Paper 2022/538

Post-Quantum Signatures on RISC-V with Hardware Acceleration

Patrick Karl
Jonas Schupp
Tim Fritzmann
Georg Sigl

CRYSTALS-Dilithium and Falcon are digital signature algorithms based on cryptographic lattices, that are considered secure even if large-scale quantum computers will be able to break conventional public-key cryptography. Both schemes have been selected for standardization in the NIST post-quantum competition. In this work, we present a RISC-V HW/SW odesign that aims to combine the advantages of software- and hardware implementations, i.e. flexibility and performance. It shows the use of lexible hardware accelerators, which have been previously used for Public-Key Encryption (PKE) and Key-Encapsulation Mechanism (KEM), for post-quantum signatures. It is optimized for Dilithium as a generic signature cheme but also accelerates applications that require fast verification of Falcon’s compact signatures. We provide a comparison with previous works showing that for Dilithium and Falcon, cycle counts are significantly reduced, such that our design is faster than previous software implementations or other HW/SW codesigns. In addition to that, we present a compact Globalfoundries 22 nm ASIC design that runs at 800MHz. By using hardware acceleration, energy consumption for Dilithium is reduced by up to 92.2%, and up to 67.5% for Falcon’s signature verification.

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Published elsewhere. ACM Transactions on Embedded Computing Systems
Post-QuantumNIST PQCDigital SignaturesHWSW CodesignCRYSTALS-DilithiumFalconRISC-V
Contact author(s)
patrick karl @ tum de
jonas schupp @ tum de
tim fritzmann @ tum de
sigl @ tum de
2023-03-01: last of 2 revisions
2022-05-10: received
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      author = {Patrick Karl and Jonas Schupp and Tim Fritzmann and Georg Sigl},
      title = {Post-Quantum Signatures on RISC-V with Hardware Acceleration},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/538},
      year = {2022},
      doi = {10.1145/3579092},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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