Paper 2022/825

Romeo: Conversion and Evaluation of HDL Designs in the Encrypted Domain

Charles Gouert, University of Delaware
Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos, University of Delaware

As cloud computing becomes increasingly ubiquitous, protecting the confidentiality of data outsourced to third parties becomes a priority. While encryption is a natural solution to this problem, traditional algorithms may only protect data at rest and in transit, but do not support encrypted processing. In this work we introduce Romeo, which enables easy-to-use privacy-preserving processing of data in the cloud using homomorphic encryption. Romeo automatically converts arbitrary programs expressed in Verilog HDL into equivalent homomorphic circuits that are evaluated using encrypted inputs. For our experiments, we employ cryptographic circuits, such as AES, and benchmarks from the ISCAS'85 and ISCAS'89 suites.

Note: The Romeo framework is open-source and is available here:

Available format(s)
Publication info
Published elsewhere. ACM/IEEE Design Automation Conference (DAC)
Fully Homomorphic Encryption Encrypted Processing Sequential Circuits Scheme Hopping
Contact author(s)
cgouert @ udel edu
tsoutsos @ udel edu
2022-06-23: approved
2022-06-23: received
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Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike


      author = {Charles Gouert and Nektarios Georgios Tsoutsos},
      title = {Romeo: Conversion and Evaluation of HDL Designs in the Encrypted Domain},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/825},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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