Paper 2021/300

Invariants for EA- and CCZ-equivalence of APN and AB functions

Nikolay Kaleyski


An (n,m)-function is a mapping from GF(2^n) to GF(2^m). Such functions have numerous applications across mathematics and computer science, and in particular are used as building blocks of block ciphers in symmetric cryptography. The classes of APN and AB functions have been identified as cryptographically optimal with respect to providing resistance against two of the most powerful known cryptanalytic attacks, namely differential and linear cryptanalysis. The classes of APN and AB functions are directly related to optimal objects in many other branches of mathematics, and have been a subject of intense study since at least the early 90's. Finding new constructions of these functions is hard; one of the most significant practical issues is that any tentatively new function must be proven inequivalent to all the known ones. Testing equivalence can be significantly simplified by computing invariants, i.e. properties that are preserved by the appropriate equivalence relation. In this paper, we survey the known invariants for CCZ- and EA-equivalence, with a particular focus on their utility in distinguishing between inequivalent instances of APN and AB functions. We evaluate each invariant with respect to how easy it is to implement in practice, how efficiently it can be calculated on a computer, and how well it can distinguish between distinct EA- and CCZ-equivalence classes.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Boolean functionAPNABequivalenceCCZ-equivalenceEA-equivalence
Contact author(s)
nikolay kaleyski @ uib no
2021-03-09: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Nikolay Kaleyski},
      title = {Invariants for EA- and CCZ-equivalence of APN and AB functions},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/300},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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