Paper 2023/191

Beyond the Blockchain Address: Zero-Knowledge Address Abstraction

Sanghyeon Park, Seoul National University
Jeong Hyuk Lee, Hanyang University
Seunghwa Lee, Kookmin University
Jung Hyun Chun, Hanyang University
Hyeonmyeong Cho, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology
MinGi Kim, Sungkyunkwan University
Hyun Ki Cho, Sogang University
Soo-Mook Moon, Seoul National University

Integrating traditional Internet (web2) identities with blockchain (web3) identities presents considerable obstacles. Conventional solutions typically employ a mapping strategy, linking web2 identities directly to specific blockchain addresses. However, this method can lead to complications such as fragmentation of identifiers across disparate networks. To address these challenges, we propose a novel scheme, Address Abstraction (AA), that circumvents the need for direct mapping. AA scheme replaces the existing blockchain address system while maintaining essential properties including a unique identifier, immutability of requests, and privacy preservation. This capability allows users to interact with the blockchain via their web2 identities, irrespective of the specific blockchain address, thereby eliminating limitations tied to a blockchain-specific address system. This mechanism fosters the seamless integration of web2 identities within the web3, in addition, promotes cross-chain compatibility. We also provide an application of AA, denoted as zero-knowledge Address Abstraction (zkAA). It mainly leverages the zero-knowledge proofs to ensure the properties of AA. zkAA has been implemented as a smart contract — compatible with any existing contract-enabled blockchains. Our evaluation of zkAA on Ethereum demonstrates its efficiency. The average cost for registering an abstracted identity is approximate \$7.66, whereas publishing an abstracted transaction costs around \$4.75. In contrast, on Polygon, the associated costs are markedly lower: \$0.02 for registration and \$0.01 for publication, as of January 13, 2023. This empirical evaluation substantiates the feasibility of our proposed solution.

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Publication info
identity managementblockchaindecentralized applicationsprivacy-preservingzero-knowledge proofs
Contact author(s)
lukepark @ snu ac kr
ahoo791 @ hanyang ac kr
ttyhgo @ kookmin ac kr
jungdev @ hanyang ac kr
heyitsme @ unist ac kr
lupin1001 @ skku edu
blockchain @ sogang ac kr
smoon @ snu ac kr
2023-06-20: revised
2023-02-14: received
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      author = {Sanghyeon Park and Jeong Hyuk Lee and Seunghwa Lee and Jung Hyun Chun and Hyeonmyeong Cho and MinGi Kim and Hyun Ki Cho and Soo-Mook Moon},
      title = {Beyond the Blockchain Address: Zero-Knowledge Address Abstraction},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/191},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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