Paper 2023/1916

Sing a song of Simplex

Victor Shoup, Offchain Labs

We flesh out some details of the recently proposed Simplex atomic broadcast protocol, and modify it so that leaders disperse blocks in a more communication-efficient fashion. The resulting protocol, called DispersedSimplex, maintains the simplicity and excellent -- indeed, optimal -- latency characteristics of the original Simplex protocol. We also present several variations, including a variant that supports "stable leaders", variants that incorporate very recently developed data dissemination techniques that allow us to disperse blocks even more efficiently, and variants that are "signature free". We also suggest a number of practical optimizations and provide concrete performance estimates that take into account not just network latency but also network bandwidth limitations and computational costs. Based on these estimates, we argue that despite its simplicity, DispersedSimplex should, in principle, perform in practice as well as or better than any other state-of-the-art atomic broadcast protocol, at least in terms of common-case throughput and latency.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
consensusatomic broadcastbyzantine agreementblockchain
Contact author(s)
victor @ shoup net
2024-04-26: last of 14 revisions
2023-12-13: received
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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs


      author = {Victor Shoup},
      title = {Sing a song of Simplex},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1916},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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