Paper 2024/707

Towards a Polynomial Instruction Based Compiler for Fully Homomorphic Encryption Accelerators

Sejun Kim, Intel (United States)
Wen Wang, Intel (United States)
Duhyeong Kim, Intel (United States)
Adish Vartak, Intel (United States)
Michael Steiner, Intel (United States)
Rosario Cammarota, Intel (United States)

Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a transformative technology that enables computations on encrypted data without requiring decryption, promising enhanced data privacy. However, its adoption has been limited due to significant performance overheads. Recent advances include the proposal of domain-specific, highly-parallel hardware accelerators designed to overcome these limitations. This paper introduces PICA, a comprehensive compiler framework designed to simplify the programming of these specialized FHE accelerators and integration with existing FHE libraries. PICA leverages a novel polynomial Instruction Set Architecture (p-ISA), which abstracts polynomial rings and their arithmetic operations, serving as a fundamental data type for the creation of compact, efficient code embracing high-level operations on polynomial rings, referred to as kernels, e.g., encompassing FHE primitives like arithmetic and ciphertext management. We detail a kernel generation framework that translates high-level FHE operations into pseudo-code using p-ISA, and a subsequent tracing framework that incorporates p-ISA functionalities and kernels into established FHE libraries. Additionally, we introduce a mapper to coordinate multiple FHE kernels for optimal application performance on targeted hardware accelerators. Our evaluations demonstrate PICA's efficacy in creation of compact and efficient code, when compared with an x64 architecture. Particularly in managing complex FHE operations such as relinearization, where we observe a 25.24x instruction count reduction even when a large batch size (8192) is taken into account.

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Fully Homomorphic EncryptionCompilersKernelsInstruction Set ArchitectureTracingPrivacy Technologies
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sejun kim @ intel com
wen wang @ intel com
duhyeong kim @ intel com
adish vartak @ intel com
michael steiner @ intel com
rosario cammarota @ intel com
2024-05-10: approved
2024-05-07: received
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      author = {Sejun Kim and Wen Wang and Duhyeong Kim and Adish Vartak and Michael Steiner and Rosario Cammarota},
      title = {Towards a Polynomial Instruction Based Compiler for Fully Homomorphic Encryption Accelerators},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2024/707},
      year = {2024},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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