Paper 2022/483

When Cryptography Needs a Hand: Practical Post-Quantum Authentication for V2V Communications

Geoff Twardokus, Rochester Institute of Technology
Nina Bindel, SandboxAQ
Hanif Rahbari, Rochester Institute of Technology
Sarah McCarthy, University of Waterloo

We tackle the atypical challenge of supporting post-quantum cryptography (PQC) and its significant overhead in safety-critical vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications, dealing with strict overhead and latency restrictions within the limited radio spectrum for V2V. For example, we show that the current use of spectrum to support signature verification in V2V makes it nearly impossible to adopt PQC. Accordingly, we propose a scheduling technique for message signing certificate transmissions (which we find are currently up to 93% redundant) that learns to adaptively reduce the use of radio spectrum. In combination, we design the first integration of PQC and V2V, which satisfies the above stringent constraints given the available spectrum. Specifically, we analyze the three PQ signature algorithms selected for standardization by NIST, as well as XMSS (RFC 8391), and propose a Partially Hybrid authentication protocol—a tailored fusion of classical cryptography and PQC—for use in the V2V ecosystem during the nascent transition period we outline towards fully PQ V2V. Our provably secure protocol efficiently balances security and performance, as demonstrated experimentally with software-defined radios (USRPs), commercial V2V devices, and road traffic and V2V simulators. We show our joint transmission scheduling optimization and Partially Hybrid design are scalable and reliable under realistic conditions, adding a negligible average delay (0.39 ms per message) against the current state-of-the-art.

Available format(s)
Public-key cryptography
Publication info
Published elsewhere. Network and Distributed Systems Security Symposium (NDSS)
post-quantum cryptographyvehicle communicationsignature schemeshybrid schemes
Contact author(s)
geoff twardokus @ mail rit edu
nina bindel @ sandboxaq com
hanif rahbari @ rit edu
sarah mccarthy @ uwaterloo ca
2023-12-07: last of 2 revisions
2022-04-23: received
See all versions
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Geoff Twardokus and Nina Bindel and Hanif Rahbari and Sarah McCarthy},
      title = {When Cryptography Needs a Hand: Practical Post-Quantum Authentication for {V2V} Communications},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/483},
      year = {2022},
      doi = {10.14722/ndss.2024.24267},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
Note: In order to protect the privacy of readers, does not use cookies or embedded third party content.