Paper 2022/811

EZEE: Epoch Parallel Zero Knowledge for ANSI C

Yibin Yang, Georgia Institute of Technology
David Heath, Georgia Institute of Technology
Vladimir Kolesnikov, Georgia Institute of Technology
David Devecsery, Facebook (United States)

Recent work has produced interactive Zero Knowledge (ZK) proof systems that can express proofs as arbitrary C programs (Heath et al., 2021, henceforth referred to as ZEE); these programs can be executed by a simulated ZK processor that runs in the 10KHz range. In this work, we demonstrate that such proof systems are amenable to high degrees of parallelism. Our epoch parallelism-based approach allows the prover and verifier to divide the ZK proof into pieces such that each piece can be executed on a different machine. These proof snippets can then be glued together, and the glued parallel proofs are equivalent to the original sequential proof. We implemented and we experimentally evaluate an epoch parallel version of the ZEE proof system. By running the prover and verifier each across 31 2-core machines, we achieve a ZK processor that runs at up to 394KHz. This allowed us to run a benchmark involving the Linux program bzip2, which would have required at least 11 days with the former ZEE system, in only 8.5 hours.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Euro S&P 2022
Zero Knowledge Interactive ZK Parallelism
Contact author(s)
yyang811 @ gatech edu
heath davidanthony @ gatech edu
kolesnikov @ gatech edu
ddevec @ fb com
2022-06-23: approved
2022-06-21: received
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Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Yibin Yang and David Heath and Vladimir Kolesnikov and David Devecsery},
      title = {EZEE: Epoch Parallel Zero Knowledge for ANSI C},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/811},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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