Paper 2024/555
Quantum Algorithms for Lattice Problems
Abstract
We show a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving the learning with errors problem (LWE) with certain polynomial modulusnoise ratios. Combining with the reductions from lattice problems to LWE shown by Regev [J.ACM 2009], we obtain polynomial time quantum algorithms for solving the decisional shortest vector problem (GapSVP) and the shortest independent vector problem (SIVP) for all $n$dimensional lattices within approximation factors of $\tilde{\Omega}(n^{4.5})$. Previously, no polynomial or even subexponential time quantum algorithms were known for solving GapSVP or SIVP for all lattices within any polynomial approximation factors. To develop a quantum algorithm for solving LWE, we mainly introduce two new techniques. First, we introduce Gaussian functions with complex variances in the design of quantum algorithms. In particular, we exploit the feature of the Karst wave in the discrete Fourier transform of complex Gaussian functions. Second, we use windowed quantum Fourier transform with complex Gaussian windows, which allows us to combine the information from both time and frequency domains. Using those techniques, we first convert the LWE instance into quantum states with purely imaginary Gaussian amplitudes, then convert purely imaginary Gaussian states into classical linear equations over the LWE secret and error terms, and finally solve the linear system of equations using Gaussian elimination. This gives a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving LWE.
Note: Update on April 18: Step 9 of the algorithm contains a bug, which I don’t know how to fix. See Section 3.5.9 (Page 37) for details. I sincerely thank Hongxun Wu and (independently) Thomas Vidick for finding the bug today. Now the claim of showing a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving LWE with polynomial modulusnoise ratios does not hold. I leave the rest of the paper as it is (added a clarification of an operation in Step 8) as a hope that ideas like Complex Gaussian and windowed QFT may find other applications in quantum computation, or tackle LWE in other ways.
Metadata
 Available format(s)
 Publication info
 Preprint.
 Contact author(s)
 chenyilei ra @ gmail com
 History
 20240419: revised
 20240410: received
 See all versions
 Short URL
 https://ia.cr/2024/555
 License

CC BY
BibTeX
@misc{cryptoeprint:2024/555, author = {Yilei Chen}, title = {Quantum Algorithms for Lattice Problems}, howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2024/555}, year = {2024}, note = {\url{https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/555}}, url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2024/555} }