Paper 2023/1966

How to Make Rational Arguments Practical and Extractable

Matteo Campanelli, Matter Labs
Chaya Ganesh, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore
Rosario Gennaro, City University of New York

We investigate proof systems where security holds against rational parties instead of malicious ones. Our starting point is the notion of rational arguments, a variant of rational proofs (Azar and Micali, STOC 2012) where security holds against rational adversaries that are also computationally bounded. Rational arguments are an interesting primitive because they generally allow for very efficient protocols, and in particular sublinear verification (i.e. where the Verifier does not have to read the entire input). In this paper we aim at narrowing the gap between literature on rational schemes and real world applications. Our contribution is two-fold. We provide the first construction of rational arguments for the class of polynomial computations that is practical (i.e., it can be applied to real-world computations on reasonably common hardware) and with logarithmic communication. Techniques-wise, we obtain this result through a compiler from information-theoretic protocols and rational proofs for polynomial evaluation. The latter could be of independent interest. As a second contribution, we propose a new notion of extractability for rational arguments. Through this notion we can obtain arguments where knowledge of a witness is incentivized (rather than incentivizing mere soundness). We show how our aforementioned compiler can also be applied to obtain efficient extractable rational arguments for $\mathsf{NP}$.

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rational proofssnarksverifiable computation
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matteo @ matterlabs dev
chaya @ iisc ac in
rosario @ ccny cuny edu
2024-05-06: last of 2 revisions
2023-12-28: received
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      author = {Matteo Campanelli and Chaya Ganesh and Rosario Gennaro},
      title = {How to Make Rational Arguments Practical and Extractable},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1966},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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