Paper 2022/755

Low-latency Hardware Architecture for VDF Evaluation in Class Groups

Danyang Zhu, Nanjing University
Jing Tian, Nanjing University
Minghao Li
Zhongfeng Wang

The verifiable delay function (VDF), as a kind of cryptographic primitives, has recently been adopted quite often in decentralized systems. Highly correlated to the security of VDFs, the fastest implementation for VDF evaluation is generally desired to be publicly known. In this paper, for the first time, we propose a low-latency hardware implementation for the complete VDF evaluation in the class group by joint exploiting optimizations. On one side, we reduce the required computational cycles by decreasing the hardware-unfriendly divisions and increase the parallelism of computations by reducing the data dependency. On the other side, well-optimized low-latency architectures for large-number divisions, multiplications, and additions are developed, respectively, while those operations are generally very hard to be accelerated. Based on these basic operators, we devise the architecture for the complete VDF evaluation with possibly minimal pipeline stalls. Finally, the proposed design is coded and synthesized under the TSMC 28-nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show that our design can achieve a speedup of 3.6x compared to the optimal C++ implementation for the VDF evaluation over an advanced CPU. Moreover, compared to the state-of-the-art hardware implementation for the squaring, a key step of VDF, we achieve about 2x speedup.

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Publication info
Verifiable delay functions class groups extended GCD low-latency blockchain ASIC
Contact author(s)
zhudanyang10 @ foxmail com
tianjing @ nju edu cn
minghaoli @ smail nju edu cn
zfwang @ nju edu cn
2022-06-15: approved
2022-06-13: received
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Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs


      author = {Danyang Zhu and Jing Tian and Minghao Li and Zhongfeng Wang},
      title = {Low-latency Hardware Architecture for {VDF} Evaluation in Class Groups},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/755},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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