### All papers in 2018 (1249 results)

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Group signatures allow users of a group to sign messages anonymously in the name of the group, while incorporating a tracing mechanism to revoke anonymity and identify the signer of any message. Since its introduction by Chaum and van Heyst (EUROCRYPT 1991), numerous proposals have been put forward, yielding various improvements on security, efficiency and functionality. However, a drawback of traditional group signatures is that the opening authority is given too much power, i.e., he can indiscriminately revoke anonymity and there is no mechanism to keep him accountable.
To overcome this problem, Kohlweiss and Miers (PoPET 2015) introduced the notion of accountable tracing signatures ($\mathsf{ATS}$) - an enhanced group signature variant in which the opening authority is kept accountable for his actions. Kohlweiss and Miers demonstrated a generic construction of $\mathsf{ATS}$ and put forward a concrete instantiation based on number-theoretic assumptions. To the best of our knowledge, no other $\mathsf{ATS}$ scheme has been known, and the problem of instantiating $\mathsf{ATS}$ under post-quantum assumptions, e.g., lattices, remains open to date.
~~In this work, we provide the first lattice-based accountable tracing signature scheme. The scheme satisfies the security requirements suggested by Kohlweiss and Miers, assuming the hardness of the Ring Short Integer Solution ($\mathsf{RSIS}$) and the Ring Learning With Errors ($\mathsf{RLWE}$) problems. At the heart of our construction are a lattice-based key-oblivious encryption scheme and a zero-knowledge argument system allowing to prove that a given ciphertext is a valid $\mathsf{RLWE}$ encryption under some hidden yet certified key. These technical building blocks may be of independent interest, e.g., they can be useful for the design of other lattice-based privacy-preserving protocols.

Last updated: 2019-01-03

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In this work, we propose new predicate encryption schemes for zero inner-product encryption (ZIPE) and non-zero inner-product encryption (NIPE) predicates from prime-order bilinear pairings, which are both attribute and function private in the public-key setting.
Our ZIPE scheme is adaptively attribute private under the standard Matrix DDH assumption for unbounded collusions. It is additionally computationally function private under a min-entropy variant of the Matrix DDH assumption for predicates sampled from distributions with superlogarithmic min-entropy. Existing (statistically) function private ZIPE schemes due to Boneh et al. [Crypto’13, Asiacrypt’13] necessarily require predicate distributions with significantly larger min-entropy in the public-key setting.
Our NIPE scheme is adaptively attribute private under the standard Matrix DDH assumption, albeit for bounded collusions. It is also computationally function private under a min-entropy variant of the Matrix DDH assumption for predicates sampled from distributions with super-logarithmic min-entropy. To the best of our knowledge, existing NIPE schemes from bilinear pairings were neither attribute private nor function private.
Our constructions are inspired by the linear FE constructions of Agrawal et al. [Crypto’16] and the simulation secure ZIPE of Wee [TCC’17]. In our ZIPE scheme, we show a novel way of embedding two
different hard problem instances in a single secret key - one for unbounded collusion-resistance and the other for function privacy. With respect to NIPE, we introduce new techniques for simultaneously
achieving attribute and function privacy. We also show natural generalizations of our ZIPE and NIPE constructions to a wider class of subspace membership, subspace non-membership and hidden-vector encryption predicates.

Last updated: 2019-01-03

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Multi-key fully homomorphic encryption (MKFHE) allows computations on ciphertexts encrypted by different users (public keys), and the results can be jointly decrypted using the secret keys of all the users involved. The NTRU-based scheme is an important alternative to post-quantum cryptography, but the NTRU-based MKFHE has the following drawbacks, which cause it inefficient in scenarios such as secure multi-party computing (MPC). One is the relinearization technique used for key switching takes up most of the time of the scheme’s homomorphic evaluation, the other is that each user needs to decrypt in sequence, which makes the decryption process complicated. We propose an efficient leveled MKFHE scheme, which improves the efficiency of homomorphic evaluations, and constructs a two-round (MPC) protocol based on this. Firstly, we construct an efficient single key FHE with less relinearization operations. We greatly reduces the number of relinearization operations in homomorphic evaluations process by separating the homomorphic multiplication and relinearization techniques. Furthermore, the batching technique and a specialization of modulus can be applied to our scheme to improve the efficiency. Secondly, the efficient single-key homomorphic encryption scheme proposed in this paper is transformed into a multi-key vision according to the method in LTV12 scheme. Finally, we construct a distributed decryption process which can be implemented independently for all participating users, and reduce the number of interactions between users in the decryption process. Based on this, a two-round MPC protocol is proposed. Experimental analysis shows that the homomorphic evaluation of the single-key FHE scheme constructed in this paper is 2.4 times faster than DHS16, and the MKFHE scheme constructed in this paper can be used to implement a two-round MPC protocol effectively, which can be applied to secure MPC between multiple users under the cloud computing environment.

Last updated: 2019-01-03

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We construct non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) arguments for $\mathsf{NP}$ from any circular-secure fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme. In particular, we obtain such NIZKs under a circular-secure variant of the learning with errors (LWE) problem while only assuming a standard (poly/negligible) level of security. Our construction can be modified to obtain NIZKs which are either: (1) statistically zero-knowledge arguments in the common random string model or (2) statistically sound proofs in the common reference string model.
We obtain our result by constructing a new correlation-intractable hash family [Canetti, Goldreich, and Halevi, JACM~'04] for a large class of relations, which suffices to apply the Fiat-Shamir heuristic to specific 3-message proof systems that we call ``trapdoor $\Sigma$-protocols.'' In particular, assuming circular secure FHE, our hash function $h$ ensures that for any function $f$ of some a-priori bounded circuit size, it is hard to find an input $x$ such that $h(x)=f(x)$. This continues a recent line of works aiming to instantiate the Fiat-Shamir methodology via correlation intractability under progressively weaker and better-understood assumptions. Another consequence of our hash family construction is that, assuming circular-secure FHE, the classic quadratic residuosity protocol of [Goldwasser, Micali, and Rackoff, SICOMP~'89] is not zero knowledge when repeated in parallel.
We also show that, under the plain LWE assumption (without circularity), our hash family is a universal correlation intractable family for general relations, in the following sense: If there exists any hash family of some description size that is correlation-intractable for general (even inefficient) relations, then our specific construction (with a comparable size) is correlation-intractable for general (efficiently verifiable) relations.

Last updated: 2019-06-20

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Security and privacy are paramount in the field of intelligent transportation systems (ITS). This motivates many proposals aiming to create a Vehicular Public Key Infrastructure (VPKI) for managing vehicles’ certificates. Among them, the Security Credential Management System (SCMS) is one of the leading contenders for standardization in the US. SCMS provides a wide array security features, which include (but are not limited to) data authentication, vehicle privacy and revocation of misbehaving vehicles. In addition, the key provisioning process in SCMS is realized via the so-called butterfly key expansion, which issues arbitrarily large batches of pseudonym certificates in response to a single client request. Although promising, this process is based on classical elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), which is known to be susceptible to quantum attacks. Aiming to address this issue, in this work we propose a post-quantum butterfly key expansion process. The proposed protocol relies on lattice-based cryptography, which leads to competitive key, ciphertext and signature sizes. Moreover, it provides low bandwidth utilization when compared with other lattice-based schemes, and, like the original SCMS, addresses the security and functionality requirements of vehicular communication.

Last updated: 2019-02-15

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The abundance of smart devices and sensors has given rise to an unprecedented large-scale data collection. While this benefits various data-driven application domains, it raises numerous security and privacy concerns. In particular, recent high-profile data breach incidents demonstrate security dangers and single point vulnerability of multiple systems. Moreover, even if the data is properly protected at rest (i.e., during storage), data confidentiality may still be compromised once it is fed as input to computations. In this paper, we introduce Senopra, a privacy-preserving data management framework that leverages trusted execution environment and confidentiality-preserving smart contract system to empower data owners with absolute control over their data. More specifically, the data owners can specify fine-grained access policies governing how their captured data is accessed. The access policies are then enforced by a policy agent that operates in an autonomous and confidentiality-preserving manner. To attain scalability and efficiency, Senopra exploits Key Aggregation Cryptosystem (KAC) for key management, and incorporates an optimisation that significantly improves KAC's key reconstruction cost. Our experimental study shows that Senopra can support privacy- preserving data management at scale with low latency.

Last updated: 2019-01-03

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HEAAN is a homomorphic encryption (HE) scheme for approximate arithmetics. Its vector packing technique proved its potential in cryptographic applications requiring approximate computations, including data analysis and machine learning.
In this paper, we propose MHEAAN - a generalization of HEAAN to the case of a tensor structure of plaintext slots. Our design takes advantage of the HEAAN scheme, that the precision losses during the evaluation are limited by the depth of the circuit, and it exceeds no more than one bit compared to unencrypted approximate arithmetics, such as floating point operations. Due to the multi-dimensional structure of plaintext slots along with rotations in various dimensions, MHEAAN is a more natural choice for applications involving matrices and tensors. We provide a concrete two-dimensional construction and show the efficiency of our scheme on several matrix operations, such as matrix multiplication, matrix transposition, and inverse.
As an application, we implement the non-interactive Deep Neural Network (DNN) classification algorithm on encrypted data and encrypted model. Due to our efficient bootstrapping, the implementation can be easily extended to DNN structure with an arbitrary number of hidden layers

Last updated: 2019-01-03

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Deniable encryption (Canetti et al., Crypto 1996) enhances secret communication over public channels, providing the additional guarantee that the secrecy of communication is protected even if the parties are later coerced (or willingly bribed) to expose their entire internal states: plaintexts, keys and randomness.
To date, constructions of deniable encryption --- and more generally, interactive deniable communication --- only address restricted cases where only one party is compromised (Sahai and Waters, STOC 2014). The main question --- whether deniable communication is at all possible if both parties are coerced at once --- has remained open.
We resolve this question in the affirmative, presenting a communication protocol that is fully deniable under coercion of both parties.
Our scheme has three rounds, assumes subexponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation and one-way functions, and uses a short global reference string that is generated once at system set-up and suffices for an unbounded number of encryptions and decryptions.
Of independent interest, we introduce a new notion called off-the-record deniability, which protects parties even when their claimed internal states are inconsistent (a case not covered by prior definitions). Our scheme satisfies both standard deniability and off-the-record deniability.

Last updated: 2020-07-25

(withdrawn)

Last updated: 2020-08-19

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Recent papers show how to construct polynomial invariant attacks for block ciphers, however almost all such results are somewhat weak: invariants are simple and low degree and the Boolean functions tend by very simple if not degenerate. Is there a better more realistic attack, with invariants of higher degree and which is likely to work with stronger Boolean functions?
In this paper we show that such attacks exist and can be constructed explicitly through on the one side, the study of Fundamental Equation of eprint/2018/807, and on the other side, a study of the space of Annihilators of any given Boolean function. The main contribution of this paper is that to show that the ``product attack'' where the invariant polynomial is a product of simpler polynomials is interesting and quite powerful. Our approach is suitable for backdooring a block cipher in presence of an arbitrarily strong Boolean function not chosen by the attacker. The attack is constructed using excessively simple paper and pencil maths. We also outline a potential application to Data Encryption Standard (DES).

Last updated: 2019-09-12

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Accumulators, first introduced by Benaloh and de Mare (Eurocrypt 1993), are compact representations of arbitrarily large sets and can be used to prove claims of membership or non-membership about the underlying set. They are almost exclusively used as building blocks in real-world complex systems, including anonymous credentials, group signatures and, more recently, anonymous cryptocurrencies. Having rigorous security analysis for such systems is crucial for their adoption and safe use in the real world, but it can turn out to be extremely challenging given their complexity.
In this work, we provide the first universally composable (UC) treatment of cryptographic accumulators. There are many different types of accumulators: some support additions, some support deletions and some support both; and, orthogonally, some support proofs of membership, some support proofs of non-membership, and some support both. Additionally, some accumulators support public verifiability of set operations, and some do not. Our UC definition covers all of these types of accumulators concisely in a single functionality, and captures the two basic security properties of accumulators: correctness and soundness. We then prove the equivalence of our UC definition to standard accumulator definitions. This implies that existing popular accumulator schemes, such as the RSA accumulator, already meet our UC definition, and that the security proofs of existing systems that leverage such accumulators can be significantly simplified.
Finally, we use our UC definition to get simple proofs of security. We build an accumulator in a modular way out of two weaker accumulators (in the style of Baldimtsi et. al (Euro S&P 2017), and we give a simple proof of its UC security. We also show how to simplify the proofs of security of complex systems such as anonymous credentials. Specifically, we show how to extend an anonymous credential system to support revocation by utilizing our results on UC accumulators.

Last updated: 2019-12-06

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Sidechains have long been heralded as the key enabler of blockchain scalability and interoperability. However, no modeling of the concept or a provably secure construction has so far been attempted.
We provide the first formal definition of what a sidechain system is and how assets can be moved between sidechains securely. We put forth a security definition that augments the known transaction ledger properties of persistence and liveness to hold across multiple ledgers and enhance them with a new ``firewall'' security property which safeguards each blockchain from its sidechains, limiting the impact of an otherwise catastrophic sidechain failure.
We then provide a sidechain construction that is suitable for proof-of-stake (PoS) sidechain systems. As an exemplary concrete instantiation we present our construction for an epoch-based PoS system consistent with Ouroboros (Crypto~2017), the PoS blockchain protocol used in Cardano which is one of the largest pure PoS systems by market capitalisation, and we also comment how the construction can be adapted for other protocols such as Ouroboros Praos (Eurocrypt~2018), Ouroboros Genesis (CCS~2018), Snow White and Algorand. An important feature of our construction is {\em merged-staking} that prevents ``goldfinger'' attacks against a sidechain that is only carrying a small amount of stake. An important technique for pegging chains that we use in our construction is cross-chain certification which is facilitated by a novel cryptographic primitive we introduce called ad-hoc threshold multisignatures (ATMS) which may be of independent interest. We show how ATMS can be securely instantiated by regular and aggregate digital signatures as well as succinct arguments of knowledge such as STARKs and bulletproofs with varying degrees of storage efficiency.

Last updated: 2018-12-31

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Memory-constrained devices, including widely used smart cards, require resisting attacks by the quantum computers. Lattice-based encryption scheme possesses high efficiency and reliability which could run on small devices with limited storage capacity and computation resources such as IoT sensor nodes or smart cards. We present the first implementation of a lattice-based encryption scheme on the standard Java Card platform by combining number theoretic transform and improved Montgomery modular multiplication. The running time of decryption is nearly optimal (about 7 seconds for 128-bit security level). We also optimize discrete Ziggurat algorithm and Knuth-Yao algorithm to sample from prescribed probability distributions on the Java Card platform. More importantly, we indicate that polynomial multiplication can be performed on Java Card efficiently even if the long integers are not supported, which makes running more lattice-based cryptosystems on smart cards achievable.

Last updated: 2018-12-31

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We develop attacks on the security of variants of pseudo-random generators computed by quadratic polynomials. In particular we give a general condition for breaking the one-way property of mappings where every output is a quadratic polynomial (over the reals) of the input. As a corollary, we break the degree-2 candidates for security assumptions recently proposed for constructing indistinguishability obfuscation by Ananth, Jain and Sahai (ePrint 2018) and Agrawal (ePrint 2018). We present conjectures that would imply our attacks extend to a wider variety of instances, and in particular offer experimental evidence that they break assumption of Lin-Matt (ePrint 2018).
Our algorithms use semidefinite programming, and in particular, results on low-rank recovery (Recht, Fazel, Parrilo 2007) and matrix completion (Gross 2009).

Last updated: 2019-04-01

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In 1994, Feige, Kilian, and Naor proposed a simple protocol for secure $3$-way comparison of integers $a$ and $b$ from the range $[0,2]$. Their observation is that for $p=7$, the Legendre symbol $(x | p)$ coincides with the sign of $x$ for $x=a-b\in[-2,2]$, thus reducing secure comparison to secure evaluation of the Legendre symbol. More recently, in 2011, Yu generalized this idea to handle secure comparisons for integers from substantially larger ranges $[0,d]$, essentially by searching for primes for which the Legendre symbol coincides with the sign function on $[-d,d]$.
In this paper, we present new comparison protocols based on the Legendre symbol that additionally employ some form of error correction. We relax the prime search by requiring that the Legendre symbol encodes the sign function in a noisy fashion only. Practically, we use the majority vote over a window of $2k+1$ adjacent Legendre symbols, for small positive integers $k$. Our technique significantly increases the comparison range: e.g., for a modulus of $60$ bits, $d$ increases by a factor of $2.9$ (for $k=1$) and $5.4$ (for $k=2$) respectively. We give a practical method to find primes with suitable noisy encodings.
We demonstrate the practical relevance of our comparison protocol by applying it in a secure neural network classifier for the MNIST dataset. Concretely, we discuss a secure multiparty computation based on the binarized multi-layer perceptron of Hubara et al., using our comparison for the second and third layers.

Last updated: 2018-12-31

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We present a novel $\textit{secure search}$ protocol on data and queries encrypted with Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE).
Our protocol enables organizations (client) to (1) securely upload an unsorted data array $x=(x[1],\ldots,x[n])$ to an untrusted honest-but-curious sever, where data may be uploaded over time and from multiple data-sources; and (2) securely issue repeated search queries $q$ for retrieving the first element $(i^*,x[i^*])$ satisfying an agreed matching criterion $i^* = \min\ \left\{ \left.i\in[n] \;\right\vert \mathsf{IsMatch}(x[i],q)=1 \right\}$, as well as fetching the next matching elements with further interaction.
For security, the client encrypts the data and queries with FHE prior to uploading, and the server processes the ciphertexts to produce the result ciphertext for the client to decrypt.
Our secure search protocol improves over the prior state-of-the-art for secure search on FHE encrypted data (Akavia, Feldman, Shaul (AFS), CCS'2018) in achieving:
(1) $\textit{Post-processing free}$ protocol where the server produces a ciphertext for the correct search outcome with overwhelming success probability.This is in contrast to returning a list of candidates for the client to post-process, or suffering from a noticeable error probability, in AFS. Our post-processing freeness enables the server to use secure search as a sub-component in a larger computation without interaction with the client.
(2) $\textit{Faster protocol:}$(a) Client time and communication bandwidth are improved by a $\log^2n/\log\log n$ factor. (b) Server evaluates a polynomial of degree linear in $\log n$ (compare to cubic in AFS), and overall number of multiplications improved by up to $\log n$ factor.(c) Employing only $\textrm{GF}(2)$ computations (compare to $\textrm{GF}(p)$ for $p \gg 2$ in AFS) to gain both further speedup and compatibility to all current FHE candidates.
(3) $\textit{Order of magnitude speedup exhibited by extensive benchmarks}$ we executed on identical hardware for implementations of ours versus AFS's protocols.
Additionally, like other FHE based solutions, out solution is setup-free: to outsource elements from the client to the server, no additional actions are performed on $x$ except for encrypting it element by element (each element bit by bit) and uploading the resulted ciphertexts to the server.

Last updated: 2018-12-31

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The discrete Gaussian sampler is one of the fundamental tools in implementing lattice-based cryptosystems. However, a naive discrete Gaussian sampling implementation suffers from side-channel vulnerabilities, and the existing countermeasures usually introduce significant overhead in either the running speed or the memory consumption.
In this paper, we propose a fast, compact, and constant-time implementation of the binary sampling algorithm, originally introduced in the BLISS signature scheme. Our implementation adapts the Rényi divergence and the transcendental function polynomial approximation techniques. The efficiency of our scheme is independent of the standard deviation, and we show evidence that our implementations are either faster or more compact than several existing constant-time samplers. In addition, we show the performance of our implementation techniques applied to and integrated with two existing signature schemes: qTesla and Falcon. On the other hand, the convolution theorems are typically adapted to sample from larger standard deviations, by combining samples with much smaller standard deviations. As an additional contribution, we show better parameters for the convolution theorems.

Last updated: 2020-09-25

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The Key Assignment Scheme (KAS) is a well-studied cryptographic primitive used for hierarchical access control (HAC) in a multilevel organisation where the classes of people with higher privileges can access files of those with lower ones. Our first contribution is the formalization of a new cryptographic primitive, namely, KAS-AE that supports the aforementioned HAC solution with an additional authenticated encryption property. Next, we present three efficient KAS-AE schemes that solve the HAC and the associated authenticated encryption problem more efficiently -- both with respect to time and memory -- than the existing solutions that achieve it by executing KAS and AE separately. Our first KAS-AE construction is built by using the cryptographic primitive MLE (EUROCRYPT 2013) as a black box; the other two constructions (which are the most efficient ones) have been derived by cleverly tweaking the hash function FP (Indocrypt 2012) and the authenticated encryption scheme APE (FSE 2014). This high efficiency of our constructions is critically achieved by using two techniques: design of a mechanism for reverse decryption used for reduction of time complexity, and a novel key management scheme for optimizing storage requirements when organizational hierarchy forms an arbitrary access graph (instead of a linear graph). We observe that constructing a highly efficient KAS-AE scheme using primitives other than MLE, FP and APE is a non-trivial task. We leave it as an open problem. Finally, we provide a detailed comparison of all the KAS-AE schemes.

Last updated: 2018-12-31

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The security of web communication via the SSL/TLS protocols relies on safe distributions of public keys associated with web domains in the form of $\mathsf{X.509}$ certificates. Certificate authorities (CAs) are trusted third parties that issue these certificates. However, the CA ecosystem is fragile and prone to compromises. Starting with Google's Certificate Transparency project, a number of research works have recently looked at adding transparency for better CA accountability, effectively through public logs of all certificates issued by certification authorities, to augment the current $\mathsf{X.509}$ certificate validation process into SSL/TLS.
In this paper, leveraging recent progress in blockchain technology, we propose a novel system, called $\mathsf{CTB} $, that makes it impossible for a CA to issue a certificate for a domain without obtaining consent from the domain owner. We further make progress to equip $\mathsf{CTB}$ with certificate revocation mechanism. We implement $\mathsf{CTB}$ using IBM's Hyperledger Fabric blockchain platform. $\mathsf{CTB}$'s smart contract, written in Go, is provided for complete reference.

Last updated: 2018-12-31