Paper 2021/1177

Algebraic Restriction Codes and their Applications

Divesh Aggarwal, Nico Döttling, Jesko Dujmovic, Mohammad Hajiabadi, Giulio Malavolta, and Maciej Obremski


Consider the following problem: You have a device that is supposed to compute a linear combination of its inputs, which are taken from some finite field. However, the device may be faulty and compute arbitrary functions of its inputs. Is it possible to encode the inputs in such a way that only linear functions can be evaluated over the encodings? I.e., learning an arbitrary function of the encodings will not reveal more information about the inputs than a linear combination. In this work, we introduce the notion of algebraic restriction codes (AR codes), which constrain adversaries who might compute any function to computing a linear function. Our main result is an information-theoretic construction AR codes that restrict any class of function with a bounded number of output bits to linear functions. Our construction relies on a seed which is not provided to the adversary. While interesting and natural on its own, we show an application of this notion in cryptography. In particular, we show that AR codes lead to the first construction of rate-1 oblivious transfer with statistical sender security from the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption, and the first-ever construction that makes black-box use of cryptography. Previously, such protocols were known only from the LWE assumption, using non-black-box cryptographic techniques. We expect our new notion of AR codes to find further applications, e.g., in the context of non-malleability, in the future.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Major revision. ITCS 2022
information theorypublic-key cryptography
Contact author(s)
nico doettling @ gmail com
jesko dujmovic @ cispa de
2022-01-25: revised
2021-09-14: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Divesh Aggarwal and Nico Döttling and Jesko Dujmovic and Mohammad Hajiabadi and Giulio Malavolta and Maciej Obremski},
      title = {Algebraic Restriction Codes and their Applications},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2021/1177},
      year = {2021},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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