Paper 2024/211

INSPECT: Investigating Supply Chain and Cyber-Physical Security of Battery Systems

Tao Zhang, University of Florida
Shang Shi, University of Florida
Md Habibur Rahman, University of Florida
Nitin Varshney, University of Florida
Akshay Kulkarni, University of Florida
Farimah Farahmandi, University of Florida
Mark Tehranipoor, University of Florida

Battery-operated applications have been ubiquitous all over the world ranging from power-intensive electric cars down to low-power smart terminals and embedded devices. Meanwhile, serious incidents around batteries such as swelling, fire, and explosion have been witnessed, which resulted in horribly huge financial and even life loss. People used to attribute such aftermaths to unintentional design mistakes or insufficient quality inspection of original battery manufacturers. However, this is not fair anymore today given the convoluted battery supply chain and the extended cyber-physical attack surface of battery management systems (BMS). In this paper, we will focus on the authenticity and assurance of prevalent (Li-ion) battery instances. We look into battery authenticity by modeling the contemporary battery supply chain and discussing practical concerns such as rewrapping and recycling in-depth at each stage. As for battery assurance, we consider emerging attack vectors that can compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the microelectronic BMS. Besides, real-world attack examples are highlighted to reflect the capabilities of advanced adversaries. Moreover, promising countermeasures regarding the detection and avoidance of threats on both battery authenticity and assurance are presented, such that researchers will gain insights into how the problem could be addressed/alleviated. We also provide our perspectives on the vulnerabilities of battery systems and their consequent impacts as well as our point of view on potential countermeasure techniques.

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Publication info
Battery systemscyber-physical securitysupply chain securitycounterfeit detectionperspective countermeasures.
Contact author(s)
tao zhang @ ufl edu
shang shi @ ufl edu
rahman mdhabibur @ ufl edu
nitinvarshney1 @ ufl edu
kulkarniakshay @ ufl edu
farimah @ ece ufl edu
tehranipoor @ ece ufl edu
2024-02-16: approved
2024-02-11: received
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      author = {Tao Zhang and Shang Shi and Md Habibur Rahman and Nitin Varshney and Akshay Kulkarni and Farimah Farahmandi and Mark Tehranipoor},
      title = {INSPECT: Investigating Supply Chain and Cyber-Physical Security of Battery Systems},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2024/211},
      year = {2024},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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