Paper 2022/864

BalanceProofs: Maintainable Vector Commitments with Fast Aggregation

Weijie Wang, Yale University
Annie Ulichney, Yale University
Charalampos Papamanthou, Yale University

We present BalanceProofs, the first vector commitment scheme that is maintainable (i.e., supporting sublinear updates) while also supporting fast proof aggregation and verification. The basic version of BalanceProofs has $O(\sqrt{n}\log n)$ update time and $O(\sqrt{n})$ query time and its constant-size aggregated proofs can be produced and verified in milliseconds. In particular, BalanceProofs improves the aggregation time and aggregation verification time of the only known maintainable and aggregatable vector commitment scheme, HyperProofs (USENIX SECURITY 2022), by up to 1000$\times$. Fast verification of aggregated proofs is particularly useful for applications such as stateless cryptocurrencies (and was a major bottleneck for Hyperproofs), where an aggregated proof of balances is produced once but must be verified multiple times and by a large number of nodes. As a limitation, BalanceProofs' update time compared to Hyperproofs roughly doubles, but always stays in the range from 2 to 3 seconds. BalanceProofs can be viewed as a compiler that transforms any non-maintainable vector commitment with fast aggregation to a maintainable one with the aforementioned complexities. We finally study useful tradeoffs in BalanceProofs between (aggregate) proof size, update time and (aggregate) proof computation and verification, by introducing a bucketing technique, and present an extensive evaluation, including a comparison to Hyperproofs as well as applications of BalanceProofs to Verkle trees.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Vector Commitments
Contact author(s)
weijie wang @ yale edu
annie ulichney @ yale edu
charalampos papamanthou @ yale edu
2022-07-01: approved
2022-07-01: received
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      author = {Weijie Wang and Annie Ulichney and Charalampos Papamanthou},
      title = {BalanceProofs: Maintainable Vector Commitments with Fast Aggregation},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/864},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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