Paper 2023/1156

Instant Zero Knowledge Proof of Reserve

Xiang Fu, Hofstra University

We present two zero knowledge protocols that allow one to assert solvency of a financial organization instantly with high throughput. The scheme is enabled by the recent breakthrough in lookup argument, i.e., after a pre-processing step, the prover cost can be independent of the lookup table size for subsequent queries. We extend the cq protocol [EFG22] and develop an aggregated non-membership proof for zero knowledge sets. Based on it, we design two instant proof-of-reserve protocols. One is non- intrusive, which works for crypto-currencies such as BTC where transaction details are public. It has O(n log(n)) prover complexity and O(1) proof size/verifier complexity, where n is the number of transactions assembled in a cycle. The other works for privacy preserving platforms where the blockchain has no knowledge of transaction details. By sacrificing non-intrusiveness, the second protocol achieves O(1) complexity for both the prover and verifier.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Proof of ReserveProof of AssetSolvencyLookup ArgumentZero KnowledgeAggregated Non-Membership ProofZero Knowledge Set Disjoint Proof
Contact author(s)
Xiang Fu @ hofstra edu
2023-07-27: approved
2023-07-26: received
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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial


      author = {Xiang Fu},
      title = {Instant Zero Knowledge Proof of Reserve},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1156},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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