinear-time single-server pre-processing Private Information Retrieval (PIR) scheme with optimal client storage and server computation (up to poly-logarithmic factors), only relying on the assumption of the existence of One Way Functions (OWF). Our scheme achieves amortized $\tilde{O}(\sqrt{n})$ online server computation and client computation and $O(\sqrt{n})$ online communication per query, and requires $\widetilde{O}_\lambda(\sqrt{n})$ client storage. Unlike prior single-server PIR schemes that rely on heavy cryptographic machinery such as Homomorphic Encryption, our scheme only utilizes lightweight cryptography such as PRFs, which is easily instantiated in practice. To our knowledge, this is the first practical implementation of a single-server sublinear-time PIR scheme. Compared to existing linear time single-server solutions, our schemes are faster by $40-900\times$ and are comparable to the fastest two-server schemes. In particular, for a 100GB database of 1.6 billion entries, our experiments show that our scheme has 12ms online computation time on a single core.
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Forging tropical signatures
Lorenz Panny
A recent preprint [ePrint 2023/1475] suggests the use of polynomials over a tropical algebra to construct a digital signature scheme "based on" the problem of factoring such polynomials, which is known to be NP‑hard. This short note presents two very efficient forgery attacks on the scheme, bypassing the need to factorize tropical polynomials and thus demonstrating that security in fact rests on a different, empirically easier problem.
Last updated:  2023-11-11
A masking method based on orthonormal spaces, protecting several bytes against both SCA and FIA with a reduced cost
Claude Carlet, Abderrahman Daif, Sylvain Guilley, and Cédric Tavernier
In the attacker models of Side-Channel Attacks (SCA) and Fault Injection Attacks (FIA), the opponent has access to a noisy version of the internal behavior of the hardware. Since the end of the nineties, many works have shown that this type of attacks constitutes a serious threat to cryptosystems implemented in embedded devices. In the state-of-the-art, there exist several countermeasures to protect symmetric encryption (especially AES-128). Most of them protect only against one of these two attacks (either SCA or FIA). The main known counter-measure against SCA is masking; it makes the complexity of SCA growing exponentially with its order d. The most general version of masking is based on error correcting codes. It has the advantage of offering in principle a protection against both types of attacks (SCA and FIA), but all the functions implemented in the algorithm need to be masked accordingly, and this is not a simple task in general. We propose a particular version of such construction that has several advantages: it has a very low computation complexity, it offers a concrete protection against both SCA and FIA, and finally it allows flexibility: being not specifically dedicated to AES, it can be applied to any block cipher with any S-boxes. In the state-of-art, masking schemes all come with pros and cons concerning the different types of complexity (time, memory, amount of randomness). Our masking scheme concretely achieves the complexity of the best known scheme, for each complexity type
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Quasi-linear masking to protect against both SCA and FIA
Claude Carlet, Abderrahman Daif, Sylvain Guilley, and Cédric Tavernier
The implementation of cryptographic algorithms must be protected against physical attacks. Side-channel and fault injection analyses are two prominent such implem\-entation-level attacks. Protections against either do exist; they are characterized by security orders: the higher the order, the more difficult the attack. In this paper, we leverage fast discrete Fourier transform to reduce the complexity of high-order masking, and extend it to allow for fault detection and/or correction. The security paradigm is that of code-based masking. Coding theory is amenable both to mix the information and masking material at a prescribed order, and to detect and/or correct errors purposely injected by an attacker. For the first time, we show that quasi-linear masking (pioneered by Goudarzi, Joux and Rivain at ASIACRYPT 2018) can be achieved alongside with cost amortisation. This technique consists in masking several symbols/bytes with the same masking material, therefore improving the efficiency of the masking. Similarly, it allows to optimize the detection capability of codes as linear codes are all the more efficient as the information to protect is longer. Namely, we prove mathematically that our scheme features side-channel security order of $d+1-t$, detects $d$ faults and corrects $\lfloor(d-1)/2\rfloor$ faults, where $2d+1$ is the encoding length and $t$ is the information size ($t\geq1$). Applied to AES, one can get side-channel protection of order $d=7$ when masking one column/line ($t=4$ bytes) at once. In addition to the theory, that makes use of the Frobenius Additive Fast Fourier Transform, we show performance results, both in software and hardware.
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Don't Eject the Impostor: Fast Three-Party Computation With a Known Cheater (Full Version)
Andreas Brüggemann, Oliver Schick, Thomas Schneider, Ajith Suresh, and Hossein Yalame
Secure multi-party computation (MPC) enables (joint) computations on sensitive data while maintaining privacy. In real-world scenarios, asymmetric trust assumptions are often most realistic, where one somewhat trustworthy entity interacts with smaller clients. We generalize previous two-party computation (2PC) protocols like MUSE (USENIX Security'21) and SIMC (USENIX Security'22) to the three-party setting (3PC) with one malicious party, avoiding the performance limitations of dishonest-majority inherent to 2PC. We introduce two protocols, Auxiliator and Socium, in a machine learning (ML) friendly design with a fast online phase and novel verification techniques in the setup phase. These protocols bridge the gap between prior 3PC approaches that considered either fully semi-honest or malicious settings. Auxiliator enhances the semi-honest two-party setting with a malicious helper, significantly improving communication by at least two orders of magnitude. Socium extends the client-malicious setting with one malicious client and a semi-honest server, achieving substantial communication improvement by at least one order of magnitude compared to SIMC. Besides an implementation of our new protocols, we provide the first open-source implementation of the semi-honest 3PC protocol ASTRA (CCSW'19) and a variant of the malicious 3PC protocol SWIFT (USENIX Security'21).
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Explicit Lower Bounds for Communication Complexity of PSM for Concrete Functions
Kazumasa Shinagawa and Koji Nuida
Private Simultaneous Messages (PSM) is a minimal model of secure computation, where the input players with shared randomness send messages to the output player simultaneously and only once. In this field, finding upper and lower bounds on communication complexity of PSM protocols is important, and in particular, identifying the optimal one where the upper and lower bounds coincide is the ultimate goal. However, up until now, functions for which the optimal communication complexity has been determined are few: An example of such a function is the two-input AND function where $(2\log_2 3)$-bit communication is optimal. In this paper, we provide new upper and lower bounds for several concrete functions. For lower bounds, we introduce a novel approach using combinatorial objects called abstract simplicial complexes to represent PSM protocols. Our method is suitable for obtaining non-asymptotic explicit lower bounds for concrete functions. By deriving lower bounds and constructing concrete protocols, we show that the optimal communication complexity for the equality and majority functions with three input bits are $3\log_2 3$ bits and $6$ bits, respectively. We also derive new lower bounds for the $n$-input AND function, three-valued comparison function, and multiplication over finite rings.
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Round-Optimal Black-Box Multiparty Computation from Polynomial-Time Assumptions
Michele Ciampi, Rafail Ostrovsky, Luisa Siniscalchi, and Hendrik Waldner
A central direction of research in secure multiparty computation with dishonest majority has been to achieve three main goals: 1. reduce the total number of rounds of communication (to four, which is optimal); 2. use only polynomial-time hardness assumptions, and 3. rely solely on cryptographic assumptions in a black-box manner. This is especially challenging when we do not allow a trusted setup assumption of any kind. While protocols achieving two out of three goals in this setting have been designed in recent literature, achieving all three simultaneously remained an elusive open question. Specifically, it was answered positively only for a restricted class of functionalities. In this paper, we completely resolve this long-standing open question. Specifically, we present a protocol for all polynomial-time computable functions that does not require any trusted setup assumptions and achieves all three of the above goals simultaneously.
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Eureka: A General Framework for Black-box Differential Privacy Estimators
Yun Lu, Yu Wei, Malik Magdon-Ismail, and Vassilis Zikas
Differential privacy (DP) is a key tool in privacy-preserving data analysis. Yet it remains challenging for non-privacy-experts to prove the DP of their algorithms. We propose a methodology for domain experts with limited data privacy background to empirically estimate the privacy of an arbitrary mechanism. Our Eureka moment is a new link---which we prove---between the problems of DP parameter-estimation and Bayes optimal classifiers in ML, which we believe can be of independent interest. Our estimator uses this link to achieve two desirable properties: (1) black-box, i.e., it does not require knowledge of the underlying mechanism, and (2) it has a theoretically-proven accuracy, depending on the underlying classifier used, allowing plug-and-play use of different classifiers. More concretely, motivated by the impossibility of the above task for unrestricted input domains (which we prove), we introduce a natural, application-inspired relaxation of DP which we term relative DP. Intuitively, relative DP defines a mechanism's privacy relative to an input set $T$, circumventing the above impossibility when $T$ is finite. Importantly, it preserves the key intuitive privacy guarantee of DP while enjoying a number of desirable DP properties---scalability, composition, and robustness to post-processing. We then devise a black-box poly-time $(\epsilon,\delta)$-relative DP estimator for any poly-size $T$---the first privacy estimator to support mechanisms with large output spaces while having tight accuracy bounds. As a result of independent interest, we generalize our theory to develop the first Distributional Differential Privacy (DDP) estimator. We benchmark our estimator in a proof-of-concept implementation. First, using kNN as the classifier we show that our method (1) produces a tight, analytically computed $(\epsilon, \delta)$-DP trade-off of low-dimensional Laplace and Gaussian mechanisms---the first to do so, (2) accurately estimates the privacy spectrum of DDP mechanisms, and (3) can verify a DP mechanism's implementations, e.g., Sparse Vector Technique, Noisy Histogram, and Noisy max. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate the potential of our framework, and highlight its computational bottlenecks in estimating DP, e.g., in terms of the size of $\delta$ and the data dimensionality. Our second, neural-network-based instantiation makes a first step in showing that our method can be extended to mechanisms with high-dimensional outputs.
Last updated:  2023-11-11
Pseudorandom Isometries
Prabhanjan Ananth, Aditya Gulati, Fatih Kaleoglu, and Yao-Ting Lin
We introduce a new notion called ${\cal Q}$-secure pseudorandom isometries (PRI). A pseudorandom isometry is an efficient quantum circuit that maps an $n$-qubit state to an $(n+m)$-qubit state in an isometric manner. In terms of security, we require that the output of a $q$-fold PRI on $\rho$, for $ \rho \in {\cal Q}$, for any polynomial $q$, should be computationally indistinguishable from the output of a $q$-fold Haar isometry on $\rho$. By fine-tuning ${\cal Q}$, we recover many existing notions of pseudorandomness. We present a construction of PRIs and assuming post-quantum one-way functions, we prove the security of ${\cal Q}$-secure pseudorandom isometries (PRI) for different interesting settings of ${\cal Q}$. We also demonstrate many cryptographic applications of PRIs, including, length extension theorems for quantum pseudorandomness notions, message authentication schemes for quantum states, multi-copy secure public and private encryption schemes, and succinct quantum commitments.
Last updated:  2023-11-10
Evaluation of Arithmetic Sum-of-Products Expressions in Linear Secret Sharing Schemes with a Non-Interactive Computation Phase
Miguel de Vega, Andrei Lapets, Stanislaw Jarecki, Wicher Malten, Mehmet Ugurbil, and Wyatt Howe
Among secure multi-party computation protocols, linear secret sharing schemes often do not rely on cryptographic assumptions and are among the most straightforward to explain and to implement correctly in software. However, basic versions of such schemes either limit participants to evaluating linear operations involving private values or require those participants to communicate synchronously during a computation phase. A straightforward, information-theoretically secure extension to such schemes is presented that can evaluate arithmetic sum-of-products expressions that contain multiplication operations involving non-zero private values. Notably, this extension does not require that participants communicate during the computation phase. Instead, a preprocessing phase is required that is independent of the private input values (but is dependent on the number of factors and terms in the sum-of-products expression).
Last updated:  2023-11-10
From Substitution Box To Threshold
Anubhab Baksi, Sylvain Guilley, Ritu-Ranjan Shrivastwa, and Sofiane Takarabt
With the escalating demand for lightweight ciphers as well as side channel protected implementation of those ciphers in recent times, this work focuses on two related aspects. First, we present a tool for automating the task of finding a Threshold Implementation (TI) of a given Substitution Box (SBox). Our tool returns `with decomposition' and `without decomposition' based TI. The `with decomposition' based implementation returns a combinational SBox; whereas we get a sequential SBox from the `without decomposition' based implementation. Despite being high in demand, it appears that this kind of tool has been missing so far. In the process, we report new decomposition for the PRESENT SBox (improving from Poschmann et al.'s JoC'11 paper) and that of the GIFT SBox (improving from Jati et al.'s TIFS'20 paper). Second, we show an algorithmic approach where a given cipher implementation can be tweaked (without altering the cipher specification) so that its TI cost can be significantly reduced. We take the PRESENT cipher as our case study (our methodology can be applied to other ciphers as well). Indeed, we show over 31 percent reduction in area and over 52 percent reduction in depth compared to the basic threshold implementation.
Last updated:  2023-11-10
Security-Performance Tradeoff in DAG-based Proof-of-Work Blockchain Protocols
Shichen Wu, Puwen Wei, Ren Zhang, and Bowen Jiang
Proof-of-work (PoW) blockchain protocols based on directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) have demonstrated superior transaction confirmation performance compared to their chain-based predecessors. However, it is uncertain whether their security deteriorates in high-throughput settings similar to their predecessors, because their acceptance of simultaneous blocks and complex block dependencies presents challenges for rigorous security analysis. We address these challenges by analyzing DAG-based protocols via a congestible blockchain model (CBM), a general model that allows case-by-case upper bounds on the block propagation delay, rather than a uniform upper bound as in most previous analyses. CBM allows us to capture two key phenomena of high-throughput settings: (1) simultaneous blocks increase each other's propagation delay, and (2) a block can be processed only after receiving all the blocks it refers to. We further devise a reasonable adversarial block propagation strategy in CBM, called the late-predecessor attack, which exploits block dependencies to delay the processing of honest blocks. We then evaluate the security and performance of Prism and OHIE, two DAG-based protocols that aim to break the security-performance tradeoff, in the presence of an attacker capable of launching the late predecessor attack. Our results show that these protocols suffer from reduced security and extended latency in high-throughput settings similar to their chain-based predecessors.
Last updated:  2023-11-10
SoK: Privacy-Preserving Smart Contract
Huayi Qi, Minghui Xu, Dongxiao Yu, and Xiuzhen Cheng
The privacy concern in smart contract applications continues to grow, leading to the proposal of various schemes aimed at developing comprehensive and universally applicable privacy-preserving smart contract (PPSC) schemes. However, the existing research in this area is fragmented and lacks a comprehensive system overview. This paper aims to bridge the existing research gap on PPSC schemes by systematizing previous studies in this field. The primary focus is on two categories: PPSC schemes based on cryptographic tools like zero-knowledge proofs, as well as schemes based on trusted execution environments. In doing so, we aim to provide a condensed summary of the different approaches taken in constructing PPSC schemes. Additionally, we also offer a comparative analysis of these approaches, highlighting the similarities and differences between them. Furthermore, we shed light on the challenges that developers face when designing and implementing PPSC schemes. Finally, we delve into potential future directions for improving and advancing these schemes, discussing possible avenues for further research and development.
Last updated:  2023-11-10
Broadcast-Optimal Four-Round MPC in the Plain Model
Michele Ciampi, Ivan Damgård, Divya Ravi, Luisa Siniscalchi, Yu Xia, and Sophia Yakoubov
Motivated by the fact that broadcast is an expensive, but useful, resource for the realization of multi-party computation protocols (MPC), Cohen, Garay, and Zikas (Eurocrypt 2020), and subsequently Damgård, Magri, Ravi, Siniscalchi and Yakoubov (Crypto 2021), and, Damgård, Ravi, Siniscalchi and Yakoubov (Eurocrypt 2023), focused on 𝘴𝘰-𝘤𝘢𝘭𝘭𝘦𝘥 𝘣𝘳𝘰𝘢𝘥𝘤𝘢𝘴𝘵 𝘰𝘱𝘵𝘪𝘮𝘢𝘭 𝘔𝘗𝘊. In particular, the authors focus on two-round MPC protocols (in the CRS model), and give tight characterizations of which security guarantees are achievable if broadcast is available in the first round, the second round, both rounds, or not at all. This work considers the natural question of characterizing broadcast optimal MPC in the plain model where no set-up is assumed. We focus on four-round protocols, since four is known to be the minimal number of rounds required to securely realize any functionality with black-box simulation. We give a complete characterization of which security guarantees, (namely selective abort, selective identifiable abort, unanimous abort and identifiable abort) are feasible or not, depending on the exact selection of rounds in which broadcast is available.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Advanced Composition Theorems for Differential Obliviousness
Mingxun Zhou, Mengshi Zhao, T-H. Hubert Chan, and Elaine Shi
Differential obliviousness (DO) is a privacy notion which mandates that the access patterns of a program satisfy differential privacy. Earlier works have shown that in numerous applications, differential obliviousness allows us to circumvent fundamental barriers pertaining to fully oblivious algorithms, resulting in asymptotical (and sometimes even polynomial) performance improvements. Although DO has been applied to various contexts, including the design of algorithms, data structures, and protocols, its compositional properties are not explored until the recent work of Zhou et al. (Eurocrypt'23). Specifically, Zhou et al. showed that the original DO notion is not composable. They then proposed a refinement of DO called neighbor-preserving differential obliviousness (NPDO), and proved a basic composition for NPDO. In Zhou et al.'s basic composition theorem for NPDO, the privacy loss is linear in $k$ for $k$-fold composition. In comparison, for standard differential privacy, we can enjoy roughly $\sqrt{k}$ loss for $k$-fold composition by applying the well-known advanced composition theorem. Therefore, a natural question left open by their work is whether we can also prove an analogous advanced composition for NPDO. In this paper, we answer this question affirmatively. As a key step in proving an advanced composition theorem for NPDO, we define a more operational notion called symmetric NPDO which we prove to be equivalent to NPDO. Using symmetric NPDO as a stepping stone, we also show how to generalize NPDO to more general notions of divergence, resulting in Rényi-NPDO, zero-concentrated NPDO, Gassian-NPDO, and $g$-NPDO notions. We also prove composition theorems for these generalized notions of NPDO.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Byzantine Agreement Decomposed: Honest Majority Asynchronous Total-Order Broadcast from Reliable Broadcast
Simon Holmgaard Kamp and Jesper Buus Nielsen
It is well-known that Asynchronous Total Order Broadcast (ATOB) requires randomisation and that at most $t < n/3$ out of $n$ players are corrupted. This is opposed to synchronous total-order broadcast (STOB) which can tolerate $t < n/2$ corruptions and can be deterministic. We show that these requirements can be conceptually separated, by constructing an ATOB protocol which tolerates $t < n/2$ corruptions from blackbox use of Common Coin and Reliable Broadcast. We show the power of this conceptually simple contribution by reproving, using simpler protocols, existing results on STOB with optimistic responsiveness and asynchronous fallback. We also use the framework to prove the first ATOB with sub-quadratic communication and optimal corruption threshold $t < n/3$, new ATOBs with covert security and mixed adversary structures, and a new STOB with asymmetric synchrony assumptions.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
FutORAMa: A Concretely Efficient Hierarchical Oblivious RAM
Gilad Asharov, Ilan Komargodski, and Yehuda Michelson
Oblivious RAM (ORAM) is a general-purpose technique for hiding memory access patterns. This is a fundamental task underlying many secure computation applications. While known ORAM schemes provide optimal asymptotic complexity, despite extensive efforts, their concrete costs remain prohibitively expensive for many interesting applications. The current state-of-the-art practical ORAM schemes are suitable only for somewhat small memories (Square-Root ORAM or Path ORAM). This work presents a novel concretely efficient ORAM construction based on recent breakthroughs in asymptotic complexity of ORAM schemes (PanORAMa and OptORAMa). We bring these constructions to the realm of practically useful schemes by relaxing the restriction on constant local memory size. Our design provides a factor of at least $6$ to $8$ improvement over an implementation of the original Path ORAM for a set of reasonable memory sizes (e.g., 1GB, 1TB) and with the same local memory size. To our knowledge, this is the first practical implementation of an ORAM based on the full hierarchical ORAM framework. Prior to our work, the belief was that hierarchical ORAM-based constructions were inherently too expensive in practice. We implement our design and provide extensive evaluation and experimental results.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Concrete Security for Succinct Arguments from Vector Commitments
Alessandro Chiesa, Marcel Dall'Agnol, Ziyi Guan, and Nicholas Spooner
We study the concrete security of a fundamental family of succinct interactive arguments, stemming from the works of Kilian (1992) and Ben-Sasson, Chiesa, and Spooner ("BCS", 2016). These constructions achieve succinctness by combining probabilistic proofs and vector commitments. Our first result concerns the succinct interactive argument of Kilian, realized with any probabilistically-checkable proof (PCP) and any vector commitment. We establish the tightest known bounds on the security of this protocol. Prior analyses incur large overheads unsuitable for concrete security, or assume special (and restrictive) properties of the underlying PCP. Our second result concerns an interactive variant of the BCS succinct non-interactive argument, which here we call IBCS, realized with any public-coin interactive oracle proof (IOP) and any vector commitment. We establish tight bounds on the security of this protocol. While this variant has been informally discussed in the literature, no prior security analysis, even asymptotic, existed before this work. Finally, we study the capabilities and limitations of succinct arguments based on vector commitments. We show that a generalization of the IBCS protocol, which we call the Finale protocol, is secure when realized with any public-query IOP (a notion that we introduce) that satisfies a natural "random continuation sampling" (RCS) property. We also show a partial converse: if the Finale protocol satisfies the RCS property (which in particular implies its security), then so does the underlying public-query IOP.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Aloha-HE: A Low-Area Hardware Accelerator for Client-Side Operations in Homomorphic Encryption
Florian Krieger, Florian Hirner, Ahmet Can Mert, and Sujoy Sinha Roy
Homomorphic encryption (HE) has gained broad attention in recent years as it allows computations on encrypted data enabling secure cloud computing. Deploying HE presents a notable challenge since it introduces a performance overhead by orders of magnitude. Hence, most works target accelerating server-side operations on hardware platforms, while little attention has been given to client-side operations. In this paper, we present a novel design methodology to implement and accelerate the client-side HE operations on area-constrained hardware. We show how to design an optimized floating-point unit tailored for the encoding of complex values. In addition, we introduce a novel hardware-friendly algorithm for modulo-reduction of floating-point numbers and propose various concepts for achieving efficient resource sharing between modular ring and floating-point arithmetic. Finally, we use this methodology to implement an end-to-end hardware accelerator, Aloha-HE, for the client-side operations of the CKKS scheme. In contrast to existing work, Aloha-HE supports both encoding and encryption and their counterparts within a unified architecture. Aloha-HE achieves a speedup of up to 59x compared to prior hardware solutions.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Generic Construction of Broadcast Authenticated Encryption with Keyword Search
Keita Emura
As a multi-receiver variant of public key authenticated encryption with keyword search (PAEKS), broadcast authenticated encryption with keyword search (BAEKS) was proposed by Liu et al. (ACISP 2021). BAEKS focuses on receiver anonymity, where no information about the receiver is leaked from ciphertexts, which is reminiscent of the anonymous broadcast encryption. Here, there are rooms for improving their security definitions, e.g., two challenge sets of receivers are selected before the setup phase, and an adversary is not allowed to corrupt any receiver. In this paper, we propose a generic construction of BAEKS derived from PAEKS that provides ciphertext anonymity and consistency in a multi-receiver setting. The proposed construction is an extension of the generic construction proposed by Libert et al. (PKC 2012) for the anonymous broadcast encryption and provides adaptive corruptions. We also demonstrate that the Qin et al. PAEKS scheme (ProvSec 2021) provides ciphertext anonymity and consistency in a multi-receiver setting and can be employed as a building block of the proposed generic construction. Moreover, we demonstrate that the Mukherjee BAEKS scheme (ACISP 2023) can be employed as a building block of the proposed generic construction.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Unbounded Quadratic Functional Encryption and More from Pairings
Junichi Tomida
We propose the first unbounded functional encryption (FE) scheme for quadratic functions and its extension, in which the sizes of messages to be encrypted are not a priori bounded. Prior to our work, all FE schemes for quadratic functions are bounded, meaning that the message length is fixed at the setup. In the first scheme, encryption takes $\{x_{i}\}_{i \in S_{c}}$, key generation takes $\{c_{i,j}\}_{i,j \in S_{k}}$, and decryption outputs $\sum_{i,j \in S_{k}} c_{i,j}x_{i}x_{j}$ if and only if $S_{k} \subseteq S_{c}$, where the sizes of $S_{c}$ and $S_{k}$ can be arbitrary. Our second scheme is the extension of the first scheme to partially-hiding FE that computes an arithmetic branching program on a public input and a quadratic function on a private input. Concretely, encryption takes a public input $\vec{u}$ in addition to $\{x_{i}\}_{i \in S_{c}}$, a secret key is associated with arithmetic branching programs $\{f_{i,j}\}_{i,j \in S_{k}}$, and decryption yields $\sum_{i,j \in S_{k}} f_{i,j}(\vec{u})x_{i}x_{j}$ if and only if $S_{k} \subseteq S_{c}$. Both our schemes are based on pairings and secure in the simulation-based model under the standard MDDH assumption.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Communication-Efficient Inner Product Private Join and Compute with Cardinality
Koji Chida, Koki Hamada, Atsunori Ichikawa, Masanobu Kii, and Junichi Tomida
Private join and compute (PJC) is a paradigm where two parties owing their private database securely join their databases and compute a function over the combined database. Inner product PJC, introduced by Lepoint et al. (Asiacrypt'21), is a class of PJC that has a wide range of applications such as secure analysis of advertising campaigns. In this computation, two parties, each of which has a set of identifier-value pairs, compute the inner product of the values after the (inner) join of their databases with respect to the identifiers. They proposed inner product PJC protocols that are specialized for the unbalanced setting where the input sizes of both parties are significantly different and not suitable for the balanced setting where the sizes of two inputs are relatively close. We propose an inner product PJC protocol that is much more efficient than that by Lepoint et al. for balanced inputs in the setting where both parties are allowed to learn the intersection size additionally. Our protocol can be seen as an extension of the private intersection-sum protocol based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption by Ion et al. (EuroS&P'20) and is especially communication-efficient as the private intersection-sum protocol. In the case where both input sizes are $2^{16}$, the communication cost of our inner-product PJC protocol is $46\times$ less than that of the inner product PJC protocol by Lepoint et al.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Exploiting the Symmetry of $\mathbb{Z}^n$: Randomization and the Automorphism Problem
Kaijie Jiang, Anyu Wang, Hengyi Luo, Guoxiao Liu, Yang Yu, and Xiaoyun Wang
$\mathbb{Z}^n$ is one of the simplest types of lattices, but the computational problems on its rotations, such as $\mathbb{Z}$SVP and $\mathbb{Z}$LIP, have been of great interest in cryptography. Recent advances have been made in building cryptographic primitives based on these problems, as well as in developing new algorithms for solving them. However, the theoretical complexity of $\mathbb{Z}$SVP and $\mathbb{Z}$LIP are still not well understood. In this work, we study the problems on rotations of $\mathbb{Z}^n$ by exploiting the symmetry property. We introduce a randomization framework that can be roughly viewed as `applying random automorphisms’ to the output of an oracle, without accessing the automorphism group. Using this framework, we obtain new reduction results for rotations of $\mathbb{Z}^n$. First, we present a reduction from $\mathbb{Z}$LIP to $\mathbb{Z}$SCVP. Here $\mathbb{Z}$SCVP is the problem of finding the shortest characteristic vectors, which is a special case of CVP where the target vector is a deep hole of the lattice. Moreover, we prove a reduction from $\mathbb{Z}$SVP to $\gamma$-$\mathbb{Z}$SVP for any constant $\gamma = O(1)$ in the same dimension, which implies that $\mathbb{Z}$SVP is as hard as its approximate version for any constant approximation factor. Second, we investigate the problem of finding a nontrivial automorphism for a given lattice, which is called LAP. Specifically, we use the randomization framework to show that $\mathbb{Z}$LAP is as hard as $\mathbb{Z}$LIP. We note that our result can be viewed as a $\mathbb{Z}^n$-analogue of Lenstra and Silverberg's result in [JoC2017], but with a different assumption: they assume the $G$-lattice structure, while we assume the access to an oracle that outputs a nontrivial automorphism.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
FABEO: Fast Attribute-Based Encryption with Optimal Security
Doreen Riepel and Hoeteck Wee
Attribute-based encryption (ABE) enables fine-grained access control on encrypted data and has a large number of practical applications. This paper presents FABEO: faster pairing-based ciphertext-policy and key-policy ABE schemes that support expressive policies and put no restriction on policy type or attributes, and the first to achieve optimal, adaptive security with multiple challenge ciphertexts. We implement our schemes and demonstrate that they perform better than the state-of-the-art (Bethencourt et al. S&P 2007, Agrawal et al., CCS 2017 and Ambrona et al., CCS 2017) on all parameters of practical interest.
Last updated:  2023-11-09
Hintless Single-Server Private Information Retrieval
Baiyu Li, Daniele Micciancio, Mariana Raykova, and Mark Schultz-Wu
We present two new constructions for private information retrieval (PIR) in the classical setting where the clients do not need to do any preprocessing or store any database dependent information, and the server does not need to store any client-dependent information. Our first construction HintlessPIR eliminates the client preprocessing step from the recent LWE-based SimplePIR (Henzinger et. al., USENIX Security 2023) by outsourcing the "hint" related computation to the server, leveraging a new concept of homomorphic encryption with composable preprocessing. We realize this concept on RLWE encryption schemes, and thanks to the composibility of this technique we are able to preprocess almost all the expensive parts of the homomorphic computation and reuse across multiple executions. As a concrete application, we achieve very efficient matrix vector multiplication that allows us to build HintlessPIR. For a database of size 8GB, HintlessPIR achieves throughput about 3.7GB/s without requiring any client or server state. We additionally formalize the matrix vector multiplication protocol as LinPIR primitive, which may be of independent interests. In our second construction TensorPIR we reduce the communications of HintlessPIR from square root to cubic root in the database size. For this purpose we extend our HE with preprocessing techniques to composition of key-switching keys and the query expansion algorithm. We show how to use RLWE encryption with preprocessing to outsource LWE decryption for ciphertexts generated by homomorphic multiplications. This allows the server to do more complex processing using a more compact query under LWE. We implement and benchmark HintlessPIR which achieves better concrete costs than TensorPIR for a large set of databases of interest. We show that it improves the communication of recent preprocessing constructions when clients do not have large numbers of queries or database updates frequently. The computation cost for removing the hint is small and decreases as the database becomes larger, and it is always more efficient than other constructions with client hints such as Spiral PIR (Menon and Wu, S&P 2022). In the setting of anonymous queries we also improve on Spiral's communication.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
Bringing State-Separating Proofs to EasyCrypt - A Security Proof for Cryptobox
François Dupressoir, Konrad Kohbrok, and Sabine Oechsner
Machine-checked cryptography aims to reinforce confidence in the primitives and protocols that underpin all digital security. However, machine-checked proof techniques remain in practice difficult to apply to real-world constructions. A particular challenge is structured reasoning about complex constructions at different levels of abstraction. The State-Separating Proofs (SSP) methodology for guiding cryptographic proofs by Brzuska, Delignat-Lavaud, Fournet, Kohbrok and Kohlweiss (ASIACRYPT'18) is a promising contestant to support such reasoning. In this work, we explore how SSPs can guide EasyCrypt formalisations of proofs for modular constructions. Concretely, we propose a mapping from SSP to EasyCrypt concepts which enables us to enhance cryptographic proofs with SSP insights while maintaining compatibility with existing EasyCrypt proof support. To showcase our insights, we develop a formal security proof for the Cryptobox family of public-key authenticated encryption schemes based on non-interactive key exchange and symmetric authenticated encryption. As a side effect, we obtain the first formal security proof for NaCl's instantiation of Cryptobox. Finally we discuss changes to the practice of SSP on paper and potential implications for future tool designers.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
How to Prove Statements Obliviously?
Sanjam Garg, Aarushi Goel, and Mingyuan Wang
Cryptographic applications often require proving statements about hidden secrets satisfying certain circuit relations. Moreover, these proofs must often be generated obliviously, i.e., without knowledge of the secret. This work presents a new technique called --- FRI on hidden values --- for efficiently proving such statements. This technique enables a polynomial commitment scheme for values hidden inside linearly homomorphic primitives, such as linearly homomorphic encryption, linearly homomorphic commitment, group exponentiation, fully homomorphic encryption, etc. Building on this technique, we obtain the following results. 1. An efficient SNARK for proving the honest evaluation of FHE ciphertexts. This allows for an efficiently verifiable private delegation of computation, where the client only needs to perform logarithmic many FHE computations to verify the correctness of the computation. 2. An efficient approach for privately delegating the computation of zkSNARKs to a single untrusted server, without making any non-black-box use of cryptography. All prior works require multiple servers and the assumption that some subset of the servers are honest. 3. A weighted threshold signature scheme that does not require any setup. In particular, parties may sample their own keys independently, and no distributed key generation (DKG) protocol is needed. Furthermore, the efficiency of our scheme is completely independent of the weights. Prior to this work, there were no known black-box feasibility results for any of these applications. We also investigate the use of this approach in the context of public proof aggregation. These are only a few representative applications that we explore in this paper. We expect our techniques to be widely applicable in many other scenarios.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
Janus: Fast Privacy-Preserving Data Provenance For TLS 1.3
Jan Lauinger, Jens Ernstberger, Andreas Finkenzeller, and Sebastian Steinhorst
Web users can gather data from secure endpoints and demonstrate the provenance of the data to any third party by using TLS oracles. Beyond that, TLS oracles can confirm the provenance and policy compliance of private online data by using zero-knowledge-proof systems. In practice, privacy-preserving TLS oracles can efficiently verify private data up to 1 kB in size selectively, preventing the verification of sensitive documents larger than 1 kB. In this work, we introduce a new oracle protocol for TLS 1.3, which reaches new scales in selectively verifying the provenance of confidential data. We tailor the deployment of secure computation techniques to the conditions found in TLS 1.3 and verify private TLS data in a dedicated proof system that leverages the asymmetric privacy setting between the client parties of TLS oracles. Our results show that 8 kB of sensitive data can be verified in 6.7 seconds, outperforming related approaches by 8x. With that, we enable new boundaries to verify the web provenance of confidential documents.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
KiloNova: Non-Uniform PCD with Zero-Knowledge Property from Generic Folding Schemes
Tianyu Zheng, Shang Gao, Yu Guo, and Bin Xiao
Most existing accumulation/folding schemes focus on implementing Incrementally Verifiable Computation (IVC). Proof-carrying Data (PCD), as a generalization of IVC, enables sequential computation performance by multiple distrusting parties, thereby offering a robust primitive tool in real-world applications. However, building non-uniform PCD from folding schemes faces many technical challenges, particularly in handling cross items and preserving zero knowledge. This paper introduces KiloNova, a non-uniform PCD system with zero-knowledge properties derived from generic folding schemes. Motivated by HyperNova (Kothapalli et al. ePrint 2023), we derive a variant of the Customizable Constraint System with linear claims on circuits and inputs to avoid cross items. With the new constraint system, we propose a generic folding scheme for multiple instances of different circuits and ensure the zero-knowledge property with various effective methods. Consequently, we build a non-uniform ZK-PCD scheme from the generic folding scheme and improve its performance with some optimization techniques, such as circuit aggregation and decoupling. We propose a new construction for ZK-PCD that does not use a ZK argument system and has little influence on the complexity. The theoretical evaluation shows our non-uniform ZK-PCD scheme outperforms previous models. A single multi-scalar multiplication dominates the prover cost at each step. The recursive circuit is dominated by $O(\log(n))$ random-oracle-like hashes and $O(k)$ scalar multiplications, where $n$ is the circuit input length and $k$ is the instance number at each step.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
On the Masking-Friendly Designs for Post-Quantum Cryptography
Suparna Kundu, Angshuman Karmakar, and Ingrid Verbauwhede
Masking is a well-known and provably secure countermeasure against side-channel attacks. However, due to additional redundant computations, integrating masking schemes is expensive in terms of performance. The performance overhead of integrating masking countermeasures is heavily influenced by the design choices of a cryptographic algorithm and is often not considered during the design phase. In this work, we deliberate on the effect of design choices on integrating masking techniques into lattice-based cryptography. We select Scabbard, a suite of three lattice-based post-quantum key-encapsulation mechanisms (KEM), namely Florete, Espada, and Sable. We provide arbitrary-order masked implementations of all the constituent KEMs of the Scabbard suite by exploiting their specific design elements. We show that the masked implementations of Florete, Espada, and Sable outperform the masked implementations of Kyber in terms of speed for any order masking. Masked Florete exhibits a $73\%$, $71\%$, and $70\%$ performance improvement over masked Kyber corresponding to the first-, second-, and third-order. Similarly, Espada exhibits $56\%$, $59\%$, and $60\%$ and Sable exhibits $75\%$, $74\%$, and $73\%$ enhanced performance for first-, second-, and third-order masking compared to Kyber respectively. Our results show that the design decisions have a significant impact on the efficiency of integrating masking countermeasures into lattice-based cryptography.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
A practical key-recovery attack on LWE-based key- encapsulation mechanism schemes using Rowhammer
Puja Mondal, Suparna Kundu, Sarani Bhattacharya, Angshuman Karmakar, and Ingrid Verbauwhede
Physical attacks are serious threats to cryptosystems deployed in the real world. In this work, we propose a microarchitectural end-to-end attack methodology on generic lattice-based post-quantum key encapsulation mechanisms to recover the long-term secret key. Our attack targets a critical component of a Fujisaki-Okamoto transform that is used in the construction of almost all lattice-based key encapsulation mechanisms. We demonstrate our attack model on practical schemes such as Kyber and Saber by using Rowhammer. We show that our attack is highly practical and imposes little preconditions on the attacker to succeed. As an additional contribution, we propose an improved version of the plaintext checking oracle, which is used by almost all physical attack strategies on lattice-based key-encapsulation mechanisms. Our improvement reduces the number of queries to the plaintext checking oracle by as much as 39% for Saber and approximately 23% for Kyber768. This can be of independent interest and can also be used to reduce the complexity of other attacks.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
SSProve: A Foundational Framework for Modular Cryptographic Proofs in Coq
Philipp G. Haselwarter, Exequiel Rivas, Antoine Van Muylder, Théo Winterhalter, Carmine Abate, Nikolaj Sidorenco, Catalin Hritcu, Kenji Maillard, and Bas Spitters
State-separating proofs (SSP) is a recent methodology for structuring game-based cryptographic proofs in a modular way, by using algebraic laws to exploit the modular structure of composed protocols. While promising, this methodology was previously not fully formalized and came with little tool support. We address this by introducing SSProve, the first general verification framework for machine-checked state-separating proofs. SSProve combines high-level modular proofs about composed protocols, as proposed in SSP, with a probabilistic relational program logic for formalizing the lower-level details, which together enable constructing machine-checked cryptographic proofs in the Coq proof assistant. Moreover, SSProve is itself fully formalized in Coq, including the algebraic laws of SSP, the soundness of the program logic, and the connection between these two verification styles. To illustrate SSProve we use it to mechanize the simple security proofs of ElGamal and PRF-based encryption. We also validate the SSProve approach by conducting two more substantial case studies: First, we mechanize an SSP security proof of the KEM-DEM public key encryption scheme, which led to the discovery of an error in the original paper proof that has since been fixed. Second, we use SSProve to formally prove security of the sigma-protocol zero-knowledge construction, and we moreover construct a commitment scheme from a sigma-protocol to compare with a similar development in CryptHOL. We instantiate the security proof for sigma-protocols to give concrete security bounds for Schnorr's sigma-protocol.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
Construction-D lattice from Garcia-Stichtenoth tower code
Elena Kirshanova and Ekaterina Malygina
We show an explicit construction of an efficiently decodable family of $n$-dimensional lattices whose minimum distances achieve $\Omega(\sqrt{n} / (\log n)^{\varepsilon+o(1)})$ for $\varepsilon>0$. It improves upon the state-of-the-art construction due to Mook-Peikert (IEEE Trans.\ Inf.\ Theory, no. 68(2), 2022) that provides lattices with minimum distances $\Omega(\sqrt{n/ \log n})$. These lattices are construction-D lattices built from a sequence of BCH codes. We show that replacing BCH codes with subfield subcodes of Garcia-Stichtenoth tower codes leads to a better minimum distance. To argue on decodability of the construction, we adapt soft-decision decoding techniques of Koetter-Vardy (IEEE Trans.\ Inf.\ Theory, no.\ 49(11), 2003) to algebraic-geometric codes.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
CompactTag: Minimizing Computation Overheads in Actively-Secure MPC for Deep Neural Networks
Yongqin Wang, Pratik Sarkar, Nishat Koti, Arpita Patra, and Murali Annavaram
Secure Multiparty Computation (MPC) protocols enable secure evaluation of a circuit by several parties, even in the presence of an adversary who maliciously corrupts all but one of the parties. These MPC protocols are constructed using the well-known secret-sharing-based paradigm (SPDZ and SPD$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$), where the protocols ensure security against a malicious adversary by computing Message Authentication Code (MAC) tags on the input shares and then evaluating the circuit with these input shares and tags. However, this tag computation adds a significant runtime overhead, particularly for machine learning (ML) applications with computationally intensive linear layers, such as convolutions and fully connected layers. To alleviate the tag computation overhead, we introduce CompactTag, a lightweight algorithm for generating MAC tags specifically tailored for linear layers in ML. Linear layer operations in ML, including convolutions, can be transformed into Toeplitz matrix multiplications. For the multiplication of two matrices with dimensions T1 × T2 and T2 × T3 respectively, SPD$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ required O(T1 · T2 · T3) local multiplications for the tag computation. In contrast, CompactTag only requires O(T1 · T2 + T1 · T3 + T2 · T3) local multiplications, resulting in a substantial performance boost for various ML models. We empirically compared our protocol to the SPD$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ protocol for various ML circuits, including ResNet Training-Inference, Transformer Training-Inference, and VGG16 Training-Inference. SPD$\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ dedicated around 30% of its online runtime for tag computation. CompactTag speeds up this tag computation bottleneck by up to 23×, resulting in up to 1.47× total online phase runtime speedups for various ML workloads.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
Memory-Efficient Attacks on Small LWE Keys
Andre Esser, Rahul Girme, Arindam Mukherjee, and Santanu Sarkar
The LWE problem is one of the prime candidates for building the most efficient post-quantum secure public key cryptosystems. Many of those schemes, like Kyber, Dilithium or those belonging to the NTRU-family, such as NTRU-HPS, -HRSS, BLISS or GLP, make use of small max norm keys to enhance efficiency. The presumably best attack on these schemes is a hybrid attack, which combines combinatorial techniques and lattice reduction. While lattice reduction is not known to be able to exploit the small max norm choices, May recently showed (Crypto 2021) that such choices allow for more efficient combinatorial attacks. However, these combinatorial attacks suffer enormous memory requirements, which render them inefficient in realistic attack scenarios and, hence, make their general consideration when assessing security questionable. Therefore, more memory-efficient substitutes for these algorithms are needed. In this work, we provide new combinatorial algorithms for recovering small max norm LWE secrets using only a polynomial amount of memory. We provide analyses of our algorithms for secret key distributions of current NTRU, Kyber and Dilithium variants, showing that our new approach outperforms previous memory-efficient algorithms. For instance, considering uniformly random ternary secrets of length $n$ we improve the best known time complexity for polynomial memory algorithms from $2^{1.063n}$ down-to $2^{0.926n}$. We obtain even larger gains for LWE secrets in $\{-m,\ldots,m\}^n$ with $m=2,3$ as found in Kyber and Dilithium. For example, for uniformly random keys in $\{-2,\ldots,2\}^n$ as is the case for Dilithium we improve the previously best time from $2^{1.742n}$ down-to $2^{1.282n}$. Our fastest algorithm incorporates various different algorithmic techniques, but at its heart lies a nested collision search procedure inspired by the Nested-Rho technique from Dinur, Dunkelman, Keller and Shamir (Crypto 2016). Additionally, we heavily exploit the representation technique originally introduced in the subset sum context to make our nested approach efficient.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
Simulation-Secure Threshold PKE from LWE with Polynomial Modulus
Daniele Micciancio and Adam Suhl
In LWE based cryptosystems, using small (polynomially large) ciphertext modulus improves both efficiency and security. In threshold encryption, one often needs "simulation security": the ability to simulate decryption shares without the secret key. Existing lattice-based threshold encryption schemes provide one or the other but not both. Simulation security has seemed to require superpolynomial flooding noise, and the schemes with polynomial modulus use Rényi divergence based analyses that are sufficient for game-based but not simulation security. In this work, we give the first construction of simulation-secure lattice-based threshold PKE with polynomially large modulus. The construction itself is relatively standard, but we use an improved analysis, proving that when the ciphertext noise and flooding noise are both Gaussian, simulation is possible even with very small flooding noise. Our modulus is small not just asymptotically but also concretely: this technique gives parameters roughly comparable to those of highly optimized non-threshold schemes like FrodoKEM. As part of our proof, we show that LWE remains hard in the presence of some types of leakage; these results and techniques may also be useful in other contexts where noise flooding is used.
Last updated:  2023-11-08
A Formal Treatment of Envelope Encryption
Shoichi Hirose and Kazuhiko Minematsu
Envelope encryption is a method to encrypt data with two distinct keys in its basic form. Data is first encrypted with a data-encryption key, and then the data-encryption key is encrypted with a key-encryption key. Despite its deployment in major cloud services, as far as we know, envelope encryption has not received any formal treatment. To address this issue, we first formalize the syntax and security requirements of envelope encryption in the symmetric-key setting. Then, we show that it can be constructed by combining encryptment and authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD). Encryptment is one-time AEAD satisfying that a small part of a ciphertext works as a commitment to the corresponding secret key, message, and associated data. Finally, we show that the security of the generic construction is reduced to the security of the underlying encryptment and AEAD.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
CSIDH with Level Structure
Steven D. Galbraith, Derek Perrin, and José Felipe Voloch
We construct a new post-quantum cryptosystem which consists of enhancing CSIDH and similar cryptosystems by adding a full level $N$ structure. We discuss the size of the isogeny graph in this new cryptosystem which consists of components which are acted on by the ray class group for the modulus $N$. We conclude by showing that, if we can efficiently find rational isogenies between elliptic curves, then we can efficiently find rational isogenies that preserve the level structure. We show that one can reduce the group action problem for the ray class group to the group action problem for the ideal class group. This reduces the security of this new cryptosystem to that of the original one
Last updated:  2023-11-07
Few-weight linear codes over $\mathbb{F}_p$ from $t$-to-one mappings
René Rodríguez-Aldama
For any prime number $p$, we provide two classes of linear codes with few weights over a $p$-ary alphabet. These codes are based on a well-known generic construction (the defining-set method), stemming on a class of monomials and a class of trinomials over finite fields. The considered monomials are Dembowski-Ostrom monomials $x^{p^{\alpha}+1}$, for a suitable choice of the exponent $\alpha$, so that, when $p>2$ and $n\not\equiv 0 \pmod{4}$, these monomials are planar. We study the properties of such monomials in detail for each integer $n$ greater than two and any prime number $p$. In particular, we show that they are $t$-to-one, where the parameter $t$ depends on the field $\mathbb{F}_{p^n}$ and it takes the values $1, 2$ or $p+1$. Moreover, we give a simple proof of the fact that the functions are $\delta$-uniform with $\delta \in \{1,4,p\}$. This result describes the differential behaviour of these monomials for any $p$ and $n$. For the second class of functions, we consider an affine equivalent trinomial to $x^{p^{\alpha}+1}$, namely, $x^{p^{\alpha}+1}+\lambda x^{p^{\alpha}}+\lambda^{p^{\alpha}}x$ for $\lambda\in \mathbb{F}_{p^n}^*$. We prove that these trinomials satisfy certain regularity properties, which are useful for the specification of linear codes with three or four weights that are different than the monomial construction. These families of codes contain projective codes and optimal codes (with respect to the Griesmer bound). Remarkably, they contain infinite families of self-orthogonal and minimal $p$-ary linear codes for every prime number $p$. Our findings highlight the utility of studying affine equivalent functions, which is often overlooked in this context.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
Traitor Tracing for Threshold Decryption
Dan Boneh, Aditi Partap, and Lior Rotem
In a traitor tracing system there are $n$ parties and each party holds a secret key. A broadcaster uses an encryption key to encrypt a message $m$ to a ciphertext $c$ so that every party can decrypt~$c$ using its secret key and obtain $m$. Suppose a subset of parties ${\cal J} \subseteq [n]$ combine their secret keys to create a pirate decoder $D(\cdot)$ that can decrypt ciphertexts from the broadcaster. Then it is possible to trace $D$ to at least one member of ${\cal J}$ using only blackbox access to the decoder. Traitor tracing received much attention over the years and multiple schemes have been developed. In this paper we explore how to do traitor tracing in the context of a threshold decryption scheme. Again, there are $n$ parties and each party has a secret key, but now~$t$ parties are needed to decrypt a ciphertext~$c$, for some $t>1$. If a subset ${\cal J}$ of at least $t$ parties use their secret keys to create a pirate decoder $D(\cdot)$, then it must be possible to trace $D$ to at least one member of ${\cal J}$. This problem has not yet been explored in the literature, however, it has recently become quite important due to the use of encrypted mempools, as we explain in the paper. We develop the theory of traitor tracing for threshold decryption. While there are several non-threshold traitor tracing schemes that we can leverage, adapting these constructions to the threshold decryption settings requires new cryptographic techniques. We present a number of constructions for traitor tracing for threshold decryption, and note that much work remains to explore the large design space.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
Computational Hardness of the Permuted Kernel and Subcode Equivalence Problems
Paolo Santini, Marco Baldi, and Franco Chiaraluce
The Permuted Kernel Problem (PKP) asks to find a permutation which maps an input matrix into the kernel of some given vector space. The literature exhibits several works studying its hardness in the case of the input matrix being mono-dimensional (i.e., a vector), while the multi-dimensional case has received much less attention and, de facto, only the case of a binary ambient finite field has been studied. The Subcode Equivalence Problem (SEP), instead, asks to find a permutation so that a given linear code becomes a subcode of another given code. At the best of our knowledge, no algorithm to solve the SEP has ever been proposed. In this paper we study the computational hardness of solving these problems. We first show that, despite going by different names, PKP and SEP are exactly the same problem. Then we consider the state-of-the-art solver for the mono-dimensional PKP (namely, the KMP algorithm, proposed by Koussa, Macario-Rat and Patarin), generalize it to the multi-dimensional case and analyze both the finite and the asymptotic regimes. We further propose a new algorithm, which can be thought of as a refinement of KMP. In the asymptotic regime our algorithm does not improve on KMP but, in the finite regime (and for parameters of practical interest), we achieve significant improvements, especially for the multi-dimensional version of PKP. As an evidence, we show that it is the fastest algorithm to attack several recommended instances of cryptosystems based on PKP. As a side-effect, given the mentioned equivalence between PKP and SEP, all the algorithms we analyze in this paper can be used to solve instances of the latter problem.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
Hardware-Supported Cryptographic Protection of Random Access Memory
Roberto Avanzi, Ionut Mihalcea, David Schall, Héctor Montaner, and Andreas Sandberg
Confidential Computing is the protection of data in use from access or modification by any unauthorized agent, including privileged software. For example, in Intel SGX (Client and Scalable versions) and TDX, AMD SEV, Arm CCA, and IBM Ultravisor this protection is implemented via access control policies. Some of these architectures also include memory protection schemes relying on cryptography, to protect against physical attacks. We review and classify such schemes, from academia and industry, according to protection levels corresponding of adversaries with varying capabilities, budget, and strategy. The building blocks of all memory protection schemes are encryption and integrity primitives and modes of operation, as well as anti-replay structures. We review these building blocks, consider their possible combinations, and evaluate the performance impact of the resulting schemes. We present a framework for performance evaluation in a simulated system. To understand the best and worst case overhead, systems with varying load levels are considered. We propose new solutions to further reduce the performance and memory overheads of such technologies. Advanced counter compression techniques make it viable to store counters used for replay protection in a physically protected memory. By additionally repurposing some ECC bits to store integrity tags, we can provide the highest levels of confidentiality, integrity, and replay protection at a hitherto unattained performance penalty, namely 3.32%, even under extreme load and at costs that make them reasonable in data centers. Combinations of technologies that are suitable for client devices are also discussed.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
Quantitative Fault Injection Analysis
Jakob Feldtkeller, Tim Güneysu, and Patrick Schaumont
Active fault injection is a credible threat to real-world digital systems computing on sensitive data. Arguing about security in the presence of faults is non-trivial, and state-of-the-art criteria are overly conservative and lack the ability of fine-grained comparison. However, comparing two alternative implementations for their security is required to find a satisfying compromise between security and performance. In addition, the comparison of alternative fault scenarios can help optimize the implementation of effective countermeasures. In this work, we use quantitative information flow analysis to establish a vulnerability metric for hardware circuits under fault injection that measures the severity of an attack in terms of information leakage. Potential use cases range from comparing implementations with respect to their vulnerability to specific fault scenarios to optimizing countermeasures. We automate the computation of our metric by integrating it into a state-of-the-art evaluation tool for physical attacks and provide new insights into the security under an active fault attacker.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
Optimizing S-box Implementations Using SAT Solvers: Revisited
Fuxin Zhang and Zhenyu Huang
We propose a new method to encode the problems of optimizing S-box implementations into SAT problems. By considering the inputs and outputs of gates as Boolean functions, the fundamental idea of our method is representing the relationships between these inputs and outputs according to their algebraic normal forms. Based on this method, we present several encoding schemes for optimizing S-box implementations according to various criteria, such as multiplicative complexity, bitslice gate complexity, gate complexity, and circuit depth complexity. The experimental results of these optimization problems show that, compared to the encoding method proposed in FSE 2016, which represents these relationships between Boolean functions by their truth tables, our new encoding method can significantly reduce accelerate the subsequent solving process by 2-100 times for the majority of instances. To further improve the solving efficiency, we propose several strategies to eliminate the redundancy of the derived equation system and break the symmetry of the solution space. We apply our method in the optimizations of the S-boxes used in Ascon, ICEPOLE, PRIMATEs, Keccak/Ketje/Keyak, Joltik/Piccolo, LAC, Minalpher, Prøst, and RECTANGLE. We achieve some new improved implementations and narrow the range of the optimal values for different optimization criteria of these S-boxes.
Last updated:  2023-11-07
The Key Lattice Framework for Concurrent Group Messaging
Kelong Cong, Karim Eldefrawy, Nigel P. Smart, and Ben Terner
Today, two-party secure messaging is well-understood and widely adopted on the Internet, e.g., Signal and WhatsApp. Multiparty protocols for secure group messaging on the other hand are less mature and many protocols with different tradeoffs exist. Generally, such protocols require parties to first agree on a shared secret group key and then periodically update it while preserving forward secrecy (FS) and post compromise security (PCS). We present a new framework, called a key lattice, for managing keys in concurrent group messaging. Our framework can be seen as a ``key management'' layer that enables concurrent group messaging when secure pairwise channels are available. Proving security of group messaging protocols using the key lattice requires new game-based security definitions for both FS and PCS. Our new definitions are both simpler and more natural than previous ones, as our framework combines both FS and PCS into directional variants of the same abstraction, and additionally avoids dependence on time-based epochs. Additionally, we give a concrete, standalone instantiation of a concurrent group messaging protocol for dynamic groups. Our protocol provides both FS and PCS, supports concurrent updates, and only incurs $O(1)$ overhead for securing the messaging payload, $O(n)$ update cost and $O(n)$ healing costs, which are optimal.
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