Paper 2024/633

Vision Mark-32: ZK-Friendly Hash Function Over Binary Tower Fields

Tomer Ashur, 3MI Labs, Leuven, Belgium
Mohammad Mahzoun, Eindhoven University of Technology
Jim Posen, Ulvetanna Inc.
Danilo Šijačić, Ulvetanna Inc.

Zero-knowledge proof systems are widely used in different applications on the Internet. Among zero-knowledge proof systems, SNARKs are a popular choice because of their fast verification time and small proof size. The efficiency of zero-knowledge systems is crucial for usability, resulting in the development of so-called arithmetization-oriented ciphers. In this work, we introduce Vision Mark-32, a modified instance of Vision defined over binary tower fields, with an optimized number of rounds and an efficient MDS matrix. We implement a fully-pipelined Vision Mark-32 permutation on Alveo U55C FPGA accelerator card and argue an order of magnitude better hardware efficiency compared to the popular Poseidon hash. Our fully-pipelined Vision Mark-32 implementation runs at 250 MHz and uses 398 kLUT and 104 kFF. Lastly, we delineate how to implement each step efficiently in hardware.

Note: Update security arguments.

Available format(s)
Publication info
VisionSNARKsArithmetization-oriented hashZero-KnowledgeFPGAHardware
Contact author(s)
tomer @ 3milabs tech
mail @ mahzoun me
jimpo @ ulvetanna io
dsijacic @ ulvetanna io
2024-06-27: last of 3 revisions
2024-04-25: received
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      author = {Tomer Ashur and Mohammad Mahzoun and Jim Posen and Danilo Šijačić},
      title = {Vision Mark-32: {ZK}-Friendly Hash Function Over Binary Tower Fields},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2024/633},
      year = {2024},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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