All papers (Page 188 of 19185 results)

Last updated:  2003-05-22
Cryptographic Randomized Response Techniques
Andris Ambainis, Markus Jakobsson, Helger Lipmaa
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We develop cryptographically secure techniques to guarantee unconditional privacy for respondents to polls. Our constructions are efficient and practical, and are shown not to allow cheating respondents to affect the ``tally'' by more than their own vote --- which will be given the exact same weight as that of other respondents. We demonstrate solutions to this problem based on both traditional cryptographic techniques and quantum cryptography.
Last updated:  2003-03-28
Hyperelliptic Curve Cryptosystems: Closing the Performance Gap to Elliptic Curves (Update)
Jan Pelzl, Thomas Wollinger, Jorge Guajardo, Christof Paar
For most of the time since they were proposed, it was widely believed that hyperelliptic curve cryptosystems (HECC) carry a substantial performance penalty compared to elliptic curve cryptosystems (ECC) and are, thus, not too attractive for practical applications. Only quite recently improvements have been made, mainly restricted to curves of genus 2. The work at hand advances the state-of-the-art considerably in several aspects. First, we generalize and improve the closed formulae for the group operation of genus 3 for HEC defined over fields of characteristic two. For certain curves we achieve over 50% complexity improvement compared to the best previously published results. Second, we introduce a new complexity metric for ECC and HECC defined over characteristic two fields which allow performance comparisons of practical relevance. It can be shown that the HECC performance is in the range of the performance of an ECC; for specific parameters HECC can even possess a lower complexity than an ECC at the same security level. Third, we describe the first implementation of a HEC cryptosystem on an embedded (ARM7) processor. Since HEC are particularly attractive for constrained environments, such a case study should be of relevance.
Last updated:  2003-02-11
Homomorphic public-key cryptosystems and encrypting boolean circuits
D. Grigoriev., I. Ponomarenko
Homomorphic cryptosystems are designed for the first time over any finite group. Applying Barrington's construction we produce for any boolean circuit of the logarithmic depth its encrypted simulation of a polynomial size over an appropriate finitely generated group.
Last updated:  2003-02-05
On Modeling IND-CCA Security in Cryptographic Protocols
Dennis Hofheinz, Joern Mueller-Quade, Rainer Steinwandt
Two common notions of security for public key encryption schemes are shown to be equivalent: we prove that indistinguishability against chosen-ciphertext attacks (IND-CCA) is in fact polynomially equivalent to (yet "slightly" weaker than) securely realizing the ideal functionality F_PKE in the general modeling of cryptographic protocols of []. This disproves in particular the claim that security in the sense of IND-CCA strictly implies security in the sense of realizing F_PKE (see []). Moreover, we give concrete reductions among such security notions and show that these relations hold for both uniform and non-uniform adversarial entities.
Last updated:  2003-02-24
New identity based signcryption schemes from pairings
Benoît Libert, Jean-Jacques Quisquater
We present a new identity based scheme based on pairings over elliptic curves. It combines the functionalities of signature and encryption and is provably secure in the random oracle model. We compare it with Malone-Lee's one from security and efficiency points of view. We give a formal proof of semantical security under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption for this new scheme and we show how to devise other provably secure schemes that produce even shorter ciphertexts.
Last updated:  2003-07-22
Did Filiol Break AES ?
Nicolas T. Courtois, Robert T. Johnson, Pascal Junod, Thomas Pornin, Michael Scott
On January 8th 2003, Eric Filiol published on the eprint a paper ( in which he claims that AES can be broken by a very simple and very fast ciphertext-only attack. If such an attack existed, it would be the biggest discovery in code-breaking since some 10 or more years. Unfortunately the result is very hard to believe. In this paper we present the results of computer simulations done by several independent people, with independently written code. Nobody has confirmed a single anomaly in AES, even for much weaker versions of the bias claimed by the author. We also studied the source code provided by the author to realize that the first version had various issues and bugs, and the latest version still does not confirm the claimed result on AES.
Last updated:  2003-12-30
Interleaving Cryptography and Mechanism Design: The Case of Online Auctions
Edith Elkind, Helger Lipmaa
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We propose a new cryptographically protected multi-round auction mechanism for online auctions. This auction mechanism is designed to provide (in this order) security, cognitive convenience, and round-effectiveness. One can vary internal parameters of the mechanism to trade off bid privacy and cognitive costs, or cognitive costs and the number of rounds. We are aware of no previous work that interleaves cryptography explicitly with the mechanism design.
Last updated:  2003-02-03
Attacks based on Conditional Correlations against the Nonlinear Filter Generator
Bernhard Löhlein
In this paper we extend the conditional correlation attack ([LCPP96]) against the nonlinear filter generator (NLFG) by introducing new conditions and generalisations and present two known-plaintext attacks, called hybrid correlation attack and concentration attack. The NLFG is a well known LFSR-based keystream generator which could be used as a basic building block in a synchronous stream cipher system. Both new attacks use methods from the conditional correlation attack and additional from fast correlation attacks to derive the unknown initial state of the LFSR of the NLFG. The basic principle of iteratively cumulating and updating conditional correlations for the NLFG was proposed in [Loh01] and for general combiners with memory in [GBM02]. With the hybrid correlation attack it is possible to successfully attack the NLFG by applying a fast correlation attack, even if the filter function $f$ of the NLFG is highly nonlinear, e.g. the normalised nonlinearity $p_{e,f}$ is $\ge 0.45$. The concentration attack maps all computed conditional correlations to $D-B$ unknown LFSR bits, where $D \ge k$ and $1 \le B \le k$ are parameters which can be chosen by the attacker, and $k$ is the length of the LFSR of the NLFG. Even with low values of conditional correlations, it is possible to mount the hybrid correlation attack and the concentration attack successfully. This is not the case for the originally version of the conditional correlation attack ([LCPP96]) in a time lower than a full search over all possible initial states.
Last updated:  2003-04-08
A Polynomial Time Algorithm for the Braid Diffie-Hellman Conjugacy Problem
Jung Hee Cheon, Byungheup Jun
We propose the first polynomial time algorithm for the braid Diffie-Hellman conjugacy problem (DHCP) on which the braid key exchange scheme and the braid encryption scheme are based~\cite{KLCHKP01}. We show the proposed method solves the DHCP for the image of braids under the Lawrence-Krammer representation and the solutions play the equivalent role of the original key for the DHCP of braids. Given a braid index $n$ and a canonical length $\ell$, the complexity is about $2^{-2}\ell^3 n^{4\tau+2}\log n$ bit operations, where $\tau=\log_27\approx 2.8$ (Theoretically, it can be reduced to $O(\ell^3 n^{8.3}\log n)$ using $\tau=2.376$). Further, we show that the generalization into the decomposition problem causes only 8 times of the complexity.
Last updated:  2003-01-30
An Authenticated Group Key Agreement Protocol on Braid groups
In this paper, we extend the 2-party key exchange protocol on braid groups to the group key agreement protocol based on the hardness of Ko-Lee problem. We also provide authenticity to the group key agreement protocol.
Last updated:  2003-01-28
Perfect Hash Families with Few Functions
Simon R. Blackburn
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An {\em $(s;n,q,t)$-perfect hash family} is a set of functions $\phi_1,\phi_2,\ldots ,\phi_s$ from a set $V$ of cardinality $n$ to a set $F$ of cardinality $q$ with the property that every $t$-subset of $V$ is injectively mapped into $F$ by at least one of the functions $\phi_i$. The paper shows that the maximum value $n_{s,t}(q)$ that $n$ can take for fixed $s$ and $t$ has a leading term that is linear in $q$ if and only if $t>s$. Moreover, for any $s$ and $t$ such that $t>s$, the paper shows how to calculate the coefficient of this linear leading term; this coefficient is explicitly calculated in some cases. As part of this process, new classes of good perfect hash families are constructed.
Last updated:  2003-01-28
A Threshold GQ Signature Scheme
Cheng-Kang Chu, Li-Shan Liu, Wen-Guey Tzeng
We proposed the first threshold GQ signature scheme. The scheme is unforgeable and robust against any adaptive adversary if the base GQ signature scheme is unforgeable under the chosen message attack and computing the discrete logarithm modulo a safe prime is hard. Our scheme achieve optimal resilience, that is, the adversary can corrupt up to a half of the players. As an extension of our work, we proposed a threshold forward-secure signature scheme, which is the threshold version of the most efficient forward-secure signature scheme up to now.
Last updated:  2003-01-24
A Universally Composable Cryptographic Library
Michael Backes, Birgit Pfitzmann, Michael Waidner
Bridging the gap between formal methods and cryptography has recently received a lot of interest, i.e., investigating to what extent proofs of cryptographic protocols made with abstracted cryptographic operations are valid for real implementations. However, a major goal has not been achieved yet: a soundness proof for an abstract crypto-library as needed for the cryptographic protocols typically proved with formal methods, e.g., authentication and key exchange protocols. Prior work that directly justifies the typical Dolev-Yao abstraction is restricted to passive adversaries and certain protocol environments. Prior work starting from the cryptographic side entirely hides the cryptographic objects, so that the operations are not composable: While secure channels or signing of application data is modeled, one cannot encrypt a signature or sign a key. We make the major step towards this goal: We specify an abstract crypto-library that allows composed operations, define a cryptographic realization, and prove that the abstraction is sound for arbitrary active attacks in arbitrary reactive scenarios. The library currently contains public-key encryption and signatures, nonces, lists, and application data. The proof is a novel combination of a probabilistic, imperfect bisimulation with cryptographic reductions and static information-flow analysis.
Last updated:  2003-09-17
Hiji-bij-bij: A New Stream Cipher with a Self-Synchronizing Mode of Operation
Palash Sarkar
In this paper, we present a new stream cipher called Hiji-bij-bij (HBB). The basic design principle of HBB is to mix a linear and a nonlinear map. Our innovation is in the design of the linear and the nonlinear maps. The linear map is realised using two 256-bit maximal period 90/150 cellular automata. The nonlinear map is simple and consists of several alternating linear and nonlinear layers. We prove that the mixing achieved by the nonlinear map is complete and the maximum bias in any non-zero linear combination of the input and output bits of the nonlinear map is at most $2^{-13}$. We also identify a self-synchronizing mode ({\bf SS}) of operation for HBB. The performance of HBB is reasonably good in software and is expected to be very fast in hardware. To the best of our knowledge, a generic exhaustive search seems to be the only method of attacking the cipher.
Last updated:  2003-01-22
Security Constraints on the Oswald-Aigner Exponentiation Algorithm
Colin D. Walter
In smartcard encryption and signature applications, randomized algorithms can be used to increase tamper resistance against attacks based on averaging data-dependent power or EMR variations. Recently, Oswald and Aigner described such an algorithm suitable for point multiplication in elliptic curve cryptography (ECC). With the assumption that an attacker can identify additions and doublings and distinguish them from each other during a single point multiplication, it is shown that the algorithm is insecure for repeated use of the same secret key without blinding of that key. This scotches hopes that the expense of such blinding might be avoided by using the algorithm unless the differences between point additions and doublings can be obscured successfully.
Last updated:  2003-01-22
The number of initial states of the RC4 cipher with the same cycle structure
Marina Pudovkina
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RC4 cipher is the most widely used stream cipher in software applications. It was designed by R. Rivest in 1987. In this paper we find the number of keys of the RC4 cipher generating initial permutations with the same cycle structure. We obtain that the distribution of initial permutations is not uniform.
Last updated:  2003-03-12
Cryptanalysis of Lee-Hwang-Li's Key Authentication Scheme
Fangguo Zhang, Kwangjo Kim
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Key authentication is very important in secret communications and data security. Recently, Lee, Hwang and Li proposed a new public key authentication scheme for cryptosystems with a trusty server. However, in this paper, we will show that Lee-Hwang-Li's key authentication scheme is not secure, from the obtained public information, any one can get the private key of the user. And then, we propose an improved scheme. We conclude that our new key authentication scheme not only resolves the problems appeared but also is secure.
Last updated:  2022-01-16
Differential Fault Analysis on A.E.S.
P. Dusart, G. Letourneux, O. Vivolo
We explain how a differential fault analysis (DFA) works on AES 128, 192 or 256 bits.
Last updated:  2004-02-16
Domain Extenders for UOWHF: A Finite Binary Tree Algorithm
Palash Sarkar
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We obtain a {\em finite} binary tree algorithm to extend the domain of a UOWHF. The associated key length expansion is only a constant number of bits more than the minimum possible. Our finite binary tree algorithm is a practical parallel algorithm to securely extend the domain of a UOWHF. Also the speed-up obtained by our algorithm is approximately proportional to the number of processors.
Last updated:  2003-05-14
Christophe Giraud
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In this paper we describe two different DFA attacks on the AES. The first one uses a fault model that induces a fault on only one bit of an intermediate result, hence allowing us to obtain the key by using 50 faulty ciphertexts for an AES-128. The second attack uses a more realistic fault model: we assume that we may induce a fault on a whole byte. For an AES-128, this second attack provides the key by using less than 250 faulty ciphertexts. Moreover, this attack has been successfully put into practice on a smart card.
Last updated:  2003-08-11
A Price Negotiable Transaction System
Huafei Zhu
We present a practical protocol that allows two players to negotiate price over the Internet in a deniable way so that a player $A$ can prevent another player $B$ from showing this offer $P$ to a third party $C$ in order to elicit a better offer while player $B$ should be sure that this offer $P$ generated by $A$, but should $C$ be unclear whether $P$ is generated by $A$ or $B$ itself, even $C$ and $B$ fully cooperated. Our protocol is a standard browser-server model and uses a trusted third party, but only in a very limited fashion: the trusted third party is only needed in the cases where one player attempts to cheat or simply crashes, therefore, in the vast of majority transactions, the third party is not to be involved at all. In addition, Our price negotiable transaction system enjoys the following properties: \begin{description} \item[(1)]It works in an asynchronous communication model. \item[(2)]It is inter-operated with existing or proposed scheme for electronics voting system; \item[(3)]The two players need not sacrifice their privacy in making use of the trusted third party; \item[(4)]The deniable property can be proved secure in the random oracle paradigm, while the matching protocol can be proved secure in the standard intractable assumption. \end{description}
Last updated:  2003-03-11
Multi-Party Computation from any Linear Secret Sharing Scheme Secure against Adaptive Adversary: The Zero-Error Case
Ventzislav Nikov, Svetla Nikova, Bart Preneel
We use a general treatment of both information-theoretic and cryptographic settings for Multi-Party Computation (MPC), based on the underlying linear secret sharing scheme. Our goal is to study the Monotone Span Program (MSP), which is the result of local multiplication of shares distributed by two given MSPs as well as the access structure that this resulting MSP computes. First, we expand the construction proposed by Cramer et~al. multiplying two different general access structures and we prove some properties of the resulting MSP ${\cal M}$. Next we expand the definition of multiplicative MSPs and we prove that when one uses dual MSPs only all players together can compute the product, i.e., the construction proposed by Cramer et~al. gives only multiplicative MPC. Third, we propose a solution for the strongly multiplicative MPC (in presence of adversary). The knowledge of the resulting MSP and the access structure it computes allows us to build an analog of the algebraic simplification protocol of Gennaro et~al. We show how to achieve in the computational model MPC secure against adaptive adversary in the zero-error case, through the application of homomorphic commitments. There is an open problem how efficiently we can determine $\Gamma$ the access structure of the resulting MSP ${\cal M}$. This open problem reflects negatively on the efficiency of the proposed solution.
Last updated:  2003-01-15
Distributing the Encryption and Decryption of a Block Cipher
Keith M. Martin, Rei Safavi-Naini, Huaxiong Wang, Peter R. Wild
In threshold cryptography the goal is to distribute the computation of basic cryptographic primitives across a number of nodes in order to relax trust assumptions on individual nodes, as well as to introduce a level of fault-tolerance against node compromise. Most threshold cryptography has previously looked at the distribution of public key primitives, particularly threshold signatures and threshold decryption mechanisms. In this paper we look at the application of threshold cryptography to symmetric primitives, and in particular the encryption or decryption of a symmetric key block cipher. We comment on some previous work in this area and then propose a model for shared encryption / decryption of a block cipher. We will present several approaches to enable such systems and will compare them.
Last updated:  2003-01-22
ID-based tripartite Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols from pairings
Divya Nalla, K. C. Reddy
This paper proposes ID-based tripartite authenticated key agreement protocols. The authenticated three party key agreement protocols from pairings [15], and the ID-based two party authenticated key agreement protocol [13] are studied. These two protocols are taken as the basis for designing three new ID-based tripartite authenticated key agreement protocols. The security properties of all these protocols are studied listing out the possible attacks on them. Further, these protocols are extended to provide key confirmation.
Last updated:  2003-01-23
Plaintext-dependant Repetition Codes Cryptanalysis of Block Ciphers - The AES Case
This paper presents a new ``operational'' cryptanalysis of block ciphers based on the use of a well-known error-correcting code: the repetition codes. We demonstrate how to describe a block cipher with such a code before explaining how to design a new ciphertext only cryptanalysis of these cryptosystems on the assumption that plaintext belongs to a particular class. This new cryptanalysis may succeed for any block cipher and thus is likely to question the security of those cryptosystems for encryption. We then apply this cryptanalysis to the 128-bit key AES. Our results have been experimentallly confirmed with 100 {\bf effective} cryptanalysis. Our attack enables to recover two information bits of the secret key with only $2^{31}$ ciphertext blocks and a complexity of $\mathcal{O}(2^{31})$ with a success probability of 0.68.
Last updated:  2003-01-08
Imperfect Decryption and an Attack on the NTRU Encryption Scheme
John Proos
A property of the NTRU public-key cryptosystem is that it does not provide perfect decryption. That is, given an instance of the cryptosystem, there exist ciphertexts which can be validly created using the public key but which can't be decrypted using the private key. The valid ciphertexts which an NTRU secret key will not correctly decipher determine, up to a cyclic shift, the secret key. In this paper we present attacks based on this property against the NTRU primitive and many of the suggested NTRU padding schemes. These attacks use an oracle for determining if valid ciphertexts can be correctly deciphered, and recover the user's secret key. The attacks are quite practical. For example, the attack against the NTRU-REACT padding scheme proposed at CRYPTO 2002 with the $N=503$ parameter set requires on average fewer than 30,000 oracle calls and can be performed on a PC in a few minutes. As the traditional definition of a public-key encryption scheme requires perfect decryption, we also define a new type of encryption scheme which encompasses both NTRU and an attack model for the attacks presented against it.
Last updated:  2003-01-07
A Mode of Operation with Partial Encryption and Message Integrity
Philip Hawkes, Gregory G. Rose
At the recent AES Modes of Operation Conference, several modes of operation were proposed for using a block cipher to provide both confidentiality and authentication. These modes require only a little more work than the cost of encryption alone, and come with proofs of security. However, these modes require the entire message to be sent in encrypted form. This can cause problems in situations where some of the message neeeds to be sent in plaintext while still being authenticated. This paper describes a simple variation that allows any choice of message blocks to be sent in plaintext form rather than in encrypted form. This mode, Partial Encryption with Message Integrity (PEMI), is shown to be secure for message integrity and message secrecy.
Last updated:  2002-12-23
An addition to the paper: A polarisation based visual crypto system and its secret sharing schemes
H. D. L. Hollmann, J. H. v. Lint, L. Tolhuizen, P. Tuyls
An (n,k) pair is a pair of binary nxm matrices (A,B), such that the weight of the modulo-two sum of any i rows, 1\leq i \leq k, from A or B is equal to a_i or b_i, respectively, and moreover, a_i=b_i, for 1\leq i < k, while a_k \neq b_k. In this note we first show how to construct an (n,k) Threshold Visual Secret Sharing Scheme from an (n,k) pair. Then, we explicitly construct an (n,k)-pair for all n and k with 1 \leq k <n.
Last updated:  2002-12-23
A polarisation based Visual Crypto System and its Secret Sharing Schemes
P. Tuyls, H. D. L. Hollmann, J. H. v. Lint, L. Tolhuizen
In this paper, we present a new visual crypto system based on the polarisation of light and investigate the existence and structure of the associated threshold visual secret sharing schemes. It is shown that very efficient $(n,n)$ schemes exist and that $(2,n)$ schemes are equivalent to binary codes. The existence of $(k,n)$ schemes is shown in general by two explicit constructions. Finally, bounds on the physical properties as contrast and resolution are derived.
Last updated:  2002-12-23
A Note on Ideal Tripartite Access Structures
Michael J. Collins
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Padró and Sáez introduced the concept of a $k$-partite access structure for secret sharing, and gave a complete characterization of ideal bipartite structures. We derive a necessary condition for ideal tripartite structures, which we conjecture is necessary for all $k$.
Last updated:  2003-10-23
Security Proofs for an Efficient Password-Based Key Exchange
Emmanuel Bresson, Olivier Chevassut, David Pointcheval
Password-based key exchange schemes are designed to provide entities communicating over a public network, and sharing a (short) password only, with a session key (e.g, the key is used for data integrity and/or confidentiality). The focus of the present paper is on the analysis of very efficient schemes that have been proposed to the IEEE P1363 Standard working group on password-based authenticated key-exchange methods, but for which actual security was an open problem. We analyze the AuthA key exchange scheme and give a complete proof of its security. Our analysis shows that the AuthA protocol and its multiple modes of operation are provably secure under the computational Diffie-Hellman intractability assumption, in both the random-oracle and the ideal-cipher models.
Last updated:  2003-08-13
A Linearization Attack on the Bluetooth Key Stream Generator
Frederik Armknecht
In this paper we propose an attack on the key stream generator underlying the encryption system $E_0$ used in the Bluetooth specification. We show that the initial value can be recovered by solving a system of nonlinear equations of degree 4 over the finite field GF(2). This system of equations can be transformed by linearization into a system of linear equations with at most $2^{24.056}$ unknowns. To our knowledge, this is the best attack on the key stream generator underlying the $\mbox{E}_0$ yet.
Last updated:  2005-02-01
Parallelizable Authentication Trees
Eric Hall, Charanjit S. Jutla
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We define a new authentication tree in the symmetric key setting, which has the same computational time, storage and security parameters as the well known Merkle authentication tree, but which unlike the latter, allows for all the cryptographic operations required for an update to be performed in parallel. The cryptographic operations required for verification can also be parallelized. In particular, we show a provably secure scheme for incremental MAC with partial authentication secure against substitution and replay attacks, which on total data of size $2^n$ blocks, and given $n$ cryptographic engines, can compute incremental macs and perform individual block authentication with a critical path of only one cryptographic operation
Last updated:  2002-12-12
Bit-Slice Auction Circuit
Kaoru Kurosawa, Wakaha Ogata
In this paper, we introduce a bit-slice approach for auctions and present a more efficient circuit than the normal approach for the highest-price auction. Our circuit can be combined with any auction protocol based on general circuit evaluation. Especially, if we combine with the mix and match technique, then we can obtain a highest-price auction protocol which is at least seven times faster. A second-price auction protocol is also easily constructed from our circuit.
Last updated:  2003-04-19
Key recovery attacks on NTRU without ciphertext validation routine
Daewan Han, Jin Hong, Jae Woo Han, Daesung Kwon
NTRU is an efficient public-key cryptosystem proposed by Hoffstein, Pipher, and Silverman. Assuming access to a decryption oracle, we show ways to recover the private key of NTRU systems that do not include a ciphertext validating procedure. The strongest of our methods will employ just a single call to the oracle, and in all cases, the number of calls needed will be small enough to be realistic.
Last updated:  2002-12-13
Entity Authentication Schemes Using Braid Word Reduction
Artin's braid groups currently provide a promising background for cryptographical applications, since the first cryptosystems using braids were introduced in \cite{SCY,AAF, AAG, KLC}. A variety of key agreement protocols based on braids have been described, but few authentication or signature schemes have been proposed so far. We introduce three authentication schemes based on braids, two of them being zero-knowledge interactive proofs of knowledge. Then we discuss their possible implementations, involving normal forms or an alternative braid algorithm, called handle reduction, which can achieve good efficiency under specific requirements.
Last updated:  2002-12-05
Zero-Knowledge twenty years after its invention
Oded Goldreich
Zero-knowledge proofs are proofs that are both convincing and yet yield nothing beyond the validity of the assertion being proven. Since their introduction about twenty years ago, zero-knowledge proofs have attracted a lot of attention and have, in turn, contributed to the development of other areas of cryptography and complexity theory. We survey the main definitions and results regarding zero-knowledge proofs. Specifically, we present the basic definitional approach and its variants, results regarding the power of zero-knowledge proofs as well as recent results regarding questions such as the composeability of zero-knowledge proofs and the use of the adversary's program within the proof of security (i.e., non-black-box simulation).
Last updated:  2003-11-17
Turing, a fast stream cipher
Greg Rose, Philip Hawkes
This paper proposes the Turing stream cipher. Turing offers up to 256-bit key strength, and is designed for extremely efficient software implementation. It combines an LFSR generator based on that of SOBER with a keyed mixing function reminiscent of a block cipher round. Aspects of the block mixer round have been derived from Rijndael, Twofish, tc24 and SAFER.
Last updated:  2004-05-27
Identity Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols from Pairings
Liqun Chen, Caroline Kudla
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We investigate a number of issues related to identity based authenticated key agreement protocols using the Weil or Tate pairings. These issues include how to make protocols efficient; how to avoid key escrow by a Trust Authority (TA) who issues identity based private keys for users, and how to allow users to use different Trusted Authorities. We describe a few authenticated key agreement (AK) protocols and AK with key confirmation (AKC) protocols which are modified from Smart's AK protocol. We study the security of these protocols heuristically and using provable security methods. In addition, we prove that our AK protocol is immune to key compromise impersonation attacks, and we also show that our second protocol has the TA forward secrecy property (which we define to mean that the compromise of the TA's private key will not compromise previously established session keys). We also show that this TA forward secrecy property implies that the protocol has the perfect forward secrecy property.
Last updated:  2002-12-01
Simple backdoors to RSA key generation
Claude Crépeau, Alain Slakmon
We present extremely simple ways of embedding a backdoor in the key generation scheme of RSA. Three of our schemes generate two genuinely random primes $p$ and $q$ of a given size, to obtain their public product $n=pq$. However they generate private/public exponents pairs $(d,e)$ in such a way that appears very random while allowing the author of the scheme to easily factor $n$ given only the public information $(n,e)$. Our last scheme, similar to the PAP method of Young and Yung, but more secure, works for any public exponent $e$ such as $3,17,65537$ by revealing the factorization of $n$ in its own representation. This suggests that nobody should rely on RSA key generation schemes provided by a third party.
Last updated:  2004-03-09
Oblivious Keyword Search
Wakaha Ogata, Kaoru Kurosawa
In this paper, we introduce a notion of Oblivious Keyword Search ($OKS$). Let $W$ be the set of possible keywords. In the commit phase, a database supplier $T$ commits $n$ data. In each transfer subphase, a user $U$ can choose a keyword $w \in W$ adaptively and find $Search(w)$ without revealing $w$ to $T$, where $Search(w)$ is the set of all data which includes $w$ as a keyword. We then show two efficient protocols such that the size of the commitments is only $(nB)$ regardless of the size of $W$, where $B$ is the size of each data. It is formally proved that $U$ learns nothing more and $T$ gains no information on the keywords which $U$ searched. We further present a more efficient adaptive $OT_k^n$ protocol than the previous one as an application of our first $OKS$ protocol.
Last updated:  2003-05-12
Counting Points for Hyperelliptic Curves of type $y^2=x^5+ax$ over Finite Prime Fields
Eisaku Furukawa, Mitsuru Kawazoe, Tetsuya Takahashi
Counting rational points on Jacobian varieties of hyperelliptic curves over finite fields is very important for constructing hyperelliptic curve cryptosystems (HCC), but known algorithms for general curves over given large prime fields need very long running times. In this article, we propose an extremely fast point counting algorithm for hyperelliptic curves of type $y^2=x^5+ax$ over given large prime fields $\Fp$, e.g. 80-bit fields. For these curves, we also determine the necessary condition to be suitable for HCC, that is, to satisfy that the order of the Jacobian group is of the form $l\cdot c$ where $l$ is a prime number greater than about $2^{160}$ and $c$ is a very small integer. We show some examples of suitable curves for HCC obtained by using our algorithm. We also treat curves of type $y^2=x^5+a$ where $a$ is not square in $\Fp$.
Last updated:  2003-03-10
Tetsu Iwata, Kaoru Kurosawa
In this paper, we present One-key CBC MAC (OMAC) and prove its security for arbitrary length messages. OMAC takes only one key, $K$ ($k$ bits) of a block cipher $E$. Previously, XCBC requires three keys, $(k+2n)$ bits in total, and TMAC requires two keys, $(k+n)$ bits in total, where $n$ denotes the block length of $E$. The saving of the key length makes the security proof of OMAC substantially harder than those of XCBC and TMAC.
Last updated:  2002-11-21
Parallel Algorithm for Multiplication on Elliptic Curves
Juan Manuel Garcia Garcia, Rolando Menchaca Garcia
Given a positive integer $n$ and a point $P$ on an elliptic curve $E$, the computation of $nP$, that is, the result of adding $n$ times the point $P$ to itself, called the \emph{scalar multiplication}, is the central operation of elliptic curve cryptosystems. We present an algorithm that, using $p$ processors, can compute $nP$ in time $O(\log n+H(n)/p+\log p)$, where $H(n)$ is the Hamming weight of $n$. Furthermore, if this algorithm is applied to Koblitz curves, the running time can be reduced to $O(H(n)/p+\log p)$.
Last updated:  2002-11-21
Attack on A New Public Key Cryptosystem from ISC'02 (LNCS 2433)
Fangguo Zhang, Shengli Liu, Kwangjo Kim
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In ISC 2002, J. Zheng proposed a new public key cryptosystem whose security is based upon the algebraic problem of reducing a high degree matrix to its canonical form by similarity transformations. In this paper, we show that factoring a polynomial over a finite field can be used to break down Zheng's public key cryptosystem. The complexity of our attack is polynomial time. In other word, the underlying problem of Zheng's public key cryptosystem is not a ``hard'' problem.
Last updated:  2002-11-19
two attacks on xia-you Group Signature
Jianhong Zhang, Jilin Wang, Yumin Wang
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Group signature is very important primitive in cryptography. A group signature scheme allows any group member to sign on behalf of the group in an anonymous and unlinkable fashion .In case of dispute, group manager can reveal the identity of the signer. Recently, S.Xia and J.You proposed a group signature scheme based on identity with strong separability in which the revocation manager can work without the involvement of the membership manger. In this paper, we analyze the security of Xia-You group signature and indicate that two or more group members can collude to construct a valid signature and any group member can forge a valid membership certification.
Last updated:  2002-11-18
Theoretical Analysis of ``Correlations in RC6''
Masahiko Takenaka, Takeshi Shimoyama, Takeshi Koshiba
In this paper, we give the theoretical analysis of Chi-square attack proposed by Knudsen and Meier on the RC6 block cipher. To this end, we propose the novel method of security evaluation against Chi-square attack precisely including key dependency by introducing a technique ``Transition Matrix Computing.'' On the other hand, the way of security evaluation against Chi-square attack has not been known except the computer experiment. We should note that it is the first results the way of security evaluation against Chi-square attack is shown theoretically. Using this method, we can obtain the ``weakest keys'' against the attack.
Last updated:  2003-04-29
Aggregate and Verifiably Encrypted Signatures from Bilinear Maps
Dan Boneh, Craig Gentry, Ben Lynn, Hovav Shacham
An aggregate signature scheme is a digital signature that supports aggregation: Given $n$ signatures on $n$ distinct messages from $n$ distinct users, it is possible to aggregate all these signatures into a single short signature. This single signature (and the $n$ original messages) will convince the verifier that the $n$ users did indeed sign the $n$ original messages (i.e., user $i$ signed message $M_i$ for $i=1,\ldots,n$). In this paper we introduce the concept of an aggregate signature scheme, present security models for such signatures, and give several applications for aggregate signatures. We construct an efficient aggregate signature from a recent short signature scheme based on bilinear maps due to Boneh, Lynn, and Shacham. Aggregate signatures are useful for reducing the size of certificate chains (by aggregating all signatures in the chain) and for reducing message size in secure routing protocols such as SBGP. We also show that aggregate signatures give rise to verifiably encrypted signatures. Such signatures enable the verifier to test that a given ciphertext $C$ is the encryption of a signature on a given message $M$. Verifiably encrypted signatures are used in contract-signing protocols. Finally, we show that similar ideas can be used to extend the short signature scheme to give simple ring signatures.
Last updated:  2005-10-31
A Designer's Guide to KEMs
Alexander W. Dent
A generic or KEM-DEM hybrid construction is a formal method of combining a asymmetric and symmetric encryption techniques to give an efficient, provably secure public-key encryption scheme. This method combines an asymmetric KEM with a symmetric DEM, and each of these components must satisfy their own security conditions. In this paper we describe generic constructions for provably secure KEMs based on lower level primitives such as one-way trapdoor functions and weak key-agreement protocols.
Last updated:  2004-04-21
Efficient Group Signatures without Trapdoors
Giuseppe Ateniese, Breno de Medeiros
Group signature schemes enable unlinkably anonymous authentication, in the same fashion that digital signatures provide the basis for strong authentication protocols. This paper introduces the first group signature scheme with constant-size parameters that does not require any group member, including group managers, to know trapdoor secrets. This novel type of group signature scheme allows public parameters to be shared among organizations, and are useful when several distinct groups must interact and exchange information about individuals while protecting their privacy.
Last updated:  2002-11-13
PECDSA. How to build a DL-based digital signature scheme with the best proven security
Louis Granboulan
Many variants of the ElGamal signature scheme have been proposed. The most famous is the DSA standard. If computing discrete logarithms is hard, then some of these schemes have been proven secure in an idealized model, either the random oracle or the generic group. We propose a generic but simple presentation of signature schemes with security based on the discrete logarithm. We show how they can be proven secure in idealized model, under which conditions. We conclude that none of the previously proposed digital signature schemes has optimal properties and we propose a scheme named PECDSA.
Last updated:  2002-11-12
Statistical weaknesses in the alleged RC4 keystream generator
Marina Pudovkina
A large number of stream cipher were proposed and implemented over the last twenty years. In 1987 Rivest designed the RC4 stream cipher, which was based on a different and more software friendly paradigm. It was integrated into Microsoft Windows, Lotus Notes, Apple AOCE, Oracle Secure SQL, and many other applications, and has thus become the most widely used a software-based stream cipher. In this paper we describe some properties of an output sequence of RC4. It is proved that the distribution of first, second output values of RC4 and digraphs are not uniform, which makes RC4 trivial to distinguish between short outputs of RC4 and random strings by analyzing their first, or second output values of RC4 or digraphs.
Last updated:  2002-11-18
An Analysis of RMAC
Jack Lloyd
A recent trend in message authentication is the use of a randomizing parameter, such that the authentication tag is based not only on the message and the key, but a public nonce which is changed for every authenticated message. This generally affords a better security proof. However, several new classes of attacks are made available by these techniques. We examine these attacks, and apply some of them to RMAC, a recently published MAC mechanism.
Last updated:  2002-11-12
Theoretical Use of Cache Memory as a Cryptanalytic Side-Channel
D. Page
Show abstract
We expand on the idea, proposed by Kelsey et al, of cache memory being used as a side-channel which leaks information during the run of a cryptographic algorithm. By using this side-channel, an attacker may be able to reveal or narrow the possible values of secret information held on the target device. We describe an attack which encrypts $2^{10}$ chosen plaintexts on the target processor in order to collect cache profiles and then performs around $2^{32}$ computational steps to recover the key. As well as describing and simulating the theoretical attack, we discuss how hardware and algorithmic alterations can be used to defend against such techniques.
Last updated:  2002-11-12
New Signature Scheme Using Conjugacy Problem
Ki Hyoung Ko, Doo Ho Choi, Mi Sung Cho, Jang Won Lee
We propose a new digital signature scheme based on a non-commutative group where the conjugacy search problem is hard and the conjugacy decision problem is feasible. We implement our signature scheme in the braid groups and prove that an existential forgery of the implementation under no message attack gives a solution to a variation of conjugacy search problem. Then we discuss performance of our scheme under suggested parameters.
Last updated:  2002-11-12
Cryptanalysis of Two New Signature Schemes
Fangguo Zhang, Kwangjo Kim
Show abstract
Group signature and blind signature are very important primitives in cryptography. A group signature scheme allows a group member to sign messages anonymously on behalf of the group and a blind signature scheme can ensure anonymity of the sender of a message. Recently, S. Xia and J. You proposed a group signature scheme with strong separability in which the revocation manager can work without the involvement of the membership manager and J.J-R. Chen and A.P. Chen proposed a blind signature scheme based on dual complexities (which combines factorization and discrete logarithm problem). In this paper, we give a universal forgery attack on Xia-You's group signature scheme which any one (not necessarily a group member) can produce a valid group signature on an arbitrary message, and it is untraceable by the group revocation manager. For Chen-Chen's blind signature scheme, we show that it could not meet the untraceability property of a blind signature, $i.e.$, it could not ensure anonymity of the user.
Last updated:  2002-11-05
Multi-Party Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols from Multilinear Forms
Ho-Kyu Lee, Hyang-Sook Lee, Young-Ran Lee
A. Joux presented a one round protocol for tripartitie key agreement and Al-Riyami developed a number of tripartitie, one round, authenticated protocols related to MTI and MQV protocols. Recently, Boneh and Silverleg studied multilinear forms, which provides a one round multi-party key agreement protocol. In this paper, we propose $(n+1)$ types of one round authenticated multi-party key agreement protocols from multilinear forms based on the application of MTI and MQV protocols.
Last updated:  2004-11-05
Coercion-Resistant Electronic Elections
Ari Juels, Dario Catalano, Markus Jakobsson
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We introduce a model for electronic election schemes that involves a more powerful adversary than in previous work. In particular, we allow the adversary to demand of coerced voters that they vote in a particular manner, abstain from voting, or even disclose their secret keys. We define a scheme to be _coercion-resistant_ if it is infeasible for the adversary to determine whether a coerced voter complies with the demands. A first contribution of this paper is to describe and characterize a new and strengthened adversary for coercion in elections. (In doing so, we additionally present what we believe to be the first formal security definitions for electronic elections of _any_ type.) A second contribution is to demonstrate a protocol that is secure against this adversary. While it is clear that a strengthening of attack models is of theoretical relevance, it is important to note that our results lie close to practicality. This is true both in that we model real-life threats (such as vote-buying and vote-cancelling), and in that our proposed protocol combines a fair degree of efficiency with an unusual lack of structural complexity. Furthermore, while previous schemes have required use of an untappable channel, ours only carries the much more practical requirement of an anonymous channel.
Last updated:  2004-12-10
Authenticated ID-based Key Exchange and remote log-in with simple token and PIN number
Mike Scott
Authenticated Key exchange algorithms tend to be either token-based or password based. Token-based schemes are often based on expensive (and irreplaceable) smart-card tokens, while password-only schemes require that a unique password is shared with every correspondent. The magnetic strip swipe card and associated PIN number is a familiar and convenient format that motivates a combined approach. Finally we suggest an extension of the scheme for use in a client-server scenario.
Last updated:  2002-11-13
Man-in-the-Middle in Tunnelled Authentication Protocols
N. Asokan, Valtteri Niemi, Kaisa Nyberg
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Recently new protocols have been proposed in IETF for protecting remote client authentication protocols by running them within a secure tunnel. Examples of such protocols are PIC, PEAP and EAP-TTLS. One goal of these new protocols is to enable the migration from legacy client authentication protocols to more secure protocols, e.g., from plain EAP type to, say, PEAP. In the new drafts, the security of the subsequent session credentials are based only on keys derived during the unilateral authentication where the network server is authenticated to the client. Client authentication is mentioned as an option in PEAP and EAP-TTLS, but is not mandated. Naturally, the PIC protocol does not even offer this option, because the goal of PIC is to obtain credentials that can be used for client authentication. In addition to running the authentication protocols within such tunnel it should also be possible to use them in legacy mode without any tunnelling so as to leverage the legacy advantages such as widespread use. In this paper we show that in practical situations, such a mixed mode usage opens up the possibility to run a man-in-the-middle attack for impersonating the legitimate client. For those well-designed client authentication protocols that already have a sufficient level of security, the use of tunnelling in the proposed form is a step backwards because they introduce a new vulnerability. The problem is due to the fact that the legacy client authentication protocol is not aware if it is run in protected or unprotected mode. We propose to solve the discovered problem by using a cryptographic binding between the client authentication protocol and the protection protocol.
Last updated:  2002-11-01
On Constructing Locally Computable Extractors and Cryptosystems in the Bounded Storage Model
Salil P. Vadhan
We consider the problem of constructing randomness extractors which are {\em locally computable}, i.e. only read a small number of bits from their input. As recently shown by Lu (CRYPTO `02), locally computable extractors directly yield secure private-key cryptosystems in Maurer's bounded storage model (J. Cryptology, 1992). In this note, we observe that a fundamental lemma of Nisan and Zuckerman (J. Computer and System Sciences, 1996) yields a general technique for constructing locally computable extractors. Specifically, we obtain a locally computable extractor by combining any extractor with any randomness-efficient (averaging) sampler. Plugging in known extractor and sampler constructions, we obtain locally computable extractors, and hence cryptosystems in the bounded storage model, whose parameters improve upon previous constructions and come quite close to the lower bounds. Along the way, we also present a refinement of the Nisan--Zuckerman lemma, showing that random sampling bits from a weak random source preserves the min-entropy rate up to an arbitrarily small additive loss (whereas the original lemma loses a logarithmic factor).
Last updated:  2003-08-25
Practical Verifiable Encryption and Decryption of Discrete Logarithms
Jan Camenisch, Victor Shoup
This paper presents a variant of the new public key encryption of Cramer and Shoup based on Paillier's decision composite residuosity assumption, along with an efficient protocol for verifiable encryption of discrete logarithms. This is the first verifiable encryption system that provides chosen ciphertext security and avoids inefficient cut-and-choose proofs. This has numerous applications, including fair exchange and key escrow. We also present efficient protocols for verifiable decryption, which has applications to, e.g., confirmer signatures. The latter protocols build on a new protocol for proving whether or not two discrete logarithms are equal that is of independent interest. Prior such protocols were either inefficient or not zero-knowledge.
Last updated:  2003-02-16
Cryptology and Physical Security: Rights Amplification in Master-Keyed Mechanical Locks
Matt Blaze
This paper examines mechanical lock security from the perspective of computer science and cryptology. We focus on new and practical attacks for amplifying rights in mechanical pin tumbler locks. Given access to a single master-keyed lock and its associated key, a procedure is given that allows discovery and creation of a working master key for the system. No special skill or equipment, beyond a small number of blank keys and a metal file, is required, and the attacker need engage in no suspicious behavior at the lock's location. Countermeasures are also described that may provide limited protection under certain circumstances. We conclude with directions for research in this area and the suggestion that mechanical locks are worthy objects for study and scrutiny.
Last updated:  2002-12-03
Related-Key and Key-Collision Attacks Against RMAC
Tadayoshi Kohno
In [JJV02] Jaulmes, Joux, and Valette propose a new randomized message authentication scheme, called RMAC, which NIST is currently in the process of standardizing [NIS02]. In this work we present several attacks against RMAC. The attacks are based on a new protocol-level related-key attack against RMAC and can be considered variants of Biham's key-collision attack [Bih02]. These attacks provide insights into the RMAC design. We believe that the protocol-level related-key attack is of independent interest.
Last updated:  2002-10-16
The Book of Rijndaels
Elad Barkan, Eli Biham
This paper is the full book of the 240 dual ciphers of Rijndael, in which only the constants differ from Rijndael. See: ``In How Many Ways Can You Write Rijndael?'',
Last updated:  2002-10-16
In How Many Ways Can You Write Rijndael?
Elad Barkan, Eli Biham
In this paper we ask the question what happens if we replace all the constants in Rijndael, including the replacement of the irreducible polynomial, the coefficients of the MixColumn operation, the affine transformation in the S box, etc. We show that such replacements can create new dual ciphers, which are equivalent to the original in all aspects. We present several such dual ciphers of Rijndael, such as the square of Rijndael, and dual ciphers with the irreducible polynomial replaced by primitive polynomials. We also describe another family of dual ciphers consisting of the logarithms of Rijndael. We then discuss self-dual ciphers, and extend our results to other ciphers.
Last updated:  2002-12-02
Validating Digital Signatures without Time-Stamping and Certificate Revocation
Jianying Zhou, Feng Bao, Robert Deng
In non-repudiation services where digital signatures usually serve as irrefutable cryptographic evidence for dispute resolution, trusted time-stamping and certificate revocation services, although very costly in practice, must be available, to prevent big loss due to compromising of the signing key. In [IR02], a new concept called intrusion-resilient signature} was proposed to get rid of trusted time-stamping and certificate revocation services and a concrete scheme was presented. In this paper, we put forward a new scheme that can achieve the same effect in a much more efficient way. In our scheme, forward-secure signature serves as a building block that enables signature validation without trusted time-stamping, and a one-way hash chain is employed to control the validity of public-key certificates without the CA's involvement for certificate revocation. We adopt a model similar to the intrusion-resilient signature in [IR02], where time is divided into predefined short periods and a user has two modules, signer and home base. The signer generates forward-secure signatures on his own while the home base manages the validity of the signer's public-key certificate with a one-way hash chain. The signature verifier can check the validity of signatures without retrieving the certificate revocation information from the CA. Our scheme is more robust in the sense that loss of synchronization between the signer and the home base could be recovered in the next time period while it is unrecoverable in [IR02]. To facilitate the implementation of our signature validation scheme, we further present a new forward-secure signature scheme which is more efficient than all of the existing forward-secure signature schemes.
Last updated:  2002-10-15
Secure Bilinear Diffie-Hellman Bits
Steven D. Galbraith, Herbie J. Hopkins, Igor E. Shparlinski
The Weil and Tate pairings are a popular new gadget in cryptography and have found many applications, including identity-based cryptography. In particular, the pairings have been used for key exchange protocols. This paper studies the bit security of keys obtained using protocols based on pairings (that is, we show that obtaining certain bits of the common key is as hard as computing the entire key). These results are valuable as they give insight into how many ``hard-core'' bits can be obtained from key exchange using pairings.
Last updated:  2002-10-28
On multi-exponentiation in cryptography
Roberto M. Avanzi
We describe and analyze new combinations of multi-exponentiation algorithms with representations of the exponents. We deal mainly but not exclusively with the case where the inversion of group elements is fast: These methods are most attractive with exponents in the range from 80 to 256 bits, and can also be used for computing single exponentiations in groups which admit an automorphism satisfying a monic equation of small degree over the integers. The choice of suitable exponent representations allows us to match or improve the running time of the best multi-exponentiation techniques in the aforementioned range, while keeping the memory requirements as small as possible. Hence some of the methods presented here are particularly attractive for deployment in memory constrained environments such as smart cards. By construction, such methods provide good resistance against side channel attacks. We also describe some applications of these algorithms.
Last updated:  2003-05-22
Weighted Coordinates on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves
Tanja Lange
This paper is the third in a line considering the arithmetic in the ideal class group of hyperelliptic genus two curves. The previous two papers deal with generalizations of affine and projective coordinates. Now we investigate how one can obtain inversion free formulae that are faster than projective by considering weighted coordinates. To that end we make an extensive case study to deal with different characteristic, equation of the curve, space requirement and situation of appliance.
Last updated:  2002-10-15
A note on Weak Keys of PES, IDEA and some Extended Variants
Jorge Nakahara Jr, Bart Preneel, Joos Vandewalle
This paper presents an analysis of the PES cipher in a similar setting as done by Daemen et al. at Crypto'93 for IDEA. The following results were obtained for 8.5 round PES: a linear weak-key class of size $2^{48}$; two distinct differential weak-key classes of size $2^{41}$; two differential-linear weak-key classes of size $2^{62}$. For 17-round PES (double-PES): a linear weak-key class of size $2^7$, and a differential weak-key class of size $2^7$ were found. Daemen suggested a modified key schedule for IDEA in order to avoid weak keys. We found a differential weak-key class of size $2^{83}$ for 2.5-round IDEA under his redesigned key schedule, and differential-linear relations for 3.5-round IDEA.
Last updated:  2002-11-07
Selective disclosure credential sets
Jason E. Holt, Kent E. Seamons
We describe a credential system similar to the electronic cash system described by Chaum, Fiat and Naor. Our system uses bit commitments to create selective disclosure credentials which limit what portions of a credential the holder must reveal. We show how credentials from separate issuers can be linked to the same person in order to prevent users from pooling credentials to obtain services no one user could obtain alone. We also describe how to use a blinding technique described by Laurie which may not violate the patents on blind signatures.
Last updated:  2002-10-01
Cryptanalysis of the Lee-Hwang Group-Oriented Undeniable Signature Schemes
Guilin Wang, Jianying Zhou, Robert H. Deng
Undeniable signature is an intriguing concept introduced by Chaum and Antwerpen at Crypto'89. In 1999, Lee and Hwang presented two group-oriented undeniable signature schemes with a trusted center. Their schemes are natural generalizations of Chaum's zero-knowledge undeniable signature scheme proposed in 1990. However, we find that the Lee-Hwang schemes are insecure. In this paper, we demonstrate five attacks on their schemes: four of them are universal forgery, in which one dishonest member (maybe collude with a verifier) can get a valid signature on any chosen massage, and another attack allows a dishonest member to prevent honest members from generating valid signatures but his cheating behavior is undetected. We also suggest heuristic improvements to overcome some of the problems involved in these attacks.
Last updated:  2002-10-02
About Filliol's Observations on DES, AES and Hash Functions (draft)
Nicolas T. Courtois
Recently Filiol proposed to test cryptographic algorithms by making statistics on the number of low degree terms in the boolean functions. The paper has been published on eprint on 23th of July 2002. In this paper we reproduce some of Filiol's simulations. We did not confirm his results: our results suggest that DES, AES, and major hash functions have no significative bias and their output bits behave just like random boolean functions.
Last updated:  2003-02-25
The EMD Mode of Operation (A Tweaked, Wide-Blocksize, Strong PRP)
Phillip Rogaway
We describe a block-cipher mode of operation, EMD, that builds a strong pseudorandom permutation (PRP) on $nm$ bits ($m\ge2$) out of a strong PRP on $n$ bits (i.e., a block cipher). The constructed PRP is also tweaked (in the sense of [LRW02]): to determine the $nm$-bit ciphertext block $C=\E_K^T(P)$ one provides, besides the key $K$ and the $nm$-bit plaintext block $P$, an $n$-bit tweak $T$. The mode uses $2m$ block-cipher calls and no other complex or computationally expensive steps (such as universal hashing). Encryption and decryption are identical except that encryption uses the forward direction of the underlying block cipher and decryption uses the backwards direction. We suggest that EMD provides an attractive solution to the disk-sector encryption problem, where one wants to encipher the contents of an $nm$-bit disk sector in a way that depends on the sector index and is secure against chosen-plaintext/chosen-ciphertext attack.
Last updated:  2003-05-22
Inversion-Free Arithmetic on Genus 2 Hyperelliptic Curves
Tanja Lange
We investigate formulae to double and add in the ideal class group of a hyperelliptic genus 2 curve avoiding inversions. To that aim we introduce a further coordinate in the representation of a class in which we collect the common denominator of the usual 4 coordinates. The analysis shows that this is practical and advantageous whenever inversions are expensive compared to multiplications like for example on smart cards.
Last updated:  2002-10-04
Bauer-Berson-Feiertag attack revisited
Jun-Bum Shin, Kwang H. Lee
We show that Shoup and Rubin's protocols are not secure against the BBF attack proposed by Bauer, Berson, and Feiertag, and propose an amendment. Furthermore, our results indicate that both Bellare and Rogaway's security and Paulson's security do not imply the security against the BBF attack.
Last updated:  2002-09-26
Cryptanalysis of MQV with partially known nonces
P. J. Leadbitter, N. P. Smart
In this paper we present the first lattice attack on an authenticated key agreement protocol, which does not use a digital signature algorithm to produce the authentication. We present a two stage attack on MQV in which one party may recover the other party's static private key from partial knowledge of the nonces from several runs of the protocol. The first stage reduces the attack to a hidden number problem which is partially solved by considering a closest vector problem and using Babai's algorithm. This stage is closely related to the attack of Nguyen and Shparlinski on DSA but is complicated by a non-uniform distribution of multipliers. The second stage recovers the rest of the key using the baby-step/giant-step algorithm or Pollard's Lambda algorithm and runs in time $O(q^{1/4})$. The attack has been proven to work with high probability and validated experimentally. We have thus reduced the security from $O(q^{1/2})$ down to $O(q^{1/4})$ when partial knowledge of the nonces is given.
Last updated:  2002-09-20
On Some Algebraic Structures in the AES Round Function
A. M. Youssef, S. E. Tavares
In this paper, we show that all the coordinate functions of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) round function are equivalent under an affi ne transformation of the input to the round function. In other words, let $f_i$ and $f_j$ be any two distinct output coordinates of the AES round function, then there exists a nonsingular matrix $A_{ji}$ over $GF(2)$ such that $f_j(A_{ji} x) + b_{ji}= f_i(x), b_{ji} \in GF(2)$. We also show that such linear relations will always exist if the Rijndael s-b ox is replaced by any bijective monomial over $GF(2^8)$. %We also show that replacing the s-box by any bijective monomial will not change this property.
Last updated:  2002-09-20
An Attack on the Isomorphisms of Polynomials Problem with One Secret
Willi Geiselmann, Willi Meier, Rainer Steinwandt
At EUROCRYPT '96 J. Patarin introduced the "Isomorphisms of Polynomials (IP)" problem as a basis of authentication and signature schemes. We describe an attack on the secret key of "IP with one secret" and demonstrate its efficiency through examples with realistic parameter sizes. To prevent our attack, additional restrictions on the suggested parameters should be imposed.
Last updated:  2002-09-17
On the Applicability of Distinguishing Attacks Against Stream Ciphers
Greg Rose, Philip Hawkes
We demonstrate that the existence of distinguishing attacks against stream ciphers is unrelated to their security in practical use, and in particular that the amount of data required to perform a distinguishing attack is unrelated to the key length of the cipher. The implication for the NESSIE Project is that no submitted symmetric cipher would be accepted under the unpublished rules for distinguishing attacks, not even the block ciphers in Counter Mode or Output Feedback Mode.
Last updated:  2003-03-02
Applying General Access Structure to Proactive Secret Sharing Schemes
Ventzislav Nikov, Svetla Nikova, Bart Preneel, Joos Vandewalle
Verifiable secret sharing schemes (VSS) are secret sharing schemes (SSS) dealing with possible cheating by participants. In this paper we use the VSS proposed by Cramer, Damgard and Maurer \cite{CDM99,CDM00,Cra00}. They introduced a purely linear algebraic method to transform monotone span program (MSP) based secret sharing schemes into VSS. In fact, the monotone span program model of Karchmer and Wigderson \cite{KW93} deals with arbitrary monotone access structures and not just threshold ones. Stinson and Wei \cite{SW99} proposed a proactive SSS based on threshold (polynomial) VSS. The purpose of this paper is to build unconditionally secure proactive SSS over any access structure, as long as it admits a linear secret sharing scheme (LSSS).
Last updated:  2003-07-14
Universally Composable Two-Party and Multi-Party Secure Computation
Ran Canetti, Yehuda Lindell, Rafail Ostrovsky, Amit Sahai
We show how to securely realize any two-party and multi-party functionality in a {\em universally composable} way, regardless of the number of corrupted participants. That is, we consider an asynchronous multi-party network with open communication and an adversary that can adaptively corrupt as many parties as it wishes. In this setting, our protocols allow any subset of the parties (with pairs of parties being a special case) to securely realize any desired functionality of their local inputs, and be guaranteed that security is preserved regardless of the activity in the rest of the network. This implies that security is preserved under concurrent composition of an unbounded number of protocol executions, it implies non-malleability with respect to arbitrary protocols, and more. Our constructions are in the common reference string model and rely on standard intractability assumptions.
Last updated:  2002-09-12
Reaction Attacks on Public Key Cryptosystems Based on the Word Problem
Maria Isabel Gonzalez Vasco, Rainer Steinwandt
Wagner and Magyarik outlined a general construction for public key cryptosystems based on the hardness of the word problem for finitely presented groups. At the same time, they gave a specific example of such a system. We prove that their approach is vulnerable to so-called reaction attacks, namely, it is possible to retrieve the private key just by watching the performance of a legitimate recipient.
Last updated:  2002-09-17
On the Security of HFE, HFEv- and Quartz
Nicolas T. Courtois, Magnus Daum, Patrick Felke
Quartz is a signature scheme based on an HFEv- trapdoor function published at Eurocrypt 1996. In this paper we study "inversion" attacks for Quartz, i.e. attacks that solve the system of multivariate equations used in Quartz. We do not cover some special attacks that forge signatures without inversion. We are interested in methods to invert the HFEv- trapdoor function or at least to distinguish it from a random system of the same size. There are 4 types of attacks known on HFE: Shamir-Kipnis, Shamir-Kipnis-Courtois, Courtois, and attacks related to Gröbner bases such as the F5/2 attack by Jean Charles Faugère. No attack has been published so far on HFEv- and it was believed to be more secure than HFE. In this paper we show that even modified HFE systems can be successfully attacked. It seems that the complexity of the attack increases by at least a factor of $q^{tot}$ with $tot$ being the total number of perturbations in HFE. From this and all the other known attacks we will estimate what is the complexity of the best "inversion" attack for Quartz.
Last updated:  2002-09-12
Provably Secure Steganography
Nicholas J. Hopper, John Langford, Luis von Ahn
Informally, steganography is the process of sending a secret message from Alice to Bob in such a way that an eavesdropper (who listens to all communications) cannot even tell that a secret message is being sent. In this work, we initiate the study of steganography from a complexity-theoretic point of view. We introduce definitions based on computational indistinguishability and we prove that the existence of one-way functions implies the existence of secure steganographic protocols. NOTE: An extended abstract of this paper appeared in CRYPTO 2002. Here we present a full version, including a correction to a small error in Construction 1.
Last updated:  2002-08-31
Practical Non-Interactive Key Distribution Based on Pairings
Régis Dupont, Andreas Enge
We propose a practical non-interactive key distribution protocol based on pairings and define a notion of security for such a scheme. We prove the security of the system in this setting under the GDBH assumption, and present some possible realisations using Weil or Tate pairings on supersingular and ordinary elliptic curves.
Last updated:  2008-03-20
Folklore, Practice and Theory of Robust Combiners
Amir Herzberg
Show abstract
Cryptographic schemes are often designed as a combination of multiple component cryptographic modules. Such a combiner design is {\em robust} for a (security) specification if it meets the specification, provided that a sufficient subset of the components meet their specifications. A folklore combiner for encryption is {\em cascade}, i.e. $c={\cal E}''_{e''}({\cal E}'_{e'}(m))$. We show that cascade is a robust combiner for cryptosystems, under three important indistinguishability specifications: chosen plaintext attack (IND-CPA), non-adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (IND-CCA1), and replayable chosen ciphertext attack (IND-rCCA). We also show that cascade is not robust for the important specifications adaptive CCA (IND-CCA2) and generalized CCA (IND-gCCA). The IND-rCCA and IND-gCCA specifications are closely related, and this is an interesting difference between them. All specifications are defined within. We also analyze few other basic and folklore combiners. In particular, we show that the following are robust combiners: the {\em parallel combiner} $f(x)=f''(x)||f'(x)$ for one-way functions , the {\em XOR-Input combiner} $c=\left({\cal E}''_{e''}(m\oplus r),{\cal E}'_{e'}(r)\right)$ for cryptosystems, and the {\em copy combiner} $f_{k'',k'}(m)=f''_{k''}(m)||f'_{k'}(m)$ for integrity tasks such as Message Authentication Codes (MAC) and signature schemes. Cascade is also robust for the hiding property of commitment schemes, and the copy combiner is robust for the binding property, but neither is a robust combiner for both properties. We present (new) robust combiners for commitment schemes; these new combiners can be viewed as a composition of the cascade and the copy combiners. Our combiners are simple, efficient and practical.
Last updated:  2002-08-29
Asynchronous Verifiable Secret Sharing and Proactive Cryptosystems
Christian Cachin, Klaus Kursawe, Anna Lysyanskaya, Reto Strobl
Verifiable secret sharing is an important primitive in distributed cryptography. With the growing interest in the deployment of threshold cryptosystems in practice, the traditional assumption of a synchronous network has to be reconsidered and generalized to an asynchronous model. This paper proposes the first \emph{practical} verifiable secret sharing protocol for asynchronous networks. The protocol creates a discrete logarithm-based sharing and uses only a quadratic number of messages in the number of participating servers. It yields the first asynchronous Byzantine agreement protocol in the standard model whose efficiency makes it suitable for use in practice. Proactive cryptosystems are another important application of verifiable secret sharing. The second part of this paper introduces proactive cryptosystems in asynchronous networks and presents an efficient protocol for refreshing the shares of a secret key for discrete logarithm-based sharings.
Last updated:  2002-10-16
Efficient Construction of (Distributed) Verifiable Random Functions
Yevgeniy Dodis
We give the first simple and efficient construction of {\em verifiable random functions} (VRFs). VRFs, introduced by Micali et al. [MRV99], combine the properties of regular pseudorandom functions (PRFs) [GGM86] (i.e., indistinguishability from a random function) and digital signatures [GMR88] (i.e., one can provide an unforgeable proof that the VRF\ value is correctly computed). The efficiency of our VRF construction is only slightly worse than that of a regular PRF construction of Naor and Reingold [NR97]. In contrast to ours, the previous VRF constructions [MRV99,Lys02] all involved an expensive generic transformation from verifiable unpredictable functions (VUFs), while our construction is simple and direct. We also provide the first construction of {\em distributed} VRFs. Our construction is more efficient than the only known construction of distributed (non-verifiable) PRFs [Nie02], but has more applications than the latter. For example, it can be used to distributively implement the random oracle model in a {\em publicly verifiable} manner, which by itself has many applications (e.g., constructing threshold signature schemes). Our main construction is based on a new variant of decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption on certain groups where the regular DDH assumption does {\em not} hold. We do not make any claims about the validity of our assumption (which we call {\em sum-free} DDH, or sf-DDH). However, this assumption seems to be plausible based on our {\em current} understanding of certain candidate elliptic and hyper-elliptic groups which were recently proposed for use in cryptography [JN01,Jou00]. We hope that the demonstrated power of our sf-DDH assumption will serve as a motivation for its closer study.
Last updated:  2002-08-28
Tight Lower Bound on Linear Authenticated Encryption
Charanjit S. Jutla
We show that any scheme to encrypt m blocks of size n bits while assuring message integrity, that apart from using m+k invocations of random functions (from n bits to n bits) and vn bits of randomness, is linear in (GF2)^n, must have k+v at least Omega(log m). This lower bound is proved in a very general model which rules out many promising linear modes of operations for encryption with message integrity. This lower bound is tight as linear schemes to encrypt m blocks while assuring message integrity by using only m+2+log m invocations are known. of random permutations.
Last updated:  2002-08-28
An Improved Pseudorandom Generator Based on Hardness of Factoring
Nenad Dedic, Leonid Reyzin, Salil Vadhan
We present a simple to implement and efficient pseudorandom generator based on the factoring assumption. It outputs more than pn/2 pseudorandom bits per p exponentiations, each with the same base and an exponent shorter than n/2 bits. Our generator is based on results by Hastad, Schrift and Shamir [HSS93], but unlike their generator and its improvement by Goldreich and Rosen [GR00], it does not use hashing or extractors, and is thus simpler and somewhat more efficient. In addition, we present a general technique that can be used to speed up pseudorandom generators based on iterating one-way permutations. We construct our generator by applying this technique to results of [HSS93]. We also show how the generator given by Gennaro [Gen00] can be simply derived from results of Patel and Sundaram [PS98] using our technique.
Last updated:  2002-08-27
OAEP++ : A Very Simple Way to Apply OAEP to Deterministic OW-CPA Primitives
Kazukuni Kobara, Hideki Imai
We prove in the random oracle model that OAEP++, which was proposed by us at the rump session of Asiacrypt 2000, can generate IND-CCA2 ciphers using deterministic OW-CPA cryptographic primitives. Note that OAEP++ differs from OAEP$^{++}$ proposed by Jonsson in \cite{Jon02}. While OAEP$^{++}$ requires a non-malleable block cipher, OAEP++ does not require such additional functions. The security reduction of OAEP++ is as tight as that of OAEP$^{++}$.
Last updated:  2004-01-10
Key-collisions in (EC)DSA: Attacking Non-repudiation
Tomas Rosa
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A new kind of attack on the non-repudiation property of digital signature schemes is presented. We introduce a notion of key-collisions, which may allow an attacker to claim that the message (presented to a judge) has been signed by someone else. We show how to compute key-collisions for the DSA and ECDSA signature schemes effectively. The main idea of these attacks has been inspired by the well-known notion of message-collisions, where an attacker claims that the signature presented at the court belongs to a different message. Both of these collision-based attacks significantly weaken the non-repudiation property of signature schemes. Moreover, they weaken the non-repudiation of protocols based on these schemes. It is shown that key-collision resistance of the (EC)DSA schemes requires the incorporation of a mechanism ensuring honest generation of (EC)DSA instances. The usage of such a mechanism shall be verifiable by an independent third party without revealing any secret information. We propose and discuss basic general countermeasures against key-collision attacks on the (EC)DSA schemes.
Last updated:  2002-08-26
Perfectly Secure Message Transmission Revisited
Yvo Desmedt, Yongge Wang
Achieving secure communications in networks has been one of the most important problems in information technology. Dolev, Dwork, Waarts, and Yung have studied secure message transmission in one-way or two-way channels. They only consider the case when all channels are two-way or all channels are one-way. Goldreich, Goldwasser, and Linial, Franklin and Yung, Franklin and Wright, and Wang and Desmedt have studied secure communication and secure computation in multi-recipient (multicast) models. In a ``multicast channel'' (such as Ethernet), one processor can send the same message---simultaneously and privately---to a fixed subset of processors. In this paper, we shall study necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving secure communications against active adversaries in mixed one-way and two-way channels. We also discuss multicast channels and neighbor network channels.
Last updated:  2008-10-15
Power of a Public Random Permutation and its Application to Authenticated-Encryption
Kaoru Kurosawa
In this paper, we first show that many independent pseudorandom permutations over $\{0,1\}^n$ can be obtained from a single public random permutation and secret $n$ bits. We next prove that a slightly modified IAPM is secure even if the underlying block cipher $F$ is publicly accessible (as a blackbox). We derive a similar result for OCB mode, too. We finally prove that our security bound is tight within a constant factor.
Last updated:  2002-08-26
Assumptions Related to Discrete Logarithms: Why Subtleties Make a Real Difference
Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi, Michael Steiner
The security of many cryptographic constructions relies on assumptions related to Discrete Logarithms (DL), e.g., the Diffie-Hellman, Square Exponent, Inverse Exponent or Representation Problem assumptions. In the concrete formalizations of these assumptions one has some degrees of freedom offered by parameters such as computational model, problem type (computational, decisional) or success probability of adversary. However, these parameters and their impact are often not properly considered or are simply overlooked in the existing literature. In this paper we identify parameters relevant to cryptographic applications and describe a formal framework for defining DL-related assumptions. This enables us to precisely and systematically classify these assumptions. In particular, we identify a parameter, termed granularity, which describes the underlying probability space in an assumption. Varying granularity we discover the following surprising result: We prove that two DL-related assumptions can be reduced to each other for medium granularity but we also show that they are provably not reducible with generic algorithms for high granularity. Further we show that reductions for medium granularity can achieve much better concrete security than equivalent high-granularity reductions.
Last updated:  2002-08-22
The Jacobi Model of an Elliptic Curve and Side-Channel Analysis
Olivier Billet, Marc Joye
A way for preventing SPA-like attacks on elliptic curve systems is to use the same formula for the doubling and the general addition of points on the curve. Various proposals have been made in this direction with different results. This paper re-investigates the Jacobi form suggested by Liardet and Smart (CHES 2001). Rather than considering the Jacobi form as the intersection of two quadrics, the addition law is directly derived from the underlying quartic. As a result, this leads to substantial memory savings and produces the fastest unified addition formula for curves of order a multiple of 2.
Last updated:  2002-08-22
On Optimal Hash Tree Traversal for Interval Time-Stamping
Helger Lipmaa
Skewed trees constitute a two-parameter family of recursively constructed trees. Recently, Willemson proved that suitably picked skewed trees are space-optimal for interval time-stamping. At the same time, Willemson proposed a practical but suboptimal algorithm for nonrecursive traversal of skewed trees. We describe an alternative, extremely efficient traversal algorithm for skewed trees. The new algorithm is surprisingly simple and arguably close to optimal in every imaginable sense. We provide a detailed analysis of the average-case storage (and communication) complexity of our algorithm, by using the Laplace's method for estimating the asymptotic behavior of integrals. Since the skewed trees can be seen as a natural generalization of Fibonacci trees, our results might also be interesting in other fields of computer science.
Last updated:  2002-08-22
New covering radius of Reed-Muller codes for $t$-resilient functions
Kaoru Kurosawa, Tetsu Iwata, Takayuki Yoshiwara
From a view point of cryptography, we define a new covering radius of Reed-Muller codes as the maximum distance between $t$-{\it resilient} functions and the $r$-th order Reed-Muller code $RM(r,n)$. We next derive its lower and upper bounds. We also present a table of numerical data of our bounds.
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