Paper 2022/737

Side-channel and Fault-injection attacks over Lattice-based Post-quantum Schemes (Kyber, Dilithium): Survey and New Results

Prasanna Ravi, Nanyang Technological University
Anupam Chattopadhyay, Nanyang Technological University
Jan Pieter D'Anvers, imec-COSIC, KU Leuven, Belgium
Anubhab Baksi, Nanyang Technological University

In this work, we present a systematic study of Side-Channel Attacks (SCA) and Fault Injection Attacks (FIA) on structured lattice-based schemes, with a focus on Kyber Key Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM) and Dilithium signature scheme, which are leading candidates in the NIST standardization process for Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQC). Through our study, we attempt to understand the underlying similarities and differences between the existing attacks, while classifying them into different categories. Given the wide variety of reported attacks, simultaneous protection against all the attacks requires to implement customized protections/countermeasures for both Kyber and Dilithium. We therefore present a range of customized countermeasures, capable of providing defenses/mitigations against existing SCA/FIA, and incorporate several SCA and FIA countermeasures within a single design of Kyber and Dilithium. Among the several countermeasures discussed in this work, we present novel countermeasures that offer simultaneous protection against several SCA and FIA-based chosen-ciphertext attacks for Kyber KEM. We implement the presented countermeasures within the well-known pqm4 library for the ARM Cortex-M4 based microcontroller. Our performance evaluation reveals that the presented custom countermeasures incur reasonable performance overheads, on the ARM Cortex-M4 microcontroller. We therefore believe our work argues for the usage of custom countermeasures within real-world implementations of lattice-based schemes, either in a standalone manner or as reinforcements to generic countermeasures such as masking.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Lattice-based Cryptography Side-Channel Attacks Fault-Injection Attacks Kyber Dilithium Countermeasures
Contact author(s)
prasanna ravi @ ntu edu sg
anupam @ ntu edu sg
janpieter danvers @ esat kuleuven be
anubhab baksi @ ntu edu sg
2022-12-04: last of 4 revisions
2022-06-09: received
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      author = {Prasanna Ravi and Anupam Chattopadhyay and Jan Pieter D'Anvers and Anubhab Baksi},
      title = {Side-channel and Fault-injection attacks over Lattice-based Post-quantum Schemes (Kyber, Dilithium): Survey and New Results},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/737},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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