Paper 2023/1946

SnarkFold: Efficient SNARK Proof Aggregation from Split Incrementally Verifiable Computation

Xun Liu, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Shang Gao, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Tianyu Zheng, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Bin Xiao, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University

The succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge (SNARK) technique is widely used in blockchain systems to replace the costly on-chain computation with the verification of a succinct proof. However, when dealing with multiple proofs, most existing applications require each proof to be independently verified, resulting in a heavy load on nodes and high transaction fees for users. To improve the efficiency of verifying multiple proofs, we introduce SnarkFold, a universal SNARK-proof aggregation scheme based on incrementally verifiable computation (IVC). Unlike previous proof aggregation approaches based on inner product arguments, which have a logarithmic proof size and verification cost, SnarkFold achieves constant verification time and proof size. One core technical advance in SnarkFold, of independent interest, is the ``split IVC'': rather than using one running instance to fold/accumulate the computation, we employ two (or more) running instances of different types in the recursive circuit to avoid transferring into the same structure. This distinguishing feature is particularly well-suited for proof aggregation scenarios, as constructing arithmetic circuits for pairings can be expensive. We further demonstrate how to fold Groth16 proofs with our SnarkFold. With some further optimizations, SnarkFold achieves the highest efficiency among all approaches.

Note: Unfinished parts: PLONK proof aggregation, implementation, evaluation.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
SNARKIVCFonding SchemeProof Aggregation
Contact author(s)
compxun liu @ connect polyu hk
shanggao @ polyu edu hk
tian-yu zheng @ connect polyu hk
csbxiao @ polyu edu hk
2023-12-23: approved
2023-12-22: received
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      author = {Xun Liu and Shang Gao and Tianyu Zheng and Bin Xiao},
      title = {SnarkFold: Efficient SNARK Proof Aggregation from Split Incrementally Verifiable Computation},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1946},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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