Paper 2023/162

AutoFHE: Automated Adaption of CNNs for Efficient Evaluation over FHE

Wei Ao, Michigan State University
Vishnu Boddeti, Michigan State University

Secure inference of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) was recently demonstrated under RNS-CKKS. The state-of-the-art solution uses a high-order composite polynomial to approximate all ReLUs. However, it results in prohibitively high latency because bootstrapping is required to refresh zero-level ciphertext after every Conv-BN layer. To accelerate inference of CNNs over FHE and automatically design homomorphic evaluation architectures of CNNs, we propose AutoFHE: a bi-level multi-objective optimization framework to automatically adapt standard CNNs to polynomial CNNs. AutoFHE can maximize validation accuracy and minimize the number of bootstrapping operations by assigning layerwise polynomial activations and searching for the placement of bootstrapping operations. As a result, AutoFHE can generate diverse solutions spanning the trade-off front between accuracy and inference time. Experimental results of ResNets on encrypted CIFAR-10 under RNS-CKKS indicate that in comparison to the state-of-the-art solution, AutoFHE can reduce inference time (50 images on 50 threads) by up to 3,297 seconds (43%) while preserving accuracy (92.68%). AutoFHE also improves the accuracy of ResNet-32 by 0.48% while accelerating inference by 382 seconds (7%).

Available format(s)
Publication info
Fully Homomorphic EncryptionDeep LearningNeural Architecture SearchAutomated Machine Learning
Contact author(s)
aowei @ msu edu
vishnu @ msu edu
2023-02-15: approved
2023-02-09: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike


      author = {Wei Ao and Vishnu Boddeti},
      title = {AutoFHE: Automated Adaption of CNNs for Efficient Evaluation over FHE},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/162},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.