Paper 2023/1688

Faster Complete Formulas for the GLS254 Binary Curve

Thomas Pornin, NCC Group

GLS254 is an elliptic curve defined over a finite field of characteristic 2; it contains a 253-bit prime order subgroup, and supports an endomorphism that can be efficiently computed and helps speed up some typical operations such as multiplication of a curve element by a scalar. That curve offers on x86 and ARMv8 platforms the best known performance for elliptic curves at the 128-bit security level. In this paper we present a number of new results related to GLS254: - We describe new efficient and complete point doubling formulas (2M+4S) applicable to all ordinary binary curves. - We apply the previously described (x,s) coordinates to GLS254, enhanced with the new doubling formulas. We obtain formulas that are not only fast, but also complete, and thus allow generic constant-time usage in arbitrary cryptographic protocols. - Our strictly constant-time implementation multiplies a point by a scalar in 31615 cycles on an x86 Coffee Lake, and 77435 cycles on an ARM Cortex-A55, improving previous records by 13% and 11.7% on these two platforms, respectively. - We take advantage of the completeness of the formulas to define some extra operations, such as canonical encoding with (x, s) compression, constant-time hash-to-curve, and signatures. Our Schnorr signatures have size only 48 bytes, and offer good performance: signature generation in 18374 cycles, and verification in 27376 cycles, on x86; this is about four times faster than the best reported Ed25519 implementations on the same platform. - The very fast implementations leverage the carryless multiplication opcodes offered by the target platforms. We also investigate performance on CPUs that do not offer such an operation, namely a 64-bit RISC-V CPU (SiFive-U74 core) and a 32-bit ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. While the achieved performance is substantially poorer, it is not catastrophic; on both platforms, GLS254 signatures are only about 2x to 2.5x slower than Ed25519.

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GLS254binary curvespclmulqdqNEONRISC-VARM Cortex M4
Contact author(s)
thomas pornin @ nccgroup com
2023-11-03: approved
2023-11-01: received
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      author = {Thomas Pornin},
      title = {Faster Complete Formulas for the {GLS254} Binary Curve},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1688},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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