Paper 2022/323

Dilithium for Memory Constrained Devices

Joppe W. Bos, Joost Renes, and Daan Sprenkels


We investigate the use of the Dilithium post-quantum digital signature scheme on memory-constrained systems. Reference and optimized implementations of Dilithium in the benchmarking framework pqm4 (Cortex-M4) require 50 – 100 KiB of memory, demonstrating the significant challenge to use Dilithium on small IoT platforms. We show that compressing polynomials, using an alternative number theoretic transform, and falling back to the schoolbook method for certain multiplications reduces the memory footprint significantly. This results in the first implementation of Dilithium for which the recommended parameter set requires less than 7 KiB of memory for key and signature generation and less than 3 KiB of memory for signature verification. We also provide benchmark details of a portable implementation in order to estimate the performance impact when using these memory reduction methods.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Dilithiumimplementationmemory optimizationNIST PQClattice-based cryptography
Contact author(s)
joppe bos @ nxp com
joost renes @ nxp com
daan @ dsprenkels com
2022-03-08: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Joppe W.  Bos and Joost Renes and Daan Sprenkels},
      title = {Dilithium for Memory Constrained Devices},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/323},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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