Paper 2022/991

Coefficient Grouping: Breaking Chaghri and More

Fukang Liu
Ravi Anand
Libo Wang
Willi Meier
Takanori Isobe

We propose an efficient technique called coefficient grouping to evaluate the algebraic degree of the FHE-friendly cipher Chaghri, which has been accepted for ACM CCS 2022. It is found that the algebraic degree increases linearly rather than exponentially. As a consequence, we can construct a 13-round distinguisher with time and data complexity of $2^{63}$ and mount a 13.5-round key-recovery attack. In particular, a higher-order differential attack on 8 rounds of Chaghri can be achieved with time and data complexity of $2^{38}$. Hence, it indicates that the full 8 rounds are far from being secure. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the application of our coefficient grouping technique to the design of secure cryptographic components. As a result, a countermeasure is found for Chaghri and it has little overhead compared with the original design. Since more and more symmetric primitives defined over a large finite field are emerging, we believe our new technique can have more applications in the future research.

Available format(s)
Attacks and cryptanalysis
Publication info
A major revision of an IACR publication in EUROCRYPT 2023
Chaghridegree evaluationcoefficient groupingoptimization problemfinite field
Contact author(s)
liufukangs @ gmail com
ravianandsps @ gmail com
wanglibo12b @ gmail com
willimeier48 @ gmail com
takanori isobe @ ai u-hyogo ac jp
2023-02-21: last of 9 revisions
2022-08-03: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Fukang Liu and Ravi Anand and Libo Wang and Willi Meier and Takanori Isobe},
      title = {Coefficient Grouping: Breaking Chaghri and More},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/991},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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