Paper 2023/676

From Unbalanced to Perfect: Implementation of Low Energy Stream Ciphers

Jikang Lin, Shandong University
Jiahui He, Shandong University
Yanhong Fan, Shandong University
Meiqin Wang, Shandong University

Low energy is an important aspect of hardware implementation. For energy-limited battery-powered devices, low energy stream ciphers can play an important role. In \texttt{IACR ToSC 2021}, Caforio et al. proposed the Perfect Tree energy model for stream cipher that links the structure of combinational logic circuits with state update functions to energy consumption. In addition, a metric given by the model shows a negative correlation with energy consumption, i.e., the higher the balance of the perfect tree, the lower the energy consumption. However, Caforio et al. didn't give a method that eliminate imbalances of the unrolled strand tree for the existing stream ciphers. In this paper, based on the Perfect Tree energy model, we propose a new redundant design model that improve the balances of the unrolled strand tree for the purpose of reducing energy consumption. In order to obtain the redundant design, we propose a search algorithm for returning the corresponding implementation scheme. For the existing stream ciphers, the proposed model and search method can be used to provide a low-power redundancy design scheme. To verify the effectiveness, we apply our redundant model and search method in the stream ciphers (e.g., \texttt{Trivium} and \texttt{Kreyvium}) and conducted a synthetic test. The results of the energy measurement demonstrate that the proposed model and search method can obtain lower energy consumption.

Note: Accepted by Africacrypt 2023

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Published elsewhere. Africacrypt2023
Low Energy Stream CipherHardware ImplementationTrivium
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linjikang @ mail sdu edu cn
hejiahui2020 @ mail sdu edu cn
yanhongfan @ sdu edu cn
mqwang @ sdu edu cn
2023-05-15: approved
2023-05-12: received
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      author = {Jikang Lin and Jiahui He and Yanhong Fan and Meiqin Wang},
      title = {From Unbalanced to Perfect: Implementation of Low Energy Stream Ciphers},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/676},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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