Paper 2022/217

High-Performance Hardware Implementation of Lattice-Based Digital Signatures

Luke Beckwith, Duc Tri Nguyen, and Kris Gaj


Many currently deployed public-key cryptosystems are based on the difficulty of the discrete logarithm and integer factorization problems. However, given an adequately sized quantum computer, these problems can be solved in polynomial time as a function of the key size. Due to the future threat of quantum computing to current cryptographic standards, alternative algorithms that remain secure under quantum computing are being evaluated for future use. As a part of this evaluation, high-performance implementations of these candidate algorithms must be investigated. This work presents a high-performance implementation of all operations of CRYSTALS-Dilithium and one operation of FALCON (signature verification) targeting FPGAs. In particular, we present a Dilithium design that achieves the best latency for an FPGA implementation to date and, to the best of our knowledge, the first FALCON hardware implementation to date. We compare our results with the hardware implementations of all viable NIST Round 3 post-quantum digital signature candidates.

Available format(s)
Publication info
Preprint. MINOR revision.
Post-Quantum Cryptographydigital signatureslattice techniquesNumber Theoretic TransformimplementationFPGA
Contact author(s)
lbeckwit @ gmu edu
dnguye69 @ gmu edu
kgaj @ gmu edu
2022-02-25: received
Short URL
Creative Commons Attribution


      author = {Luke Beckwith and Duc Tri Nguyen and Kris Gaj},
      title = {High-Performance Hardware Implementation of Lattice-Based Digital Signatures},
      howpublished = {Cryptology ePrint Archive, Paper 2022/217},
      year = {2022},
      note = {\url{}},
      url = {}
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