Paper 2022/228

Semi-Quantum Tokenized Signatures

Omri Shmueli


Quantum tokenized signature schemes (Ben-David and Sattath, QCrypt 2017) allow a sender to generate and distribute quantum unclonable states which grant their holder a one-time permission to sign in the name of the sender. Such schemes are a strengthening of public-key quantum money schemes, as they imply public-key quantum money where some channels of communication in the system can be made classical. An even stronger primitive is semi-quantum tokenized signatures, where the sender is classical and can delegate the generation of the token to a (possibly malicious) quantum receiver. Semi-quantum tokenized signature schemes imply a powerful version of public-key quantum money satisfying two key features: 1. The bank is classical and the scheme can execute on a completely classical communication network. In addition, the bank is \emph{stateless} and after the creation of a banknote, does not hold any information nor trapdoors except the balance of accounts in the system. Such quantum money scheme solves the main open problem presented by Radian and Sattath (AFT 2019). 2. Furthermore, the classical-communication transactions between users in the system are \emph{direct} and do not need to go through the bank. This enables the transactions to be both classical and private. While fully-quantum tokenized signatures (where the sender is quantum and generates the token by itself) are known based on quantum-secure indistinguishability obfuscation and injective one-way functions, the semi-quantum version is not known under any computational assumption. In this work we construct a semi-quantum tokenized signature scheme based on quantum-secure indistinguishability obfuscation and the sub-exponential hardness of the Learning with Errors problem. In the process, we show new properties of quantum coset states and a new hardness result on indistinguishability obfuscation of classical subspace membership circuits.

Available format(s)
Cryptographic protocols
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Quantum CryptographyQuantum Money
Contact author(s)
omri shmueli1 @ gmail com
2022-02-25: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Omri Shmueli},
      title = {Semi-Quantum Tokenized Signatures},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/228},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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