Paper 2023/1121

SoK: Public Randomness

Alireza Kavousi, University College London
Zhipeng Wang, Imperial College London
Philipp Jovanovic, University College London

Public randomness is a fundamental component in many cryptographic protocols and distributed systems and often plays a crucial role in ensuring their security, fairness, and transparency properties. Driven by the surge of interest in blockchain and cryptocurrency platforms and the usefulness of such a building block in those areas, designing secure protocols to generate public randomness in a distributed manner has received considerable attention in recent years. This paper presents a systematization of knowledge on the topic of public randomness with a focus on cryptographic tools providing public verifiability and key themes underlying these systems. We provide concrete insights on how state-of-the-art protocols achieve this task efficiently in an adversarial setting and present various research gaps that may be of interest for future research.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. IEEE European Symposium on Security and Privacy (EuroS&P 2024)
Public randomnessdistributed randomness beaconrandom beacon
Contact author(s)
a kavousi @ cs ucl ac uk
zhipeng wang20 @ imperial ac uk
p jovanovic @ ucl ac uk
2024-03-26: revised
2023-07-19: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Alireza Kavousi and Zhipeng Wang and Philipp Jovanovic},
      title = {SoK: Public Randomness},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1121},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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