Paper 2023/1138

Invisible Warning Line: Efficient and Generic Regulation for Anonymous Cryptocurrencies

Rui Gao, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications

Decentralized finance based on blockchain has experienced rapid development. To safeguard the privacy of participants, decentralized anonymous payment (DAP) systems such as ZCash and Zether have emerged. These systems employ cryptographic techniques to conceal the trader addresses and payment amounts. However, this anonymity presents challenges in terms of regulation. To address this issue, we propose the Walsh-DAP (WDAP) scheme, an efficient and generic regulation scheme for decentralized anonymous payments that strikes a balance between regulation and privacy preservation. Our scheme introduces two regulation policies: first, users who have exceeded their spending limits within a certain period will be identified during the regulation process; second, the supervisor possesses the capability to trace any anonymous transaction. To implement regulation effectively, we have designed an innovative commitment scheme, Walsh commitment, which leverages the orthogonal properties of Walsh codes to achieve the features of aggregation and extraction. The supervisor in WDAP only needs to deal with the aggregation result of the Walsh commitments instead of the huge amount of raw transactions information, which greatly increases the efficiency. In a DAP system with 256 users, 10 transaction per second and 30 days as a regulation period, we reduced the communication cost for regulation from 14 GB to 94.20 KB, and the computing cost from $\text{1.6}\times \text{10}^{\text{5}}$ s to 2.17 s. Both improvement is of over five orders of magnitude. We formally discussed the security of the whole system, and verified its feasibility and practicability in the ZCash system.

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Cryptographic protocols
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RegulationDecentralized anonymous paymentPrivacy protection
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501874794 @ qq com
2023-07-25: last of 2 revisions
2023-07-23: received
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      author = {Rui Gao},
      title = {Invisible Warning Line: Efficient and Generic Regulation for Anonymous Cryptocurrencies},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2023/1138},
      year = {2023},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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