Paper 2024/889

Analyzing and Benchmarking ZK-Rollups

Stefanos Chaliasos, Imperial College London
Itamar Reif, Astria
Adrià Torralba-Agell, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya
Jens Ernstberger
Assimakis Kattis
Benjamin Livshits, Imperial College London, Matter Labs

As blockchain technology continues to transform the realm of digital transactions, scalability has emerged as a critical issue. This challenge has spurred the creation of innovative solutions, particularly Layer 2 scalability techniques like rollups. Among these, ZK-Rollups are notable for employing Zero-Knowledge Proofs to facilitate prompt on-chain transaction verification, thereby improving scalability and efficiency without sacrificing security. Nevertheless, the intrinsic complexity of ZK-Rollups has hindered an exhaustive evaluation of their efficiency, economic impact, and performance. This paper offers a theoretical and empirical examination aimed at comprehending and evaluating ZK-Rollups, with particular attention to ZK-EVMs. We conduct a qualitative analysis to break down the costs linked to ZK-Rollups and scrutinize the design choices of well-known implementations. Confronting the inherent difficulties in benchmarking such intricate systems, we introduce a systematic methodology for their assessment, applying our method to two prominent ZK-Rollups: Polygon zkEVM and zkSync Era. Our research provides initial findings that illuminate trade-offs and areas for enhancement in ZK-Rollup implementations, delivering valuable insights for future research, development, and deployment of these systems.

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Publication info
Zero-Knowledge ProofsZK-RollupsBenchmarkingBlockchain Scalability
Contact author(s)
stefanos @ chaliasos com
2024-06-05: approved
2024-06-04: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Stefanos Chaliasos and Itamar Reif and Adrià Torralba-Agell and Jens Ernstberger and Assimakis Kattis and Benjamin Livshits},
      title = {Analyzing and Benchmarking {ZK}-Rollups},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2024/889},
      year = {2024},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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