Paper 2023/369

LURK: Lambda, the Ultimate Recursive Knowledge

Nada Amin, Harvard University
John Burnham, Lurk Lab
François Garillot, Lurk Lab
Rosario Gennaro, Protocol Labs
Chhi'mèd Künzang, Lurk Lab
Daniel Rogozin, University College London
Cameron Wong, Harvard University

We introduce Lurk, a new LISP-based programming language for zk-SNARKs. Traditional approaches to programming over zero-knowledge proofs require compiling the desired computation into a flat circuit, imposing serious constraints on the size and complexity of computations that can be achieved in practice. Lurk programs are instead provided as data to the universal Lurk interpreter circuit, allowing the resulting language to be Turing-complete without compromising the size of the resulting proof artifacts. Our work describes the design and theory behind Lurk, along with detailing how its implementation of content addressing can be used to sidestep many of the usual concerns of programming zero-knowledge proofs.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Contact author(s)
namin @ seas harvard edu
john @ lurk-lab com
francois @ lurk-lab com
rosario @ protocol ai
clwk @ lurk-lab com
d rogozin @ ucl ac uk
cwong @ g harvard edu
2023-03-16: approved
2023-03-14: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Nada Amin and John Burnham and François Garillot and Rosario Gennaro and Chhi'mèd Künzang and Daniel Rogozin and Cameron Wong},
      title = {LURK: Lambda, the Ultimate Recursive Knowledge},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/369},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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