Paper 2023/1156

Instant Zero Knowledge Proof of Reserve

Trevor Conley, Hofstra University
Nilsso Diaz, Hofstra University
Diego Espada, Hofstra University
Alvin Kuruvilla, Hofstra University
Stenton Mayone, Kn0x1y
Xiang Fu, Hofstra University

We present a non-interactive and public verifier scheme that allows one to assert the asset of a financial organization instantly and incrementally in zero knowledge with high throughput. It is enabled by the recent breakthrough in lookup argument, where the prover cost can be independent of the lookup table size after a pre-processing step. We extend the cq protocol and develop an aggregated non-membership proof for zero knowledge sets. Based on it, we design a non-intrusive protocol that works for pseudo-anonymous cryptocurrencies such as BTC. It has O(n log(n)) prover complexity and O(1) proof size, where n is the platform throughput (instead of anonymity set size). We implement and evaluate the protocol. Running on a 56-core server, it supports 1024 transactions per second.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Proof of ReserveProof of AssetSolvencyLookup ArgumentZero KnowledgeAggregated Non-Membership ProofZero Knowledge Set Disjoint Proof
Contact author(s)
tconley1 @ pride hofstra edu
ndiaz5 @ pride hofstra edu
despada1 @ pride hofstra edu
akuruvilla1 @ pride hofstra edu
stentonian @ kn0x1y xyz
Xiang Fu @ hofstra edu
2024-05-03: last of 3 revisions
2023-07-26: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial


      author = {Trevor Conley and Nilsso Diaz and Diego Espada and Alvin Kuruvilla and Stenton Mayone and Xiang Fu},
      title = {Instant Zero Knowledge Proof of Reserve},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1156},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.