Paper 2017/1218

TERMinator Suite: Benchmarking Privacy-Preserving Architectures

Dimitris Mouris, Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos, and Michail Maniatakos


Security and privacy are fundamental objectives characterizing contemporary cloud computing. Despite the wide adoption of encryption for protecting data in transit and at rest, data in use remains unencrypted inside cloud processors and memories, as computation is not applicable on encrypted values. This limitation introduces security risks, as unencrypted values can be leaked through side-channels or hardware Trojans. To address this problem, encrypted architectures have recently been proposed, which leverage homomorphic encryption to natively process encrypted data using datapaths of thousands of bits. In this case, additional security protections are traded for higher performance penalties, which drives the need for more efficient architectures. In this work, we develop benchmarks specifically tailored to encrypted computers, to enable comparisons across different architectures. Our benchmark suite, dubbed TERMinator, is unique as it avoids 'termination problems' that prohibit making control-flow decisions and evaluating early termination conditions based on encrypted data, as these can leak information. Contrary to generic suites that ignore the fundamental challenges of encrypted computation, our algorithms are tailored to the security primitives of the target encrypted architecture, such as the existence of branching oracles. In our experiments, we compiled our benchmarks for the Cryptoleq architecture and evaluated their performance for a range of security parameters.

Note: The TERMinator Suite benchmarks are available at

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Benchmarksdata privacyencrypted computationtermination problemperformance evaluation
Contact author(s)
nektarios tsoutsos @ nyu edu
2017-12-22: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Dimitris Mouris and Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos and Michail Maniatakos},
      title = {TERMinator Suite: Benchmarking Privacy-Preserving Architectures},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2017/1218},
      year = {2017},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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