Cryptology ePrint Archive: Report 2021/1176

Amortized Threshold Symmetric-key Encryption

Mihai Christodorescu and Sivanarayana Gaddam and Pratyay Mukherjee and Rohit Sinha

Abstract: Threshold cryptography enables cryptographic operations while keeping the secret keys distributed at all times. Agrawal et al. (CCS'18) propose a framework for Distributed Symmetric-key Encryption (DiSE). They introduce a new notion of Threshold Symmetric-key Encryption (TSE), in that encryption and decryption are performed by interacting with a threshold number of servers. However, the necessity for interaction on each invocation limits performance when encrypting large datasets, incurring heavy computation and communication on the servers.

This paper proposes a new approach to resolve this problem by introducing a new notion called Amortized Threshold Symmetric-key Encryption (ATSE), which allows a "privileged" client (with access to sensitive data) to encrypt a large group of messages using a single interaction. Importantly, our notion requires a client to interact for decrypting each ciphertext, thus providing the same security (privacy and authenticity) guarantee as DiSE with respect to a "not-so-privileged" client. We construct an ATSE scheme based on a new primitive that we formalize as flexible threshold key-derivation (FTKD), which allows parties to interactively derive pseudorandom keys in different modes in a threshold manner. Our FTKD construction, which uses bilinear pairings, is based on a distributed variant of left/right constrained PRF by Boneh and Waters (Asiacrypt'13).

Despite our use of bilinear maps, our scheme achieves significant speed-ups due to the amortized interaction. Our experiments show 40x lower latency and 30x more throughput in some settings.

Category / Keywords: public-key cryptography / Threshold Cryptography, Constraint PRF, Distributed PRF

Original Publication (with major differences): ACM CCS 2021

Date: received 14 Sep 2021, last revised 17 Sep 2021

Contact author: pratyay85 at gmail com

Available format(s): PDF | BibTeX Citation

Note: Added Page number

Version: 20210917:174114 (All versions of this report)

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