Paper 2023/584

General-Purpose Secure Conflict-free Replicated Data Types

Bernardo Portela, University of Porto (FCUP) and INESC TEC
Hugo Pacheco, University of Porto (FCUP) and INESC TEC
Pedro Jorge, University of Porto (FCUP) and INESC TEC
Rogério Pontes, INESC TEC

Conflict-free Replicated Data Types (CRDTs) are a very popular class of distributed data structures that strike a compromise between strong and eventual consistency. Ensuring the protection of data stored within a CRDT, however, cannot be done trivially using standard encryption techniques, as secure CRDT protocols would require replica-side computation. This paper proposes an approach to lift general-purpose implementations of CRDTs to secure variants using secure multiparty computation (MPC). Each replica within the system is realized by a group of MPC parties that compute its functionality. Our results include: i) an extension of current formal models used for reasoning over the security of CRDT solutions to the MPC setting; ii) a MPC language and type system to enable the construction of secure versions of CRDTs and; iii) a proof of security that relates the security of CRDT constructions designed under said semantics to the underlying MPC library. We provide an open-source system implementation with an extensive evaluation, which compares different designs with their baseline throughput and latency.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Secure ComputationMultiparty ComputationDistributed SystemsProvable security
Contact author(s)
bernardo portela @ fc up pt
hpacheco @ fc up pt
rogerio a pontes @ inesctec pt
2023-04-28: approved
2023-04-24: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Bernardo Portela and Hugo Pacheco and Pedro Jorge and Rogério Pontes},
      title = {General-Purpose Secure Conflict-free Replicated Data Types},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/584},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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