Paper 2023/1485

How to Physically Hold Your Bitcoins ?

Houda Ferradi, AlgoEngitec
Antoine Houssais, École Normale Supérieure - PSL
David Naccache, École Normale Supérieure - PSL

The rise of virtual currencies has revolutionized the way we conduct financial transactions. These digital assets, governed by intricate online protocols, have rapidly gained prominence as a viable medium of exchange, offering convenience and security. However, as we delve deeper into the digital realm, a challenge persists: How can we bridge the gap between the virtual and the physical? This paper tackles this challenge by proposing a way to materialize virtual coins and make them physically exchangeable offline at the cost of some plausible trust assumptions.

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Publication info
Virtual currenciesMaterializeOnline protocolsFinancial transactions
Contact author(s)
ferradih @ gmail com
antoine houssais @ gmail com
david naccache @ ens fr
2023-10-02: approved
2023-09-28: received
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      author = {Houda Ferradi and Antoine Houssais and David Naccache},
      title = {How to Physically Hold Your Bitcoins ?},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1485},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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