Paper 2024/555

Quantum Algorithms for Lattice Problems

Yilei Chen, Tsinghua University, Shanghai Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Shanghai Qi Zhi Institute

We show a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving the learning with errors problem (LWE) with certain polynomial modulus-noise ratios. Combining with the reductions from lattice problems to LWE shown by Regev [J.ACM 2009], we obtain polynomial time quantum algorithms for solving the decisional shortest vector problem (GapSVP) and the shortest independent vector problem (SIVP) for all $n$-dimensional lattices within approximation factors of $\tilde{\Omega}(n^{4.5})$. Previously, no polynomial or even subexponential time quantum algorithms were known for solving GapSVP or SIVP for all lattices within any polynomial approximation factors. To develop a quantum algorithm for solving LWE, we mainly introduce two new techniques. First, we introduce Gaussian functions with complex variances in the design of quantum algorithms. In particular, we exploit the feature of the Karst wave in the discrete Fourier transform of complex Gaussian functions. Second, we use windowed quantum Fourier transform with complex Gaussian windows, which allows us to combine the information from both time and frequency domains. Using those techniques, we first convert the LWE instance into quantum states with purely imaginary Gaussian amplitudes, then convert purely imaginary Gaussian states into classical linear equations over the LWE secret and error terms, and finally solve the linear system of equations using Gaussian elimination. This gives a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving LWE.

Note: Update on April 18: Step 9 of the algorithm contains a bug, which I don’t know how to fix. See Section 3.5.9 (Page 37) for details. I sincerely thank Hongxun Wu and (independently) Thomas Vidick for finding the bug today. Now the claim of showing a polynomial time quantum algorithm for solving LWE with polynomial modulus-noise ratios does not hold. I leave the rest of the paper as it is (added a clarification of an operation in Step 8) as a hope that ideas like Complex Gaussian and windowed QFT may find other applications in quantum computation, or tackle LWE in other ways.

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chenyilei ra @ gmail com
2024-04-19: revised
2024-04-10: received
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      author = {Yilei Chen},
      title = {Quantum Algorithms for Lattice Problems},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2024/555},
      year = {2024},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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