Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2018/1228

Multi-Party Oblivious RAM based on Function Secret Sharing and Replicated Secret Sharing Arithmetic

Marina Blanton and Chen Yuan

Abstract: In this work, we study the problem of constructing oblivious RAM for secure multi-party computation to obliviously access memory at private locations during secure computation. We build on recent two-party Floram construction that uses function secret sharing for a point function and incurs $O(\sqrt N)$ secure computation and $O(N)$ local computation per ORAM access for an $N$-element data set. Our new construction, Top ORAM, is designed for multi-party computation with $n \ge 3$ parties and uses replicated secret sharing. We reduce secure computation component to $O(\log N)$, which has notable effect on performance. As a result, when Top ORAM is instantiated with $n=3$ parties, it outperforms all other 2- and 3-party ORAM constructions that we tested for datasets up to a few million (at which point $O(N)$ local work becomes the bottleneck).

To be able to accomplish the above, we design a number of secure $n$-party protocols for semi-honest adversaries in the setting with honest majority for replicated secret sharing. They are suitable to be instantiated over any finite ring, which has the advantage of using native hardware arithmetic with rings $\mathbb{Z}_{2^k}$ for some $k$. We also provide conversion procedures between other, more common types of secret sharing and replicated secret sharing to enable integration of Top ORAM with other secure computation frameworks. As an additional contribution of this work, we show how our ORAM techniques can be used to realize private binary search at the cost of only a single ORAM access and $\log N$ comparisons, instead of conventional $O(\log N)$ ORAM accesses and comparisons. Because of this property, performance of our binary search is significantly faster than binary search using other ORAM schemes for all ranges of values that we tested.

Category / Keywords: cryptographic protocols /

Date: received 21 Dec 2018

Contact author: mblanton at buffalo edu

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Version: 20181230:125709 (All versions of this report)

Short URL: ia.cr/2018/1228


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