Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/1209

Teleportation-based quantum homomorphic encryption scheme with quasi-compactness and perfect security

Min Liang

Abstract: Quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) is an important cryptographic technology for delegated quantum computation. It enables remote Server performing quantum computation on encrypted quantum data, and the specific algorithm performed by Server is unnecessarily known by Client. Quantum fully homomorphic encryption (QFHE) is a QHE that satisfies both compactness and $\mathcal{F}$-homomorphism, which is homomorphic for any quantum circuits. However, Yu et al.[Phys. Rev. A 90, 050303(2014)] proved a negative result: assume interaction is not allowed, it is impossible to construct perfectly secure QFHE scheme. So this article focuses on non-interactive and perfectly secure QHE scheme with loosen requirement, specifically quasi-compactness.

This article defines encrypted gate, which is denoted by $EG[U]:|\alpha\rangle\rightarrow\left((a,b),Enc_{a,b}(U|\alpha\rangle)\right)$. We present a gate-teleportation-based two-party computation scheme for $EG[U]$, where one party gives arbitrary quantum state $|\alpha\rangle$ as input and obtains the encrypted $U$-computing result $Enc_{a,b}(U|\alpha\rangle)$, and the other party obtains the random bits $a,b$. Based on $EG[P^x](x\in\{0,1\})$, we propose a method to remove the $P$-error generated in the homomorphic evaluation of $T/T^\dagger$-gate. Using this method, we design two non-interactive and perfectly secure QHE schemes named \texttt{GT} and \texttt{VGT}. Both of them are $\mathcal{F}$-homomorphic and quasi-compact (the decryption complexity depends on the $T/T^\dagger$-gate complexity).

Assume $\mathcal{F}$-homomorphism, non-interaction and perfect security are necessary property, the quasi-compactness is proved to be bounded by $O(M)$, where $M$ is the total number of $T/T^\dagger$-gates in the evaluated circuit. \texttt{VGT} is proved to be optimal and has $M$-quasi-compactness. According to our QHE schemes, the decryption would be inefficient if the evaluated circuit contains exponential number of $T/T^\dagger$-gates. Thus our schemes are suitable for homomorphic evaluation of any quantum circuit with low $T/T^\dagger$-gate complexity, such as any polynomial-size quantum circuit or any quantum circuit with polynomial number of $T/T^\dagger$-gates.

Category / Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum encryption, delegated quantum computation, quantum homomorphic encryption

Date: received 14 Dec 2018

Contact author: liangmin07 at mails ucas ac cn

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Note: 33 pages, 11 figures

Version: 20181219:185903 (All versions of this report)

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