Paper 2023/857

SoK: Vector OLE-Based Zero-Knowledge Protocols

Carsten Baum, Technical University of Denmark
Samuel Dittmer, Stealth Software Technologies Inc.
Peter Scholl, Aarhus University
Xiao Wang, Northwestern University

A zero-knowledge proof is a cryptographic protocol where a prover can convince a verifier that a statement is true, without revealing any further information except for the truth of the statement. More precisely, if $x$ is a statement from an NP language verified by an efficient machine $M$, then a zero-knowledge proof aims to prove to the verifier that there exists a witness $w$ such that $M(x,w)=1$, without revealing any further information about $w$. The proof is a proof of knowledge, if the prover additionally convinces the verifier that it knows the witness $w$, rather than just of its existence. This article is a survey of recent developments in building practical systems for zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge using vector oblivious linear evaluation (VOLE), a tool from secure two-party computation.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Zero KnowledgeSurveyVector-OLE
Contact author(s)
cabau @ dtu dk
samdittmer @ stealthsoftwareinc com
peter scholl @ cs au dk
wangxiao @ northwestern edu
2023-06-07: approved
2023-06-07: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Carsten Baum and Samuel Dittmer and Peter Scholl and Xiao Wang},
      title = {SoK: Vector OLE-Based Zero-Knowledge Protocols},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/857},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.