Paper 2022/915

OpenFHE: Open-Source Fully Homomorphic Encryption Library

Ahmad Al Badawi, Duality Technologies
Jack Bates, Duality Technologies
Flavio Bergamaschi, Intel Corporation
David Bruce Cousins, Duality Technologies
Saroja Erabelli, Duality Technologies
Nicholas Genise, Duality Technologies
Shai Halevi, Algorand Foundation
Hamish Hunt, Intel Corporation
Andrey Kim, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
Yongwoo Lee, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology
Zeyu Liu, Duality Technologies
Daniele Micciancio, University of California, San Diego, Duality Technologies
Ian Quah, Duality Technologies
Yuriy Polyakov, Duality Technologies
Saraswathy R.V., Duality Technologies
Kurt Rohloff, Duality Technologies
Jonathan Saylor, Duality Technologies
Dmitriy Suponitsky, Duality Technologies
Matthew Triplett, Duality Technologies
Vinod Vaikuntanathan, Massachusets Institute of Technology, Duality Technologies
Vincent Zucca, DALI, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, LIRMM, University of Montpellier

Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE) is a powerful cryptographic primitive that enables performing computations over encrypted data without having access to the secret key. We introduce OpenFHE, a new open-source FHE software library that incorporates selected design ideas from prior FHE projects, such as PALISADE, HElib, and HEAAN, and includes several new design concepts and ideas. The main new design features can be summarized as follows: (1) we assume from the very beginning that all implemented FHE schemes will support bootstrapping and scheme switching; (2) OpenFHE supports multiple hardware acceleration backends using a standard Hardware Abstraction Layer (HAL); (3) OpenFHE includes both user-friendly modes, where all maintenance operations, such as modulus switching, key switching, and bootstrapping, are automatically invoked by the library, and compiler-friendly modes, where an external compiler makes these decisions. This paper focuses on high-level description of OpenFHE design, and the reader is pointed to external OpenFHE references for a more detailed/technical description of the software library.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Fully Homomorphic Encryption Bootstrapping BGV BFV CKKS HEAAN DM FHEW CGGI TFHE Hardware Acceleration
Contact author(s)
ypolyakov @ openfhe org
krohloff @ openfhe org
2022-07-15: last of 2 revisions
2022-07-14: received
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      author = {Ahmad Al Badawi and Jack Bates and Flavio Bergamaschi and David Bruce Cousins and Saroja Erabelli and Nicholas Genise and Shai Halevi and Hamish Hunt and Andrey Kim and Yongwoo Lee and Zeyu Liu and Daniele Micciancio and Ian Quah and Yuriy Polyakov and Saraswathy R.V. and Kurt Rohloff and Jonathan Saylor and Dmitriy Suponitsky and Matthew Triplett and Vinod Vaikuntanathan and Vincent Zucca},
      title = {OpenFHE: Open-Source Fully Homomorphic Encryption Library},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/915},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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