Paper 2023/334

A Generic Transform from Multi-Round Interactive Proof to NIZK

Pierre-Alain Fouque, Rennes University, CNRS, INRIA, Rennes, France
Adela Georgescu, Department of Computer Science, University of Bucharest, Romania
Chen Qian, Key Laboratory of Cryptologic Technology and Information Security, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China, School of Cyber Science and Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, Shandong, China
Adeline Roux-Langlois, Normandie Univ, UNICAEN, ENSICAEN, CNRS, GREYC, 14000 Caen, France
Weiqiang Wen, LTCI, Telecom Paris, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, France

We present a new generic transform that takes a multi-round interactive proof for the membership of a language $\mathcal{L}$ and outputs a non-interactive zero-knowledge proof (not of knowledge) in the common reference string model. Similar to the Fiat-Shamir transform, it requires a hash function $\mathsf{H}$. However, in our transform the zero-knowledge property is in the standard model, and the adaptive soundness is in the non-programmable random oracle model ($\mathsf{NPROM}$). Behind this new generic transform, we build a new generic OR-composition of two multi-round interactive proofs. Note that the two common techniques for building OR-proofs (parallel OR-proof and sequential OR-proof) cannot be naturally extended to the multi-round setting. We also give a proof of security for our OR-proof in the quantum oracle model ($\mathsf{QROM}$), surprisingly the security loss in $\\mathsf{QROM}$ is independent from the number of rounds.

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Published by the IACR in PKC 2023
Non-Interactive Zero-KnowledgeNon-Programmable Random-Oracle
Contact author(s)
pa fouque @ gmail com
adela georgescu @ unibuc ro
chen qian @ sdu edu cn
adeline roux-langlois @ cnrs fr
weiqiang wen @ telecom-paris fr
2023-03-08: approved
2023-03-07: received
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      author = {Pierre-Alain Fouque and Adela Georgescu and Chen Qian and Adeline Roux-Langlois and Weiqiang Wen},
      title = {A Generic Transform from Multi-Round Interactive Proof to NIZK},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/334},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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